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About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at |http : //books . google . com/| K iimiiiii 6000144867 •I. \^ •• • • •■ • k MERCHANTS' HANDBOOK THE money; weights, and measures OF ALt NATIONS, WITH TFram biutish squivA;^bjit3. BT W. A. BROWNE, LL.D. Second E LONDON : fiOWARD STANFORD, 6, CHARING CROSS. 187^. £3^. /■ /U. eEOBGE HILL, 8TBAM PRINTER, WESTMINSTER BRIDGE ROAD, LAMBETH. PREFACE, A VERY few itords will explain the Object of this treatise. It purports to be a book of reference for the use of these engaged in domestic and foreign commerce. It states un4er each country the deno- minations of money used in Iceepinj; accounts, and shows their British value. It enumerates under distinct heads the gold", silver, and- i:opper, or bronze coins, and the measures and weights of each country, and gives their English, as also their French or Metric values. This information is, to a great extent, official. It is mainly baaed upon the authority of gentlemen who have long resided in the countries treated of. A series of questions^ on the coinage and metrology of the several countries was addressed to the Foreign Ministers and Consuls in the United Kingdom, and to the English Ministers and Consuls abroad. In almost all cases clear and satisfactory answers were promptly and courteously afforded. . The author is fully aware that such a species of labour does not fall within the range of either Ministerial or Consular duties, and it is for that reason that he feels and acknowledges himself so much indebted to the members of the Diplomatic and Consular Services at home and abroad. COKTSSKTS. Honey, and Oenenl Obiervfttioiii on the Cnrrenoy fizchangee The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Standard of British Gold and Silyer Coins Changes in Bnslish Coins from 1006 to 1873 Old English Corns no longer in Ciraolation Ireland The Channel Islands France Bttssia Finland Aostria • NOBTB OnUfAHT J^mssia Saxony Leipsic HanoTer , Saxe Altenhnrg Saxe Cobnrg-Oofha Bmnswiok Oldenburg Birkenfeld Anhalt Sohwarsbnrg-Sonderbansen Bohwansbtutf-Badolstadt Waldeck and Pyrmont Benss Sohanmbnrg-Lippe (or Lippe Bnckebnrg) Llppe Son^B OXRMANT Baden Bavaria Wtirtembnrg Hesse-Darmstadt Hesse-Cassel Meoklenbtirgh-Sohweria and Btrelitz Hamburg Bremen Lubec Spain Cflbraltar Portngal The Netherlands (Holland) Belgium Denmark Sweden Norway Switserland FAQIS. Mean, ''ffi^, 1 8 7 18 14 16 16 16 17 18 90 110 119 119 195 91 198 94 181 94 181 94 , 186 94 1 186 94 187 94 140 94 141 9ft 142 94 144 94 145 94 145 94 146 94 147 94 148 94 149 94 150 24 151 94 162 24 152 94 158 84 155 94 167 94 189 37 158 28 160 29 164 80 166 80 167 88 170 86 171 88 171 89 178 41 178 42 177 48 180 45 180 u. CONTENTS. • » > « • « JWALY Sardinia (Island of) Rome §2l5r :: ;: ;: :; :: Sicily Tnscaoy , Lombardy .. Malta .. Tuitey Oandla, or Crete .. .. '.'. Greece .. The Ionian Islandi .. .. '.'. China Hong*Eong India Bengal .. ., ,', Madras Bombay Ceylon Ooa (in Portugese India) Malaya .. w Bnnnab Slam Anom, 0r Cochin China Persia Arabia .. .. Japan Singapore Malacca Penang, or Prince of Wales' Island Java Snmatra Philippine Islands E^pt : Knbia, Sendar, Kordofan, Darfnr tSEi '.'. Algeria [', Morocco Abyssinia West Coast of Africa ^ tIz., Bathnrst, Sierra Leone, Cape Coast Castle, and Onlnea East Coast of Africa; viz., Mozamblqae and Sofala, Madagascar, Boarbon Manritlus .. Cape of Good Hope St. Helena PAGES. AMERICA-NORTH. Canada .. Nova Scotia . . New Brunswick Labrador The Bermudas Newfoundland British Columbia M01VB7. 46 47 47 49 49 49 61 52 66 66 67 67 62 64 64 64 64 67 68 70 71 72 78 74 77 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 82 68 88 84 86 86 88 89 Welffhtf Ao. 188 196 186 187 188 191 198 196 196 199 202 m 206 206 216 216 217 222 226 282 288 286 I 286 ; 286 I 240 242 248 244 288 90 91 216 247 247 249 261 268 264 266 266 266 267 268 261 264 264 264 264 264 264 264 264 CONTINTB. iii. United SUtes of North Ameilo* Mezioo CENTRAL AMBRIOA. Oentnl AmerioA, or Oiutlinalft and British Honduras WEST INDDSB. Wett Indies, BrltUh West Indies. Spanish West Indies, Dutch . . West Indies, Danish West Indies, Swedish Hayti, or St, Domingo SOUTH AMERICA. Colombia, Ylz. : Oranada .. Venezaela Ecuador, or Quito Oniana, British Goiana, (French) or Cayenne Oaiana (batch) or Surinam Braail Pern Chill BoUvia Argentine Republic . . Urngoay (Montevideo) Paragnaj The FalUand Islands AUSTRALU. FAQEB. lloo«j.,^*ft*«» New South Wales Victoria South Australia West Australia Tasmania, or Van Diemen's Land New Zealand New Caledoniaf the Rotnmah Islands, Wallia Islano, Gamblers Islands, Marauaaa, or Mandana Islands The Sandwich Islands The Marian Islands and Tinian Otaheiie or Tohiti Average Course of Exchange for the years 1664-1872 Indian Coinage and Accounts— Appendix I Currency. Weights, and Measures of Borneo— Appendix IT. Monetary Conyentlon between France, Italy. Belgium, and Swit- serland— Appendix III Ayerage Course of Exchange in 1800— Appendix lY Currency of Greece prior to the 18th January, 1872— Appendix V. M 94 86 Ac. Iu9 904 900 900 96 900 97 907 97 907 97 967 97 967 97 967 98 968 9B 968 96 968 99 968 100 968 100 908 100 90S 101 972 loa 978 108 974 104 974 106 976 100 977 108 977 106 91t 100 97t 100 978 100 978 100 978 106 278 100 978 107 278 108 278 • • 278 4 I i> PART I. MONET. GBITEBAL OBSEBVATIONS. ' « • MoNXT or the " cnrrenoy ** is the standard measure of the yalue of commodities and the medium of exchanging them one for another. It is called a measure of value hecanse the price of everything bought and sold is measured bj it. The word money comes to us from the Latin moneta^ a surname of Juno, in whose temple, at Rome, money was coined. In its original sense money meant stamped coin, and afterwards anything that takes tiie place of stamped coin in buying or selling, and serves as its equivalent, such as bank notes. The earliest record of money, as a medium of exchange, is the purchase (about B.O. 1859) of the field and cave of Mach< pelah, by Abraham, from Ephron, the Hittite, for " 400 shekels of silver current money with the merchants." — (Gen. xxiii. 16.) Homer speaks of brass money as existing in 1184 B.C. Herodotus states (I. 94) that the Lydians, at ^gina, in B.C. IBS, were the first who coined gold and silver money, but the Parian chronicle attributes the coinage of both gold and silver money to Pheidon, of Argos, B.O. 895. Anything which everybody consents to use as a medium of exchange, and a measure of value in buying and selling may be considered as money. The members of the same commu- nity in buying and selHng among themselves may use as a medium of exchange and a standard of value anything in which they all have entire confidence. But the medium selected, whatever it may be, must possess all the constituents of value. It must be limited in supply^ useful and trantferable. If a thing selected to serve as money can be arbitrarily increased or diminished, the prieei of all things bought and sold by it will rise with its increase and fall with its diminution in quantity. Prices are said to rise when more money is required to pay for a given quantity of any article, abd to fall when a smaller amount of money pays for the same quantity. In different stages of civilization various articles have been used as money, such as elephants* teeth, furs, small white glossy shells called cowries, tobacco, silk, hides, iron rings. Iron money was used in Sparta, and iron and tin in Britain; money was madA of 2 HOKET. pasteboard by the Hollanders so late as 1574. Bnt gold and silver — ^the precious metals, as they are called,— are now nsed as money in almost all parts of the world. This preference has been given to them becanse they possess, in a high degree, the requisite conditions of a medium of exchanpfe and a measure of the value ; those namely of usefulness, limited supply, trans- ferableness, portability, divisibility, and durability. In other words, the precious metals command universal confidence in their value, they are easily carried, and they cannot be arbi- irarily increased or diminished in quantity. In early ages gold and silvef, usually in ingots, circulated by weight ; and the •denominations of x^oney were the stme as those of weight. Possibly even as early as the Trojan war gold was used as a medium of exchange or a common measure of commodities. In the Homeric poems an ox seems to approximate to a standard of value, and gold is mentioned as an article of stored wealth, although it is not spoken of as a measure of other commodities. Mr. Gladstone* thinks that he finds the germ of the practice of using gold as money in the payment of the judge's fee or prize in gold on the shield of AchUlesf The gold coins of Miletus, in Asia Minor, which were probably made about the year B.C. 800, are supposed to be the earliest gold coins. The gold darics of Persia began to be issued about the year 638 B.C., and the Sicilians established a gold coinage as early as 400 B.C. The Romans first used gold coins in B.C. 206. The modem gold coinage of Europe was commenced by the Florentines in A.D. 1252. As early as the reign of Romulus, the Romans used copper, by weight, as a circulating medium. The square " As," in copper, was issued previous to the reign of Scrvius TuUius, B.C. 578, and the circular '* As " about B.C. 885. As commerce extended the incouvenience of weighing the gold and silver, and testing their purity, led to the introduction of coins. Coins are pieces of metal, usually gold, silver, platinum, copper, or nickel, impressed i^ith a stamp as a guarantee of their purity and weight, ^schylus mentions that the earliest sign impressed on money was the figure of an ox, the sign being probably intended to represent the animal's equivalent value in the metal. { Coins became the medium of exchange and the measure of value among the members of the same political community ; but for transac- tions between different political communities bars or ingots of gold and sUver, estimated by weight, art still occasionally used. Pure gold and silver are too soft to serve as media of ex- * Javentng Mtudi, p. 446. f Clad XXUI. 702-6. Clad XXI. 79. Od. 1. 481. t Aes. Ag., 87. ** Javentns If ondl/' 686. szoHiirois. 3 change, and for that reason they are unuUly allofffd, that Is, mixed with • small proportion of harder or leM valaabl* metals. The quantity of alloy varies in different conntrieSf and In all cases the ttandard of a coin, that, is, its degree of parity or fineness, as well as its weight mnst be taken into account. The value of the alloy is always disregarded in estimating th^ worth of a coin. In some countries one metal only is used in the coinage as a standard of value, that is, as a legal tender of payment withoui limitation. In other countries both gold and silver hre used, their relative value beiOK settled at a iii|^d rate. A dcnblt* standard of value is objectionable, because gold and silver fluctuate in price like other marketable commodities. If the price of one of them at any time is raised dispropor' tionately above that of the other, the undervalued metal i^ immediately driven out of the circulation, and is exported because it will realise a higher price in other countries in pru> portion to the other metal. The phrase "moneys of account*' means the denominations and divisions of money in which accounts are kept. The moneys of account may either be identical with the current coins, or may bear definite proportions to them. Silver coin has long been the basis of the money of account of the greatest part of the world, and silver is almost universally the standard measure of commerce in most countries. In Great Britain gold has long been the principal measure of property and the standard of value. EXCHANGES. Exchange signifies the giving or receiving, in return for a sum of money in the currency of one country, an equivalent sum in the currency of another country. The term Exchange is used in two senses by merchants. It denotes the securities (Bills of Exhange) by means of which debts to creditors in distant countries are liquidated without the transmission of gold and silver. It also denotes the varying price (course of ex- change) of such securities in the market. Bills of Exchanor are written orders for the payment of money at some date fixed or ascertainable by the Bill. They fire written documents, by means of which traders settle their liabilitieB without the transmission of gold and silver. 4 KOVET. Tha person who gires the order is ealled the Drawbb ; the person to whom the hill is addressed is called the Drawbs or (when he has written his name across the bill) the Accbptob ; and the person who has the bill in his possession is called the HOLDEB. The holder of a bill, when he transfers it, writes his name across the back of it. This is called endoming it. Thus the holder in transferring a bill becomes the Endobsxr, and the person to whom he transfers it is called the Eudobsbb. A Bill may pass in this way throngh the hands of any nnm- her of perRons, and each of snch persons is ponjointly respon- sible with the othe](endorsers, and with the drawer and acceptor of the bill for payment of the amount named in it. Endorsement is the signature of the person who transfers the bill. Special endorsement is an order from the endorser making the bill payable to the order of the holder. The periods for which bills are drawn vary with the purposes of the bills, and the nsages of different places. Some are drawn at sight, some at so many days. The term uBance de- notes the usual or customary period for which bills are drawn at one place upon another. The term Esteotitb is used in Bills of Exchange to indicate coin or specie as distinguished from paper money. • Bills of Exchange are classed as Inland and Foreign, An Inland Biil of Exchange is one drawn and payable in the same country. A Foreign BUI of Exchange is a document autho- rising the payment in a foreign country of a sum of money specified in the Bill ; for instance, a BUI on Paris, whererer drawn, is, as regards London, a Foreign Bill.* The amount of Foreign Money to be paid to the person iu whose favor the Bill is drawn is fixed by the Bill, but the price of the Bill, that is, the sum of money that is to be given for it in the curreucy of the country where the Bill is drawn, is per. petnally fluctuating. The constant rariations in the price of Bills of Exchange depend upon the supply of Bills in the market compared with the demand for them, and upon the comparative value of the currencies of different countries. The phrase Nominal Exohamob refers to the value of the currency in which Bills of Exchange are to be paid, as com- pared with the money in which they are bought ; and Beal £iXCHANOE has reference to their abundance or scarcity com- pared with the demand for them. The relative intrinsic value of the currencies of different countries depends upon the quantity of pure gold or pure silver * Bills dnwn in a foreign oonotry on London sra sometimes, but Inoorrectlj called, in London, Foreign Bills. contained in those cnrrencies, the yalne of the alloy being always disregarded. The Pab of Exchanob between two conntries nsing the same metal as their standard of valne is that snm of money of either country which contains an exactly eqnal weight of gold or silver of the same pnrity. Political economists object to this definition, as disregarding the difference in yalae of the precious metals in some conntries where mines exist and gold and silver are in abundance as com- pared with other countries not similarly situated. But for all practical purposes this difference is so trifling that it may be left out of account. It has been calculated that throughout Europe gold " finds its level to within | per cent." We may therefore regard the Par of Exchange as the equiva- lent intrinsic value of a giyen unit of the currency of one country estimated in the currency of anotlier country, both nsing ihe same metal as a standard. The relative value of gold and silver is liable to slight fluctua- tions ; and when two countries use, the one gold and the other silver, there can be no invariable Par of JSrchanffeheiween those countries. In such cases an approximate par is calcu- lated from the average price of gold and silver in Uie market. Hence we have a third definition of the Pab or Exchangb : it is the fixed standard rate of exchange between different countries, and is determined by the weight, purity, and market prices of the precious metals in the coinage of the respective countries. The relative value of gold and silver in the general market of the commercial world is in the proportion of about 15| tol. Inland Exchange is the liquidation of liabilities by means of Bills of Exchange between members of the same political community. FoBEioN Exchangb is the remittance of Bills to foraign countries in discharge of liabilities. In Foreign Exchanges when one place gives another a fixed sum, such as £1 sterling for a variable sum expressed in other coins, the fixed sum is called the certain or fixed pricey and the variable, the uncertain or variable price. The place whose money is reckoned at the fixed price is said to receive and the other is said to give the variable prices. When the rate of exchange between two places is high it is more favourable to the place that receives the variable price ; the lower the rate of exchange the more it is in favour of the place that gives the variable price and vice versa. For instance, exchange with Vienna is said to be favourable to London when a given sum in British sterling money would purchase more Austrian money (florins and kreuzers) than usual. 6 MONET. ** Flactuaiions in the nominal price of bills drawn by one conntry npon another will arise principally from an alteration in the weig^ht or firmnesB of the coins of either of the countries, or an alteration in the total amonnt of the currency of either oountry without a corresponding alteration in the commodities to be circulated. When the currency of a country is depre- ciated, either from degradation of the coin or from relatiTe over issue," it will purchase less foreign money, and foreign bills will sell for an increased amount of the depreciated currency, the increase being proportionate to the depreciation ; that is, foreign bills will sell at a premium. On the other hand, a bill drawn upon the country whose currency is depreciated will be ** bought abroad, where money retains its value, for a much less nominal sum than the amount for which it is drawn ; ** that is, such bills wiU sell at a discount. When two countries are each other's customers in buying and selling, and the one export* goods to the other to an amount equal to the value of the goods she imports from that other, then the transactions balance each other and are settled by Bills of Exchange. The bills drawn by the merchants export- ing are exactly equal to those drawn by the merchants import- inffi and the transmission of specie or bullion is unnecessary. Bat when one country imports goods from the other beyond the amount of her exports to it, a balance — that is, the excess of the imports over the exports — remains to be paid for. This is called the balance of trade* To pay for this balance a merchant in the debtor country, rather than transmit specie, will give for a Bill of Exchange on the creditor country more than the sum for which it is drawn. Hence bills upon the creditor country, will be at a premium. On the other hand, in the creditor country, bills will be abundant. The supply will be in excess of the demand. As the excess is only convertible into coin by being sent to the place on which the bills are drawn, and as this involves risk and expense, the holders of such bills will be satisfied to receive for them a little less than the amount specified. Hence in the creditor country, bills will be at a discounts The premium in the one country corresponds to the discount in the other. But neither the premium nor the dis- count can long exceed the expense of transmitting specie or bullion. When therefore there is a balance of imports to be paid for to a foreign country, foreign Bills of Exchange will be at a premium, and when there is a balance of exports, foreign bills will be at a discount ; but the amount of this premium or discount will seldom exceed the expense of transmitting gold and silver. ■■■■■ ■■ — ■» ■■ ■ ■---^■. ■^■■■■ y -^ ■■ mmi^ ■ ■■■■■ , * The balance of trade is identical with the balanee of paymenU when two countrleB bay from each other on equal periods of oredlt ; bat not so where the periowi of credit are different. QBBAT BRITAIN AKD IBELAND. 7 The GouRSB of Exchamob may be defined to be the oarrent prices of exchange, or the prices given from time to time in one oonntry for Bills of Ezdiange payable in the enmmoy oi another. It is the variable price (estimated in the currency of one country) which is given for a fixed sum in the currency of another country. THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GBEAT BBITAIN AND IBELAND. The money of account oonsistd of pounds, shillings, and pence sterling.* It is as follows : — British value, SyMtenuMo name. Fyeneh value, 4 Farthings = 1 Penny = 12 Centimes. 12 Pence = 1 Shilling = 1 Franc 26 20 Shillings = 1 Pound sterling = 25 „ 20t The currency of the United Kingdom consists of gold, silyer, and bronze coins ; and of Bank Notes, exchangeable on demand at their full nominal value, for gold and silver. The Saxons and Danes used brass and silver money. The Normans discontinued braes, and used silver only. Gold money was introduced in the reign of Henry III. Copper money was introduced in 1672, and was replaced by bronze money in 1860. * The term sterling distinguishes the cnrrency of Oreat Britain and Ireland from that of the British Colonies, and from some Continental moneys bearing the same names. Sterling is an abbreviation of Easterlings, the name by which Eastphalian traders, the ancestors of the merchant princes of Hamburgh, were known in England. Their money was ef the finest quality, and hence KsterUng shortened into sterling became a general term for pure money. \ The letters £ a. d. (the initials of the Latin words libra, nolidi, and denarii) are used in accounts to denote respectively pound*, akillinge, and pence, and are either written over or at tne side of tiiose denomina- tions. Farthings are generally written as fractions of a penny, and are seldom considered as integers, but when they are, the lett^ q. (the initial of the Latin quadrantes) is written over them. As fractions they are written as follows :— i = 1 farthing ; ^ = 2 farthings or 1 halfpenny ; 1 = 8 farthings. 8 M05ST. GOLD COINS. Five Pounds ^^ 126 Francs Two Ponnds ■■ 60 „ 40 Centimes. One Ponnd (Sovereif<n) ■■25 „ 20 „ Ten ShiUings (i do.) » 12 „ 60 „ Although five ponnd and two pound pieces are still amonflf the current coins of the realm, none of these have been struck for general circulation for the last 40 years, because there has been no demand for them. SILVEE COINS. »» }* If ft It 11 ♦« 91 No crowns or half-crowns hare been struck since 1851. No more half-crowns will be struck ; thej are being gradually withdrawn from circulation. No Groats have been struck since 1866. Twopenny and pennypieces are not in very general use. Silver fourpences, threepences, twopences, and pennies are struck every year and distributed, on the Thursday before Easter, as alms by the Sovereign, under the name of Her Majesty's Maundy Moneys, but the groat struck for that purpose has a different design from the groat in general circulation. BRONZE COINS. Penny ■■ Francs 10 i Centimes. Halfpenny .i „ 6i „ Farthing a ,, 2^ „ The present bronze coinage was introduced in 1860 (Act 22, Vic. c. 80), and the copper coinage was called in. The with- drawal of copper continued until the Slst December, 1869, after which date that coinage was no longer cuiTent. The bronze coins are composed of 95 parts by weight of copper to 4 of tin and one of zinc. A pound of the bronze is coined into 48 penny peices, or 80 half-penny pieces, or 160 farthing Grown (6 shillings) » 6F ^anc s30 Half-crown (2 Shillings & 6 pence) •- 3 16 Florin (2 shillings) » 2 54 Shilling 1 27 Sixpence » 63 i Groat (f ouipenoe) s m Threepence •- 811 Twopence « 21 Penny m lOi QBE AT BRITAnr AKD IBELAKD. 9 pieces. The penny measares in diameter H inches, the half- penny 1 inch, and the farthing f of an inch.* Tin was nsed for coinage in 1680, when farthugs were stmck in that metal with a stnd of copper let into the centre ; and, again, in 1690-91, when hoth half -pence and farthings were issoed. BANK NOTES. £5, £10, £20, £50, £100, £500, £1,000 of the hanks of England, Ireland, and Scotland, and notes for £1 of the banks of Ireland and Scotland. In England the Irish and Scotch notes are at a slight discount. Bank of England notes are a legal tender for any sam orer £5. In the United Eongdom gold is the standard basis of the cnrrency and the principal measure of property and exchange ; it is coined at the rate of £46 14s. 6d. (or £46*725) to the ponnd weight Troy. Silver coins are merely tokens or representative coins, and form a subsidiary and subordinate currency. They are coined at the rate of 66s. to the pound weight Troy. Bank of England Notes are a legal tender for any sum over £6. By the Coinage Act, 88 Vict., cap. 10, gold coins are a legal tender for a payment of any amount ; silver coins for a pay- ment of an amount not exceeding 40s., but for no greater amount ; bronze coins for a payment of an amount not exceed- ing Is., but for no greater amount. . Previous to the passing of the above Act in 1870 a sum above 40s. should be paid in gold coin ; for a sum below 408. silver coin was a legal tender. Copper in pence and halfpence was a legal tender for any sum under Is., but in farthings it was not a legal tender for more than 6d. The Bank of England buys gold at the rate of £3 17s. 9d. per ounce standard, as provided in the Act 7 and 8 Vict., cap. 32, sec. 4. Anyone may " demand from the Bank of England Bank of England Notes in exchange for gold bullion at the rate of £8 17s. 9d. per ounce of standard gold, such gold bullion to be assayed at the expense of the parties tendering it.** Gold and silver bullion are weighed in ounces and decimal parts, in accordance with Act 16 and 17 Vict., cap. 29; pre- viously the weights were expressed in lbs., ozs., dwts., and grs. For the convenience of the Mint the maximum weight of a gold bar bought by the Bank is fixed at 200 ozs. ' * In the Isle of Man, up to' 1840. a copper onrrenoy existed, of which 14d. was equivalent to Is. British, and £1 8b. 4d. to £1 sterling. In that year Britisn sterling money became the currency of the Island. 10 HOKST. The Bank buys gold on asBay raports expresBed in thonaandthg and thirds of thousandths* better or worse than standard. Tbe degree of fineness of gold as ascertained by assay is expressed decimally, fine pare gold being taken as nnity or 1000. English standard gold which contains -(Iths of fine gold, and -j^th of alloy is said to be '9166 fine. In other words, 1000. parts of standard gold contains 916f parts of fine gold, and 884 parts of alloy. The degree of fineness, or the report of gold, may be expressed either by the number of parts' of fine gold in the whole mass, or by the number of parts better or worse than standard. For example, fine gold may be taken as (unity) 1000 or as 88| thousandths belter than standard, and gold having a fineness of 838^ thousandths is 83| thousandths worse than standard. The rule for standardiog gold, that is, for reducing the gross or actual weight to what the weight would be if it were really standard — is, to multiply the gross weight by the report^ and divide the product by the number of parts in standard. Thus : 1. If the report express the number of parts of fine gold in the whole mass — say, for example, 992^ —then multiply the gross weight by 992|, land divide the product by 916}. 2. If the report express the number of parts of fine gold better or worse than standard — say 76| — multiply the g^ss weight by 76}, divide as before, and add the product to, or subtract it from, the gross weight, as the case may be. Gold bars are sold at £3 178. 10 id. per ounce standard. Gold coins of various countries are bought by the Bank of llngland, and the buying price is determined by the rate at which the Bank can convert the coin into bars, at 77s. 9d. per oz. standard. The selling price is fixed with reference to the rate which will make the particular coin preferable to bar gold or sovereigns when gold is wanted for export. The Mint undertakes to return to the Bank the full weight standard in coined gold without any deduction at 778. lO^d. per oz. English light gold coin is cut and withdrawn from circtila- tion under authority of the Act 14, i3ieo. III., cap. 70, sec. 10, and a Boyal proclamation of the Srd June, 1842. The melting and export of coin is legalised by the Act 69, Geo. 111., cap. 49, sac. 10. The defacing of coin is prohibited by the Act 16 and 17 Vict., cap. 102. Silver bullion is purchased by the Bank of England at a price fixed by the rate at which silver could be resold, and the proceeds realised in bar gold at 77s. 9d. per ounce. * '* Gold standardlng tables to ODe*tbr«e-thoa8andUi part" " Bank of England, 1870," OBEAT BBITA.IN AKB IRELAND. 11 The standard of British silver is IH^^^* * ^^^^ ^b* ^^^ ^^^8* pore in 240 dwts., or an alloy of 18 dwts. in the tb. troy. The parity of silver bullion or of forei^in^ silver coin, with reference to this standard is expressed in dwts. by the terms betterness or worseneat^ meaoiug so many dwts. more or less than 222, as the case may be, in the tb. troy (240 dwts.) Thus bullion or coin found on assay to contain 238 dwts. of pore silver in the tb. is reported better 16 dwts. ; and bullion or coin containing 206 dwts. pure in the tb. is reported toorte 16. To determine how much silver of standard fineness is equivalent to a given weight of bullion or foreign coin of a given betterness or woraeness : — I. When the bullion is better than standard add the better' neaa to 222, multiply the weight of bullion by the sum, and divide the product by 222. Example. — How much standard silver is equivalent to 1000 oz. of bullion which is better 17i ?— (1000 x 222 + 17 J) -H 222 - 289500 -h 222 - 1078-8 or 1078^ oz. standard. II. When the bullion is worse than standard, deduct the worseneas from 222, multiply the weight of bullion by the remainder, and divide the product by 222. Example. — How much standard silver is equivalent to 1,000 ozs. of bullion represented, worse 16 t (1000 x 222 — 16) + 222 » 1000 X 206+222-206000+222-927^0 oz. standard. The weight and fineness of the coins specified in the foUowmg table are according to what is provided by the Act fifty-six Oeorge the Third, chapter sixty-eight, that the gold coin of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland should hold finch weight and fineness as were prescribed in the then existing Mint indenture (that is to say), that there should be nine hundred and thirty-four sovereigns and one ten shilling piece contained in twenty^ pounds weight troy of standard gold, of the fineness at the trial of the same of twenty-two carats fine gold and two carats of alloy in the pound weight troy ; and further, as regards silver coin, that there should be sixty-six shillings in every pound troy of standard silver of the fineness of eleven ounces two pennyweights of fine silver and eighteen pennyweights of alloy in every pound wetght troy. p JL if ft Is 13-91S 1»-i §S§I" I M I I I I I I III I I I II I I I I III II I i iisi ii-il GBEiiT BBITA.nr AlfD IBELAKB. 13 The following table, partly from Kelly's ** Uniyersal Cambist," shows the alterations tiiat have been made in English gold and silver coins, from a.d. 1066, with respect to weight and fineness, and the comparative valae of gold and silver at the different dates: — Date. Beign. 1066 1280 1344 1349 1356 1421 1464 1465 1470 1482 1509 1527' 1543 1545 1546 1647 1549 1551 1552 1553 1560 1600 1604 1626 1666 ^17 1816 1821 11872 WiUiam I. Edward I. Edward III. Edward III. Edward III. Henry V. Edward IV. Edward IV. Henry VI. Edward IV. Henry VIII. Henry VIII. Henry VIII. Henry VIII. Henry VIII. Edward VI. Edward VI. Edward VI. Edward VI. Mary Elizabeth Elizabeth James I. Charles I. Charles. Ih George I. George III. George IV. Victoria Silver. CXOQ oz. ds. 1^ y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 6 4 4 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 Gold. 2 2 22 22 22 2,2 22 02 02 02 02 08 3 3 a 3 3 3 3 23 2.3 23 1 1 1 8 6 12 2 8 8 8 8 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 d. car. 4 4 623 23 8 23 23 grs. h •0 ■ -J ^a Comparfttive Valae of riuo Gold and Silver. hi £ 8. d. 3i 3^:16 14 14 18 23 23 23 8 22 23 0,22 o;2o 3i 17 16 8i 3* 22 24 8^24 24 24 24 28 16 30 20 22 23 84 22 23 84 22 '0 23 84 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 30 30 34 84 36 36 36 36 10 33 10 41 44 10 46 14 46 14 46 14 46 14 10 8 61 1 0,1 oil Ojl 61 61 61 61 to >i i» n »f »» >f ♦ » »» )f f» »> If » It M »» »» »» »» tl «l 12-684 11-571 11-158 10-331 10-331 11-158 11158 11-158 11158 11-468 10-434 6-818 5 000 5-000 5-151 11000 11050 11057 11-100 10-904 12-109 13-346 14-485 15-209 14-287 14-287 14-287 From the above table it is easy to calculate the weight of 208.' in tale of silver, and of 20s. in tale of gold at any particalar date. ^ B Illlll Mi 8* la I!. II a. iptinj ■Shi til! IMfl Hi I IS* I I I I It lillg 1^1^ I; 16 HOFET. .IBELAND. In the old Irish cnrrencr the denominfttions of moneys were the same as those of the united Kingdom ahready giTen, yiz., Ponnds, Shillings, and Pence, hnt British sterling is greater in intrinsic value hy a twelfth part than the old Irish money, thus :— Irish value. ByttemaUe name, British value, £ 8. d. 4 Farthings -• 1 Penny -" ^| 12 Pence - 1 Shilling - 11-^ 20 Shillings - 1 Pound « 18 6^-, 21 Shillings . 1 Guinea - 19 4^ The British Shillmg is equivalent to Is. Id. Irish ; the British Pound Sterling to £1 Is. 8d. Irish ; and £100 BritUh to £108 Gs, 8d., or £108). To convert Irish money into British Sterling, multiply by 12 and divide by 18. To convert British Sterling into Irish Currency, multiply by 18 and divide by 12. COMPABATZV£ TABLE OF BBZTI8H STSBLINO AND IBI8H CUBBBN0ZB9* British, Irish . British, IrUh. £ s. d. £ s. d. Gs. £ 8. d. G8. £ 8. d. « 1 • 1 9 2H- * . 10 ■■ U ..0 9 8^- i 10 6 8 ■■ 0' 84 . ., 10 - • • 10 10 4 ■■ H i - 10 6 - • • 11 41 6A ■» 6 .. 18 5A- • • 10 6 ■B 64 .. 19 4A- 1 110 9 — ' 91 .. 10 0- • • 118 nx ■i 1 1-110- . . 12 9 1 ■B 1 1 4 12 8A- . . 6 2 O. 2 2 4 16 11^- 6 6 6 2 8A ■i 2 6 ..6 - • • 6 8 4 2 6 M 2 8i 6 6 5 0- • • 6 18 9 4 7,V ■. 6 9 18 10A-. 10 10 10 6 M 5 5 10 10 10 - • * 11 7 6 6 11^ ■i 7 6 .. 92 6 IH- ■ * 100 7 e M 8 li . . 96 18 6^- 100 105 .. 100 - . . 108 6 8 100-105 0- . . 118 ib THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. viz., GUERNSEY, JERSEY, ALDERNEY, AND SAKE. The denominations of money are Poundtt Shillingt, and Pmei Channel Island Currency, £1 sterling is reckoned equal to £1 Is. Bd. Channel Island Corrency, ?BAiroi. 17 VBAITOB. jy«fMfc 9dlu4, 8if9t$wMti« naiM. XngUik valiM. 1 Centime • .\M. 100 GentimeB. -> 1 Fnmo -> 9id. In Franoe sUver is the legal toUndard of valne bat the adoption of gold ae a nngle standard was reoommended in July 1870 by the '* Oonseil Bop^rienr dn Conuneroe.'* The Talae of the AaM in silYer is eqiud to 8*884d. sterling, and 26 francs 67*2\sentimes are the equivalent value in silver of £1 sterling. The value of the Franc in gold is equal to 8*616d. sterling, and 25 francs 22i centimes are the equivalent value in gold of £1 sterling. The gold coins are pieces of 100, 60, 25, 20, 10, and 5 francs. The silver coins are pieces of 5, 2, and 1 franc, and the i franc and the 20 centime piece. The bronse coins are pieces of 10, 5, 2, and 1 centimes, which weigh respectively 10, 5, 2, and 1 grammes. The bronae coins in most general use are the 10 and 6 centime pieces. The 2 centime piece is seldom met with, and the 1 centime piece is still more uncommon. The Bank Notes are for 50, 100, 500, 1000 francs. The copper coinage of France is ^AAi^^" ^^ * ^^ ^ composed of 95 parts of pure copper, 4 of tin, and 1 of zinc The following table shows the weight, fineness, and English value of French coins : — Denomination of Coin. FoU weight in Qrammes. Standard Finenese in tboaaandth parta. Diameter In MilU- metres. English value 1 at U Francs 96 Centimes to £1. Gold: — £ 8. d. 100 Frauds 82268*06 900 86 8 19 4i . 50 „ 16129-08 28 1 19 8 26 V „ . 8064-616 *» 19 10 20 „ 6461*61 . 21 16 lOi 10 „ 8226-80 19 7 Hi 5 .. 1612*90 17 8 111 SiLVEB :— 5 Francs 26 900 87 8 Hi . 2 „ 10 836 27 17 1 n 6 if 28 9i 60 Oentimes 2-60 II 18 4} 20 1 11 16 2 Bbonzb : — 10 Oentimes 960 1 5 ti i 2 V II i 1 II T^», 18 H017ST. The allowance of yariation in weight for the gold coins of 100 and 50 francs is one part in 1000, for the 20 and 10 franc pieces it is 2 in 1000, and for the 6 franc gold piece it is S in 1000. The allowance from standard parity for all the gold coins is 2 parts in 1000. In regard to the silver coins the allowance from standard weight is for the 5 franc piece 3 parts in 1000, for the 1 and 2 franc pieces 5 parts in 1000 ; for the half franc pieces 7 parts in 1000 ; and for the 20 <$entime pieces 10 parts in 1000. The allowance from standard pnrity for the 6 franc pieces is 2 parts in 1000 and for ail the other silver pieces it is 8 parts in 1000. The denominations of money nsed in accounts prior to 1795 were livrest sous and deniert (12 deniers ■■ 1 son, 20 sons » 1 livre), and 80 francs were prenerally considered equal to 81 livres ; but by a decree in 1810 45 livres were deckired eqnal to 47 francs 20 centimes, and the pieces of 24, 6, and 8 livres in like proportion. The old gold coins were the Lonis of 24, and the donble Louis of 48 livres. The silver coins wera the Ecu of 6 livres and the half and quarter Ecu pieces. French value of enqlish mombt, at 25 francs 20 centimes fob £1 stebling i — Engllih. Frenc}i. Bng li$h. French. id. - 2|- centimes 28. ■■ 2 francs 52 centimes id. - 5i n 23.6J.- 3 15 ♦> Id. - lOi . „ 58. - 6 SO $i 3J. - 814 M » lOs. - 12 60 l> 4d. = 42 £1 - 25 20 It 6d. - 63 £5 - 126 ft Is. - • 1 franc 26 centimes £10 -252 ^ It HI] rdsiA. - Paper money is the chief medium of payment and standard of value, and gold and silver coins are at a premium, and except the 20, 15, 10, 5 copeck pieces, are rarely met with. The paper ruble is worth about 2s. 6d. sterling ; any sum in paper rubles may be converted into pounds sterling by division by 8. Bustaian value. ' SystemAtie Name, Engliah value 1 Copeck •- 'ddd. 100 Copecks a 1 Silver Bnble « 3s. 2d. GOLD COINS. The gold coins are the imperial of 10 rubles, the half- imperial^ and the three-ruble piece. There is also a three- ruble peice in Platina. BUBSIA. 19 The fiilver coins are the rudfif ^ half-rable, and ihe 25, 20, 16, 10, and 5 oopeok pieces. (The 5-copeck piece is no longer minted.) COPPXB COINS. The copper coins are pieces of 5, 8, 2, 1, \, and i copeck pieces. BANK NOTBS. The bank notes are for 1, 8, 5, 10, 20, 26, 50, 100, 1,000, and 2,000 rabies. The provinces of the Gancasns and Georgia have a special silver coinage, namely, the double-abbas i« 40 copecks, the abbas « 20 copecks, the half-abbas » 10 copecks, and the shaor « 5 copecks. Table showing ihs weight, fineness, aud English value of the Russian coinage. Denomination of Coins. GOLD COINS. Imperial (10 rubles) . . Half-imperial (5 rubles) . . Three-ruble piece . . BUiVEB COINS. Buble Half -ruble (Poltinnick) . . Quarter ruble (Tohetwertak^ Dwougrivniok (20 oopeoks) Piatinnick (15 „ Griwnick (10 „ Pialachak (5 „ COPPER COINS. Five copecks Three copecki| Two copecks One copeck Half -copeck (Deneshka) . . Quarter-copeck (Polushka) °b8 I* OQ If f» ft 83i 96 »> •r* CB DoliB. Dolis 294TSr270 l^h\ 135 88^V 81 466^^405 Si ;=3 I -*« 9 I U3S1 I 'a » -o A o ® < 238 116J 46| 23A 5T6 345|' 280| 115|' 67| 28^ 202^ 101^ DoUs English Tslae £ s. d. 24fT'l 11 8 12^^10 15 10 1^\0 9 6 63H 8 2 80^ 1 7 15i!0 n 7| 5,7^ 8^ lA li^ 1.14 .76 .38 .19 .095 20 icoinnr. The standftrd of flnene8B of the gold coinage if the 8ame as that of English gold coins ; the standard of the silver coins, ▼iz.. 88 i in 96 parts, is inferior to that of the French 5-firattc piece, which in Bnseian weight is 86<^olis fine, bat snperior to that of the Austrian and Prnssian dollars, the Austrian oelng 80 and the Prnssian 72 dolis fine. Besides the above-mentioned coins there are some old coins, ' stmck at different periods, which have not been withdrawn from circulation, namely, in silver the li ruble piece, containing 6071 dolls of fine silver ; and the 80 copeck piece ^ containing 121i doUi of pure silver; in copper, the grivnick, formerly equal to 10 copecks, now equal to 8 copecks; the piatak, formerly equal to 6 copecks, iiow equal to li copecks ; and the grosh, formerly equal to 2 copecks, now equal to i copeck. RUSSXAV VALUB OF ENGLISH UOMST AT 2s. 6d. PEB PAPEB BUBLB. EnglUh. Ru$$ian 1 Engliih. Buttian. id. - 1 copecks. 2s. 6d. — 1 ruble. Id. *- h * 6s. M 2 tt 8d. - 10 , 108. m 4 „ 4d. - 18i , £1 « 8 H 6d. - 20 £6 H 40 „ Is. - 40 £10 m BO „ 28. - 80 BUSSIA. FINLAND. Byitematic name. EnglUh italue, £ S. d. 1 Penni Jtft, 100 Pennis 1 Mark « JT Silver is the chief standard of value, and there are no gold coins. The silver coins are 2 marks, 1 mark, 60 pennis, and 26 pennifl. The copper coins are pieces of 10 pennis, 6 pennis, and 1 penni. The Bank notes are for 100, 40, 20, 12, and 8 marks issued by the Finland State Bank ; and for 100, 26, and 16 marks issued by the one private bank, **ForeningB Banken i Finland.*' Two different rates of exchange are qaotod, one for buyers and another for sellers ; thus 100 rubles (St. Petersburg) • 807 marks for buyers or 802|markBfor soUors; £1 sierling (London] «26'86 marks for buyers or .25' 15 marku for seUers ; 106 marcs banco (Hamburg) » 188*60 marks for buyers or 187 ▲rSTBIA. 21 marks for sellerB ; 100 franoe ^aris) » 100^60 marks for Imsrers or 99-85 marks for sellers \ 100 florins (Amsterdam) » 211-80 for buyers or 209*70 marks for sellers ; 100 riskdaldrs (Stock- holm) » 142 marks jfor buyers or 141 for sellers. The following table shows the standard of flnenesSi weight, and English \alae of the onrrent ooins. standard of Fine- QMS in Uioasandih Weight In parts. BttgUih Talme. Pore , Alloy Sllyer. Copper. SiLTBB Coins : — £ s. d. ^ Marks .868 •182 10-8658 17 IMark .868 •182 5-1829 94 50 Pennis .760 •250 2-5495 41 25 Pennis .760 •250 1-2747 2| Copper Coins: — 10 Pennis " 12-7979 1 5 Pennis 6-3987 01 1 Penni 1-2797 0^ AtuMan value. 100 New Erentzers » AUSTBIA. Bytitmatic name, 1 New Erentzer « 1 New Florin « Englith voUm. Is. Hid. In 1867 a Commission composed of persons from the two parts of the Empire sat in Vienna. This Commission recom- mended the introduction of gold as sole standard of valne; and the recommendation was adopted in Article XII. of the Law of December 24th, 1S67,— {Coll eetion of Laws of the healm, 1867, No. 4.) Previously silyer had been the standard precious metal nsed in the currency. Paper money in Austria is the chief medium of payment. The value of the paper florin fluctuates from day to day, but it may be taken at about Is. 8d. sterling, or 12 florins to the £ sterling. On the 81st July, 1867, Austria concluded a preliminary ti-eaty with France, whereby the florin of the value of 2t French francs was flxed as the fundamental uait of account and exchange. In that treaty it was provided that Franoe should coin a piece of 25 francs equal to 10 florins. The gold ooins are pieces of 8 and 4 florins. 22 HOITEY. The nbrn coins hm the 2 Florin Fiea, the Flaring the \ Florin^ the 20 and 10 Kreutzer Piecet, The copper ooins are the Kreutzer, and 4 Erentzer Pieces. The Bank Notes are for 10 Ereatzers, and 1, 6, 10, 100, and 1000 florins ; thej flnctnate in Talne as compared with gold and silver money, and are generally at a discount. Between 1858 and 1867 the currency was based upon the 45 florin standard, or that in which a metric Pfnnd (500 grammes) of flne silyer was coined into 45 New Florins. Prior to 1858 Austrian money was based on the Conventiqn or 20 Florin standard, or that in which a Cologne mark weight, Hamburg standard (8608 grains Tory) of fine silYer was coined into 20 florins, in accordance with a Convention between Austria and Bavaria, concluded in 1753 ; when the 45 florin standard was introduced, 105 new florins were declared equivalent to 100 old ones. The following table shows the weight, flneness, and English value of Austrian coins :— Denomination of Coin. Gold Coins : — 8 Florin piece 4 Florin piece SiiiVEB Coins:— 2 florins ... 1 Florin . . . i Florin ... 20 Ereutzers 10 „ CopPEB Coins :- 4 Kreutzer . 1 Ereutzer . Standard fln«neBB in hundredth parte. T««tl» I* It » FnU weight in grammes. 6-45161 3-22580 24-691 12-846 5'842 2-666 1-666 Weight of pure metal ingrms 5-80644 2-90822 22-222 11-111 2-778 1-888 0-667 Weight of aUof ingrme. •64516 •82258 2-469 1-287 2-564 1-888 0-999 B SngUah value. £ s. d. 15 10 7 11 8 lU 111* 51 4| 2| 2* The 8 florin piece is 21 millimetres in diameter, and the 4 florin piece 19 ; the pfund of 500 gxanuoes of gold consisting AUSTBIA. 28 o! -AfihB gold and Ath copper is coined into 771 pieces of eight florinB and 165 pieces of 4 florins. On the left side of the Imperial Eagle on the rcTerse of the coin is shown the Anstrian yalne— vis., 8 florins; and on the right side the French valne — yiz,, 30 francs. The following old coins, still in dronlation, aie receiTsd at the onder-mentioned rates : — r These are of Sterling. the 45 florin Gold Coins :•<- florins, kreats. £ s. d. | standard, and Crown ' -13| 0-170 Half-crown - 6^ « 18 6 < were replaced ^ bythe8and4 The Ducat (4^ florins) with an agio of from 6 to 10 Erentsers SiLYEB Coins :•*- Doable Thaler Thaler Crown of Brabant The Conyention Crown Florin of 60 Erentzers The 20 Erentzer piece (new coin) The 20 Erentzer piece , (old coin) The 10 Erentzer piece The 6 Erentzer piece The 5 Erentzer piece The 8 Erentzer piece 2 4 1 [ 4 70 - 9 2i 8 1 50 5 Hi a 11 florin pieces in March, 1870. This is of the old 20 florin or Con- yention stan- ,dard. These are coins of the 45 florin standard. 80 10 5 4 6}^ 4 1 2 01 » 85 « 8} CB 34 » 7if 17 10 84 5 3« 2i li j These are of the old '20 florin or Conyention standard. ^ALUX OT EnQUSH MoNBT AT Is. 8d. FOB 1 AUSTBIAN FloXUN IN Paper. EnglUh, Autirian Paper. BnglUh, Auitrian Paper id, — li Erentzers 28. 6d. « li florins. Id. = 6 5b. — 3 „ 3d. - 164 „ 10s. - 6 „ 4d. - 20 £1 - 12 6d. - 30 £5 - .60 Is. - 60 £10 mm 120 ., 2s. «> lfl.20,, 24 MOKET. GERtfANY. The present monetary system introdnced by the law of December, 1871i established for the whole of Germany an uniform system of oarrenoy and accounts. The Mark, which is the basis of this system, is equiyalent to a lO-groschen piece, or -^ of a North German Thaler : it is the tenth part of an Imperial gold coin — ^the ten-mark-piece — of which 139^ pieces contain a Zollverein pound, that is, 500 grammes or 7716 Troy grains of pure gold. During the period of tran- sition to the new system, the old silyer coinage of North Germany, down to the 5-grosohen piece, continues to be a legal tender in all commercial transactions, and a new gold coinage is declared a legal tender. This new monetary system, in which all accounts are now kept and reckonings made, is as follows : — Oerman vaiue, Syttematie name, English value, £ s. d. 10 Pfennigs* « 1 Groschen « 1-175 10 Groschen or 100 Pfennigs I - 1 Mark -00 11-| This system introduces a gold standard into Germany where that standard, the only' one suitable for large payments, was much needed, and where previously there was but a yery small quantity of gold in circulation. It makes gold a legal tender and standard of yalue — a money instead of an article of com- merce — and it extends to the whole of Germany one uniform system of currency and accounts. It adopts a commdn gold coin for the yarious States of the Empire, whose silyer coinage is so different, and, by dropping the Thaler denomination for the gold coinage and giving it a new name and subdivisions, it tends to harmonise and unite the systems of North Germany, the Hanse Towns, and South Germany. Under the old system the smallest coin in North Germany was the Pfennig, of which there were 120 in a Mark, while in South Germany the equiyalent of a Mark was 85 Ereuzers or 140 Pfennigs. In the new system the smallest coin for ail Germany is the one-huudredth part of a Mark, and so the value of the smallest coin is increased in the new system by 20 per cent, for North Germany, and by 40 per cent, for South Germany. * In Bavaria a atfbdivision of the Pfennig into two half-Pfennigs may be made if necessary. AIXSTBIA. 25 GOLD COINS. 1 10 Marks . . . . 20 »t •a » 8 10 6 20 1 6 &0 11 40 Si 8 6i 16 lOf i 6.^ Bngllah Vtlno. M 9, d. 9 9i 19 7 A ZoUverein ponnd of pure gold if eoined into 139i pieces of 10 Marks; or 69f pieces of 20 Marks. The mixtare of pore gold and alloy in the coins is in the proportion of 900 parts of gold to 100 parts of copper. Accordingly, 125*55 pieces of 10 Marks or 62-775 pieces of 20 Marks weigh one ZoUverein ponnd. The Imperial gold coins bear upon one side the Imperial Eagle, with the inscription, " Dentsches Reich," and a state- ment of the yalne in Marks, and the year of the coinage ; on the other side, the likeness of the sovereign princes, or the symbols of sovereignty of the Free Towns, with a corresponding device and the stamp of the Mint. The di£ference more or less of the pieces as issued from the Mint must not exceed in weight 2^ thousandth-parts, and, in fineness, 2 thousandth-parts. Imperial gold coins that are not deficient more than five- th(msandth-^arts from the nominal weight (Passirgewicht) are accepted as full value in all payments. Imperial gold coins which, from long circulation have become lighter than the pass weighty jaxQ withdrawn, and replaced at the expense of the Empire. The coinage of other gold coins besides the 10 and 20 Mark pieces, as well as of large silver coins (except memorial medals) is prohibited. All payments which, under the old system of currency, would be made in silver money of Thaler currency, of South German currency, oi Liibeok or Hamburg customary currency, or in o 26 MOKET, Thalers of the Bremen gold, reckoning maj be made in Imperial gold coins reckoned at the following rates, yiz. : — 10 Mark piece » 84 Thalers, of 5 Florins 50 Erenzers of South German currency, or 8 Mftrks 5i Schillings of the Lilbeck and Hamburg currency, or 3^^ Thalers of Bremen gold reckouing. 20 Mark pieee« 6f Thalers, or 11 Florins 40 Erenzers of South German cnrrenoj, or 16 Marks 10| Schillings, of Liibeck and Hamburg currency, or 6/^ Thalers of Bremen gold reckoning. System ot Cubbemcy befobb 1872. Formerly silver was the standard of value, and the monetary -system was based on the ZoUpfnnd or Manzpfund, that is, 500 grammes, or 7,716 Troy ^ains of fine silver. For North Germany the Zollpfund of fine silver was coined into 30 Thalers : this was called North Q^man vafua^ or Thirty Thaler basit. For South Germany the ZoUpfnnd of fine silver was coined into 52 i Florins : this was called South German value, or Fifty- two-and-a half Florin basis* » A North German Thaler was eqnal to li Austrian Florins, or 1 1 South German Florins. There were pieces of \ and \ Thaler (North German value), ^ and i Florin (South German valve), and t and ^ Flonn (Austrian value). In North Germany accounts wore kept as follows : — s. d. t 12 Pfennig si Silbcrgroschen • 1 1-^ English. 80 Silbergroschen«-l Thaler ^S „ In South Germany accounts were kept as follows : — . 8. d. 4 Pfennig — 1 Ereuzer -■ | CO Erenzers — 1 Florin =18 The following coins were current in Germany previous to the passing of the Act of December, 1871 ; and it mnH be remembered that under this Act the silver coins of North ▲UBTBIA. 27 Germany, down to the 6 SUbergroschen piece, remain a legal tender in all commercial tranBactions : — Denomination of oain* Gold Coins : — Frederio-d'or . . . . Doable ,« Half " „ Union Grown Half „ Pistole (Denmark) . . 1 Double Pistole . . 10 Gmlders (*Dutch) 5 ,t »t • 20 Francs (French) 1 Ducat . . • < SoTereign (English) HiLYER Coins : — 1 Thaler . . . Double Thaler 10 SilbergroBchen. 5 2i 1 Florin . . 1-Half Florin Quarter ,, 6 Kreuzer 3 ,) 1 »f • • Copper CoiKs : — 4 Pfennige .. 3 2 1 ft »i II tt i> n North Oennan ▼tlllA. Th. Sb.gr.M. 5 20 11 10 South Oonnan ▼•la«. 2 25 9 6 4 18 6 16 11 17 H 8 6f 4 8f 1 8f 10« 3f Fl. Er. 9 55 19 50 4 57 16 6 8 S 9 87 19 15 9 44 4 52 9 25 5 83 11 46 1 45 8 30 35 1 17 8 3 1 80 15 6 8 1 Pf. 2 2 2 8 2 8 English Ttlu*. £ 1 1 18 16 1 1 8. d. 16 6i 13 Of JB 3i 6 10 5 04 12 16 8 2 5 1 15 10 9 2i 11 10 111 H Oil 8 10 . 5 2 1 04 2'* 07* English money exchanged into Imperial German money and North and South German money,^t ll|d. for 1 mark, 28. lid. fori Thaler, and Is. 8d. for 1 Florin. * Although gold coins are no longer issued from the Dutch ])£int,they have not altogether disappeared from European circulation. 18 ICOITET. £ f. d. Mks. ( G^rof . Pf . 1 Thin. Shgn* P'* Flori. Krancf 1 84 m S 8 2 5i 2 6f 9 4 8 4 8 ^ 12 6 5 1 b H 18 1 1 2 10 H 86 2 2 4 20 6f 1 12 2 6 2 5 5 25 8| 1 80 6 5 1 1 21 6f 8 10 10 2 1 8 12 lOf 6 1 20 4 2 6 26 8f 12 5 102 1 2 84 8 «l 60 10 204 2 5 68 17 4 120 100 2042 5 5 686 20 6* 1200 . HAMBUHG. The monetary Bystem is that of the German Empire. The old monetary syetem, in which silyer was the standard, was as follows : — 12 Pfennig - 1 SohiUing « |d. EngUsh. 16 SchiUlnges » 1 Mark -^ Is. lid. ^ The money had a twofold valnation, namely, CurreMy and Bank value. Currency value referred to the coins in actual cironlation. Bank value reierreA to the credits in the bank books. Those credits were represented by silver bullion of the fineness of IJ^ths deposited in the bank. In ewmney value the Cologne JlJark weight (Hamburg stan- dard), viz., 8078 grains Troy of pure silver was coined tiU 1866 into 84 Marks, and after that date into 85 Marks. The silver deposited at the bank was received at the nominal rate of 442 Schillinges and issued at 444 Schillinges, or 271 Marks Banco for the Cologne Mark weight (8608 grains Txoy) of pure Silver. Taking the proportion of silver to gold as 15i to 1, a mark, Bank value was equal to Is. 6'82d. sterling; and a Mark Currency value, was equal to Is. 2'18d. sterling ; The gold coins were the Louie d'or -■ 15 or 16 Marks, the PUioU, and the Ducat. The Pistole - 10 Marks, 14 ScfailliDges (Bank value) and worth about 168. 2d. sterling. The Ducat contained 979 parts out of 1000 of pure gold, was equal to 6 Marks, 4 Schillinges. Bank value, or 100-,^ Schillinges cur- rency value, and was worth about 9s. 24d. sterling. The silver coins were the Double Thaler equal to 5 marks (currency value) and worth 5s. 10'64d. sterling ; the Thaler of 2| marks, worth 2s. II'82d. sterling; the Mark, worth Is. 2}d. sterling ; the 8 Schilling Piece, worth 7^. sterling ; the BBXMBK. 29 i Schilling Pi$ee, Vfoxih 8|d. sterliug; tho 2 Schilling Puce, worth l|d. sterling, the Schiiling, worth -f^^H. sterling; tho I Schilling, or Sechtling, worth -f^d, sterling ; and the i Schilling or Dreilingt worth { of a farthing sterling,. The Mark contained 750 parts by weight oat of 1000 |iure sllyer, the 8 schilling piece contained 626, the 4 schilling piece 66), the 2 Schitting Piece 487i, ftnd the 1 schilling piece 250 of such parts. The difference between the Bank value and the Currency value was called the Bank Agio^ and is perpetaally varying with the price of pare silver. BRBMBN. The monetary system is that of the German Empire. The old system was as follows :— 6 Schwaron •■ 1 Oroot ^ \\j\, English. 75 Grootes • 1 Rix-doUar « 8s. 8(d. „ Th* Thaler or Rizdollar was Rarely a money of aocoant, and had nu ropresentative in the oomage. It was equal to f th of the Lfniit'd^or or Pittole of Hanover, Branswiolc, Hesse, and Benmr «'lc. The silver coins were the J Thaler, of 86 grootes, worth about 1.^. 7d. sterling; the ^ thaler of 12 Grooms, worth 6|d. sterling; the 6 Groot Piece, woi*th S^^d,; the Groot, worth about id. sterling. The gold coins in circulation were chiefly Danish, Hanoverian, and other Piitoles, of 6 Thalers, and Ducats of 2} Thulurs at an agio or premium of a variable per oentage. The English Sovereign passed current at about 6 Thalers 10 to 12 Grootes The copper coins were pieces of 2^ and 1 Schwaren. lubece:. The monf>tary Bjstom is that of the German Empire. The oM system of iju')tick currency was as follows : — 12 Pfennig - 1 SohUling - Jd. English. 10 Bohillinges - 1 Mark - Is. l^i. „ 8 Marks -> 1 Thaler ». 8s. 4(1. „ The old gold coins were the PortugtUesu or lU Ducat piece ■« 78 Marks 12 Bchillinges, and the 5, 2, i, and i ducat pieoen in like proportion. 67 ducats were to weigh a Cologne Mark weight of gold 28 carats, 6 grains fine. The silver coins were tho Specie Thaler at 8 Marks 12 Bchillinges Currency » about 4s. 2d. sterling ; and the currency 30 liOKXT. Rix-dollars or Thalers at 8 Marks « 8b. 'id. flterling ; piecM of 1, 2, 4, and 8 Schillmges ; SechBliugB at 6 Pfeunigs and Dreilings at 8 Pfennigs Cnrrency. SILVEB COINS. The Cologne Mark weight of fine silver (3608 grains, Troy), prior to 1856 was coined into Hi Thalers or 84 Marks of Liibeck Currency, and since that date into 36 Marks, a Liibeck Mark is equal io 60 Austrian New Ereuzers, to 12 Prussian Silber Groschens, to 42 South Qermans Ereuzers, or to Is. l^d. sterling. The coins below a Schilling consisted of either Billon or Copper, but no one was obliged to receive in payment more than 1 Thaler's worth of such coin. SPAIN. Spaniih value. 8y»Umatic name. SngUih value. £ s. d. 1 Centimo • Vo'^ 100 Centimos « 1 Peseta* cs 9^ The Gold coins are pieces of 100, 60, 26, 20, 10, and 5 Pesetas. The Silver coins are pieces of 5, 2, 1 Pesetas, and of 26 and 20 Centimos. The Bronze coins are pieces of 10, 5, 2, and 1 Centimos. In the Gold coins the allowance for variations from (either over or under) the exact weight, is one-thousandth for the 100 peseta and 50 peseta, two- thousandths for the 20 peseta and 10 peseta, and three-thousandths for the 6 peseta piece ; and the allowance for variation either over or under the "Standard of fiaeness, is two-thousandths. In the Silver coins the variation of weight tolerated is for the 5 peseta piece three-thousandths, and the variation of fineness is .two-thousandths : the variation of weight for the 2 and 1 peseta pieces is five- thousandths ; for the 50 centimo piece and for the 20 centimo piece it is ten-thousandths. The variation of fineness for the 2 and 1 peseta, and for the 50 and 20 centimo pieces, is three thousandlhs. In the Bronze coins the variation of weight tolerated, is 10-thousandths for the 10 and 5 centimo pieces, and 15- * In Tirtne of a decree of the Gortes. dated 19th October, 1868, the SpaolHh money was reooined, and a new Monetary Hyt<i«m, ae ^iven above, was adopted, and became the only legal Monetary by* tern of Spain and her Colonies from 81a t December, 1870. BPAIK. 81 thousandths for the 9 and 1 oentimo pieces. The Tariation from standard fineness is 10-tbonsandths for the 10 and 6 centimo pieces, and S-thonsandths for the 3 and 1 centimo pieces. The following tahle shows the standard of fineness, the weight, and English Talne of the Spanish coins : — Denomination of Ooin. Gold Coins: — 100 Pesetas . 50 25 20 10 5 ti It II II BUndard of flneaen in thoDBandth parts. 900 ti II >i »i SiLTSR Coras : — 5 Pesetas . . 2 ,, 50 Ccntixnoi 20 „ Bbonzb Coins: — 10 Centimos 5 2 1 II II II 900 835 t* II II Weight in grammes. 82-25806 1612908 8*064515 6-45161 8*22560 1-61290 25 10 5 2-50 1-00 950 Copper 40 Tin lOZino 10 5 2 1 AS BnsUah ▼aJiie. £ s. d. 85 8 19 2 28 1 19 7 19 .91 21 15 10 19 7 11 17 8 Hi 87 8 Hi 27 1 7 28 9^ 18 41 16 9A 80 1 25 0\ 20 0* 15 Ot\i OLD MONBTABT SYSTEM OF SPAIN. The old monetary system was based on the Real-Vgllon and Hard Dollar, andacooants were generally kept in Reals divided into 84 Mara? edis or 100 Centimos, bnt in Alioant, Arragon, Barcelona, and Valencia, they were kept in Libras diyided into 20 Hueldott and each Suefdo into 12 Dingros. There were four principal classes of the ReaU namely, the Real-Vellon, the Real- Ntw- Plate, the Real-Old-Flate, and the Real' Mexican' Plate. The Real'Vellon was both a money of aooonnt and a ooin ; it was the 20th part of a Silver Hard Dollar, it was also the 20th part of a Gold Dollar (Goronilla), and was equal to 2id. sterling. 32 llOKET. The Real-NewPlate was a coin, but not a money of account, it wag the -^gth part of a Hard-Dollar, and was eqnal to 5d. sterling. The RealrOld-Plate was a money of account, and a denomi- nation URod generally in exchange, bat not a coin, it was -^ths of a Hard Dollar, and was -equal to ^-ji^jd. sterling. When the term P/ute only was used, Oid Fiate was meant- The Real' Mexican- Plate was the chief money of account iB Spanish America, but not a coin ; it was the ith part of a Hard-Dollar, and was equal to O^d. sterling. 1 Beal-Mexican-Plate - 2i Beals-Vellon - 1^ New-Real- Opiate - IH Reals-Old-Plate. The Doubloon de Plata Sencillo was equal to 60 Reals- Vellon or 12s. 6d. sterling ; the Peso-Sencillo to 15 Reals- Vellon ; and the Ducado de Yellon to 11 Reals-Vellon. Besides the above-mentioned principal classes of Reals, there were fiye classes of Reals that were moneys of account and exchange, but not coins, namely, tbe Real of Alic'ant, equal to •^ of a Hard Dollar, or S'8664d. sterling; the Real of Catalonia, equal to -^ of a Hard Dollar, or 4'0396d. sterling ; the Real Ardite of Catalonia, equal to -f^-g of a |Hard DoUur, or 2'6890d. sterling ; the Real of Valencia, equal to A^ of a Hard Dollai^, or 2'82S5d. sterling ; and the Real of Gibraltar, equal to -j^ of a Hard Dollar, or 4^d. sterling. The Libra of Alicant, Cadiz, and Valencia, was the same as the Dollar of Plate or exchange, and was equal to 37'647d. sterling, or f 4 of a Hard Dollar ; the Libra of Catalonia was equal to 26)3. sterling, or (^ of a Hard Dollar ; the Libra of Arragon was equal to 47iV^. sterling, or \^ of a Hard Dollar ; the Libra of Navarre was equal to 7'842d. sterling, or /^ of a Hard Dollar. The moneys of exchange were the Peso de Plata or Piastre (Dollar) of exchange equal to 272 Maravedis Old Plate, or 512 Maravedis-Vellon ; the Doubloon de- Plata or Pistole of exchange eqnal to 82 Reals, or 1088 Maravedla Old Plate, or 16 Reals 8 Maravedis-Vellon, or 40^^d. sterling ; the Ducado de Plata or Ducat of exchange, equal to 11 Reals 1 Maravedis, or20 Reals 26-^ Maravedis-Vellon, or 51-,^d. sterling. OLD MONETS OF ACCOUNT. BpanUh value, By$tematie name. EnglUh value, 1 Centimo » -^d. 10 Reals- Vellon - 1 Escudo* -> 28. Id. ' * In 1 805 the Esoado was made the higheat anit of account. Pre- Tiottsly the Kettl and thH Centimo had been the only denomlaationa used in keeping accounts. OIBBALTAB. 33 The Gold ooins were the (a) Oiua, or Donbloon of 820 Reals worth 66b. 8d. sterling ; (h) the Half-Onza of 160 Reals, worth 888. 4d. sterling ; the Itabel of 100 Reals, worth 20s. lOd. sterling; (c) the Quarter-Onza of 80 Reals, worth 16s. 8d. sterling ; (d) the One-Eighth Onza of 40 Reals, worth 8s. 4d. sterling ; the 21 i Real-Pieee, worth 4s. 5d. sterling ; and (e) the Dollar of 20 Reals, worth 4s. 2d. sterling. The' Silver coins were the Dollar (doro) of 20 Reals-Yellon worth 4s. 2d. sterling ; the Eaeudo of 10 Reals, worth 2s. Id. sterling ; the Peteta de Colummu of 5 Reals, worth Is. O^d. ; the Peseta of 4 Reals, worth lOd. sterling; the 2i Real-Piece^ worth 6d. sterling; the Half-Peseta, or 2 Real-Piece, worth 6d. sterling ; and the 1 Real-Piece, worth 2id. sterling. The Copper ooins were tiie Half-Real, worth l^d. sterling ; the Quarter-Real and pieces of 2 Cuartos* (eqnal to 47 Centimos), and 1 Cuarto (equal to 28^ Centimos). GIBBALTAB. By an order in Council dated 2lBt Febraary, 1872, and which came into operation on 1st May, 1872, the standard of Talne is the Spanish gold ooin commonly called dohUm d*Isabfl, weighing 128*7 Troy grains, and containing by weight 90 parts of pore gold, and 10 parts of alloy. The denominations of account will be Dollars, Reals-de- YeUon, and Decimas, and eyentnally perhaps, Reals-de-Vellon and Decimas only. CHbrdltar voIim. SyttemoHe name, JSngliih value, £ B. d. Decima de Real-Vellon • 20 Reals de Yellonf « 1 Dollar - 100 Reals de Vellon or ) ^ Tk^w^«4. SDoUars .. ..j-l^oblonf The Sanitary Commissioners of Gibraltar keep their accounts in Reals de Vellon and Centesimas the Decima being too large a unit to determine rates. Army and Navy accounts at Gibraltar are kept in pounds, shillings, and pence sterling. Under the order in Council of 2lBt February, 1872, the following are the coins authorised to be current in Gibraltar, and described as Her Majesty's current gold, silver, and copper coins :— - -■■■ » (a) Also called Qaadrnple Pistole. ih) Also called Media-OnM, or Half-Doabloon. (e) Also called Pistole, or Doubloon de Ochenta. Id) Also called Oudrenta, or Doubloon '^e Esoudo. («) Also called Ooroniila, Bsoudito, Dorillo, or Doubloon de Vienti. ♦ 84 GuartOB were equal to 1 Real. ...... ^ v, f 10 Reals de Vellon = 1 Esoudo = 28. Id. sterling, but the Doblon d'Isabel and Bsoudo ^ill hardly be adopted la mercantile accounts. Oi 2| 4 2 1 6 84 MOSXT. "I 1 Fine- nesa. •9 •9 •9 9 9 898 898 898 81 81 81 95 96 96 95 95 Minlmnm Propor Weicbt (tlontothe in Tri rroy Orain*. 128-7 61'S5 25-65 898.50 199.0 95-0 46- 22* Standftrd ofValM. 10 •4 •2 •2 •1 •06 •026 •0126 Enffllsh EDffl Tah £ 1 8 d. 6 2 4 2 79-60 ^04 89-76 19-80 •02 •01 •006 •0026 •002 -001 •0006 4 2 1 2 1 6 8 Gold Coins: — Doblon d'Isabelor 10 Efcmlos 4 EsoodoB (2 dollars) 2 „ (CoroniUa or gold doUm* SiLYEB Coins: — 2 EscadoB, peso duro, or Uard dollar , 1 Escndo, or half dollar. . .'. 2 Reals of Plate, or ima- gjnary Gibraltar Reals . . 1 Real of Plate, or 1^ ima- ginary Gibraltar Real . . ' 1 Real of Plate or Do^ .... Base Silveb Coins : — 4 Reals-Vellon, Peseta, or | Peseta of Provincial Plate j 2 Reals- Vellon ..' I -81 1 Real-Vellon Bbonzb Coins: — i Real-Vellon 1 Cnartillo 1 Donble Decima de Reid. . 1 Decima de Real or cen- 1^ tesima de Escndo j i Decima de RetA or 51 me llesimas de Escndo . . . . j "" ' The number of Doblon d'Isabel pieces that maj be tendered at one payinent is unlimited. Not more than 10 of each of the 4, 2, and 1 Escndo pieces, and not more than 8 of each of the other silvec coins may be legally tendered at a single payment. The bronze coins that may be legally tendered at one payment pnst not exceed 4 Reals-Vellon in valne The rates assigned to British currency are *98 of a Doblon d'Isabel for £1 sterling and so in proportion for every fraction of £1 sterling being 1 shilliog or *the multiple of 1 shilling ; '025 of a Doblon d'Isabel for 6d. sterling ; and :001 of a Doblon d'lsabel for every id. sterling in any amount less than 6d. Old Monetaut System. Prior to 1872 accounts were kept in dollars. Reals of Plate, and Cuartos, and sometimes in dollars and Cents as follows : — 16 Cnartos - 1 Real - i^d. English. 12 Reals - 1 Dollar - 4s. 2d. 100 Cents » 1 Dollar » 4s. 2d. 9| Ok 04 0^ (f II GIBBILTAB. 85 The following table of the old Gibraltar onrrenej sbowe the Talne in British Bterling monej, and also in the new onrrenox of Gibraltar: — Old Gibraltar Gurrenoy. Quartos. 1 4 8 12 4 81 12 4 7 8 12 15 16* 15 8 6 12 9 8 DoUan. Kaali. ( 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 9 2 8 5 7 1 1 2 2 4 4 9 9 7 24 48 240 480 4800 BriUsh Sterling Money. £ d. Oi 1 2 8> 4 6 6 7 8 9 9f 10 11 llf 10 1 Oi 2 2 6 4 2 5 10 10 2 5 10 50 100 1000 New Gibraltar Cnrrenoy. 0oblon. 1 4 9 49 98 980 RealB. 1 1 2 2 2 8 8 4 4 4 4 4 5 a 12 20 24 49 98 96 90 80 Declroas. 1 4 8 2 6 5 9 • 8 7 1 5 8 9 8 3 4 5 The Gold Coins that were legally current in Gibraltar prior to May 1872 were the Gold Doblon* of Spain reckoned at 16 dollars, or £8 6s. 8d. sterling; the i*, i*, \ and ^ Doblon pieces in like proportion ; and the Doblon d'Isabel reckoned at 5 dollars or £1 Os. lOd. Sterling. The Silver Coins were the same as given, nnder the head silver ooius in the above table, namely the Dnro-« 2 Escudos s 5 Pesetas <^ 4«i. 2d. sterling ; the Escudo = 2^ Pesetas « 28. Id. Bterling; the Peseta « *40 Escudos ■> 9^d. sterling; * These had very nearlv disappeared from eirealation in Gibraltar, and the place of tne Doabloon of 16 dollars had been taken by the Doblon d'lsabel of 6 dollars, coinrd under the Spanish lavs of 1848 and 1864. 36 MOVXT. the Medift Peseta * *90 EBcodos « BiL steilmg ; and the Beal — -10 EBondos >■ i Peseta ^ 2(d. Bterliog. There was a mass of silver coins representing fraetional parts of the dollar, these fraetional coins being greatly^ defaced and worn. The French 5-frane piece circulated nominally as 4|( of a dollar, but it was generslly at a preminm Tsrying from 1 to 1^ per cent. The copper coins were the Cnarto eqoal to id. sterling ; the Media Beal eqnal to Id. sterling ; the Cnartillo equal to Jd. sterling ; the Dedma eqnai to ^d. sterling ; and the Media Dedma eqoal to ^ sterling. There were also English pence, halfpence, and farthings ; and a great qnantity of Forei^ oopper coins current nowhere else and that passed in Gibraltar according to their size as compared with the Cnarto. PORTTTQAI.. The nnit of account is the Rei, worth ■^. sterling.* A Mil-reU is one thousand reis, and a conto is one million reis ; a Moidore is 4,800 Reis ; a Pinto or Crutado Novo 480 Reis, and a Quartinho is 1,200 Reis. The Cmzado of Exchange (or Old Cmzado) was 400 Reis*; a Mil-reiss2^ New Cruzado or 2^ Old ones. The Gold Coins are the Corda of 10,000 Reis ($10), the Meia Corda of 6,000 Reis (|5), the Quinios de Ctrrda of 20O0 Reis ($2), the Dtfcimot de Corda of 1,000 Reis ($1), the Pe^ (formerly called a Johansse or Joe) of 8,000 Reis, and the Meia Pega of 4,000 Reis. The Silver Coins are pieces of 500, 200, 100, and 50 Reis, and called respectively 5, 2, 1, and ^ Testoon pieces. In billon there is the Potaco of 40 Reis. The Copper Coins are the Ventem of 20 Reis, Meio Ventem of 10 Reis, and the 5 and 3 Reis pieces. The 5 Reis piece is the coin of lowest value in common use. * In accounts the gymbol $ is tued to note the thoiuands* place, a colon (:) the place of millions (contos), and a full point (.) the place of thousands of millions. Thus one thousand millions of Reis would* be 1.000:000$COO. No other denomination of money of account besides that of Reis is practically used in recording pasrments and receipts ; but in expressing them it is usual, when the amount is less than a moidore (4$800), to state them in cruzados ($400), cruzados novas, or pfntos ($480), qnartinhoB (1$200), testoons or tostoes ($100), and ventems (BO Reis). Larger amounts are ekpresscd in the moidore and its multiples, and sometimes in pounds sterling (libras) at the rate of 4$: 09. POBTUOAX. 37 Table of Portngaesa ooins, showing their weight, fincnoss, and English yalne : — DenominAtion of Coin. I CO OoLD Coins : — Coroa of 10,000 Reis Meia Cor6a of 75,000 Reis. QuintoB de Cor6a of 2,000 1 Reis J DecimoB de Cordaof 1000) Reis / Pe^a of 8,000 Reis Meia Pe^a of 4,000 Reis . . British Sovereign at 4,500 Reis British Half -SoTereign at 2,250 Reis SiLYiB Coins : — Cincos Testdes of 600 Reis Dois Testdes of 200 Reis. . Test&o of 100 Reis Half-Testao of 50 Reis . . BiiiLON Cow : — Potacfio of 40 BeiB S' ■B I O a 9 a I CoppEB Coins : — Yintem of 20 Reis Meio-Yintem of 10 Reis Cinco Reis of 5 Reis. . . . 3 Reis Engliflh v&iaa. £ 8. -; J 17-735 2 4 8-8681 2 3-547 1-774 14-188 7094 7-981 3-995 «12-6 5- 2-5 1-25 8 4 1 15 17 d. 2| 10| H 2 2| 10| 5^ 2^ 2 A The former coins of Portugal were as follows : — I Gold CWfti.— Dobraon, worth 12,800 Reis ; Half-dobraon, called also the Joanese or Moidore, worth 6.400 Rcls ; the Quarter-dobraon, worth 3,200 Reis ; Escudo, worth 1,600 Ileis ; Half-escndo, worth 800 Reis ; and Cmsado yclho, worth 400 Reis. D 38 HONEY. Silver Coins.-^CmiSido-noTo worth 480 Beis, and pieces of 240, 120, 100, 60, and 50 Eeis. Copper Coins. — Pieces of 5, 8, and 1)- Beis. POBTUaUESB TALUB OF EMOLISH MONET, 4b. S^d. FOB A MILBBU. EnglUh, PortugueiC' 28. - 450 Beis. 28. 6d. - 562* „ 58. - 1125 „ 108. -> 2250 Beis, or 2| Milreis. £1 » 4^ Mllreis, or 4500 Beis. £5 »22| „ or 22500 „ £10.45 „ or 45000 „ Englith. Portuflune. id. - ^}r Beis. id. « 9| » Id. ^ IH* „ 3d. - 5f5^ „ 4d. 75 6d. - 112i „ is. 225 THE NETHEHLANDS. Dutch value. Byitematie Name. EnglUh value. 1 Cent - *d. 100 Cents - 1 Guilder or Florin - Is. 8d. The gold coinage in Holland was suppressed by law in 1850, and has not since been re-established. It consisted of the 10 Gulden and 5 Gulden Pieces. These are sometimes met with, but they are not a legal tender ; their price rises and^Us with the flnctoations of the market. The average price d» the 10 Gulden Piece is about 9 Guldens and 65 Cents, and that of the 5 GKilden Piece about 4 Gulden and 82 Cents. SILVEB COINS. The silver coins are the 2i Gulden Piece (sometimes called Bixdollar, the Florin or Guilder^ and the i Florin. These are of the fineness of ■j'^Vn^^B, and the Florin weighs 866*17 grains Troy. There are alBo in silver of a lower . standard the 25, 10, and 5 Cent Pieces, The 5 Cent Piece is often called a stiver. COPPEB COINS. The copper coins are the Cent and the i Cent^ worth respec- tively -^d. and -^gd. sterling. BANE NOTES. 1, 5, 10, 25, 40, 60, and 100 Gulden. BELQIU^I. ^\9 Denomination of Staudaril of flnouoiti in thnnRftndth pnriR. W';i«l>t EnjillHh Coin. in fCrnumxfn viiln« £ 8. d. Gold Coins :— None Silver Coint :— 2| Quldou •916 26 4 2 IGailder or Florin II 10 1 H i do. It 6 10 26 Conta 5 10 do. a 5 do. 1 Copper CoiM: — Cont Oi i Cont 1 0^ 1 DUTOn VALUB OF BNOLIsn UONBt AT Is. 8d. PBR QUILDSn. BnglUh, Dutrh, Engltth, Dutch, id. - li CentB 2i. » 1 Florin 20 Conti id. - 2i „ 2b. Od. - li Florins Id- • 6 „ 68. -» 8 H 8d. - 15 H 108. B 6 H 4d. » 20 M £1 • 12 „ 6d. » 80 o £C • 00 ,. l8. - 6G ► n £10 ^120 »l • The former moneys of aooonnt, and the coins wore as foUovrs :— The Guilder was dividod into 20 Stivers, and each Stiver into 10 Pfennings. Oold Cnina : Dncat, worth 5 Guilders 17 Stivers, or Os. Od. sterling; Half Ducat, wortli 2 Guilders 18 Stivers 8 Pfennings, or 4s. lO^d. sterling ; Ryder, worth 14 Gulden, or X'l 8s. 4d. sterling ; Half liyder, worth 7 Gulden, or lis. 8d. sterling ; William, worth 10 Gulden, or 10s. 8d. sterling ; and the Half William, worth 6 (hildon, or 8h. 4d. sterling. Stiver Coins : Ducaton, worth 8 Gulden 8 Stivers, or 6b. 8d. sterling ; Zealand llizdoUar, worth 48. 4d. sterling ; and i i and k Rizdollars in proportion; pieces of 80, 28, 12^, C. 2, and 1 Stiver, worth respectively, 2s. Od., 28. 4(1., Is. Oid., 6d., 2d., Id. sterling. Copper Coint . Doit, worth 2 Pfumiings, or i of one penny sterling. BELGIUM. Btlgium valM» 100 Centimes 8y»t«matic namt* 1 Cent. ■■ 1 Fi'ano Englith value. 40 MOKET. The gold ooins are pieces of 100, 50, 20, 10, and 5 Francs. The silver coins are the 5, 2, 1, and k Franc pieces, and the 20 Centime piece. There are hank notes of 1000, 500, 100, and 50 Francs. The copper coins are pieces of 1 and 2 Centimes^ and the nickel coins are pieces of 5, 10, and 20 Centimes. No hillon coins form any part of the present currency of Belgium. Coins of 50 Centimes are not a legal tender for payment of more than -^^th of the sum dae. In copper coins not more than 5 Francs' worth are legal at any single payment. Table of the Cubbent Coins of Belgium Denomination of Coin. Pull Weight in Orammes. 1 Allowance in weight. Thousandth parts. Standard fineness in thousandth parts. lAllowanoe from Std. 1 thousandth parts, 1 Diameter. MiUimetreB. English Value. £ s. d. Gold Coins : 100 Francs 3225806 1 35 3 19 2 50 „ 16129-3 28 1 19 7 20 „ 6451-61 2 900 2 21 15 10 10 „ 322580 19 7 11 5 „ 1612-90 3 17 3 Hi SiLVEB Coins : 5 „ 25 3 • • » ■ • • 37 3 Hi 2 „ 10 5 27 17 1 » , 5-00 23 9i 50 Centms. 2*50 7 835 3 18 4} 20 „ 1-00 10 16 1^ Nickel Coins : 20 „. ■ • • • V * • • • • lA 10 „ • • • • • • • • • • 1 5 ., • • • • » • • • • • Oi CoppEB Coins: • 2 ,. • • ■ « « a • • • • Oi 1 " ......J.. • • • • • • • • • • Oi DENMARK. Danith value. Sifitenatic Nawu, SnglUh vnlue 1 Skffling - ^\j,d, 96 SkOling - 1 Rigsdaler or Daler - 2b. td^'gd. The nnit of the monetary system is the Rigidaler or Daler, till recently offioially called " Rlffshankdaler," but this term is now never used. Sixteen Skilling are equal to 1 Mark, and oonsequently 6 Marks are equal to 1 Rigsdaler. Silver is Uie standard of the ourrenoy in Denmark. SILVER COINS. The silTer coins are the DobheitdcLier, worth about 4s. V^d. sterling; the i2i^«^a{«r worth about 2s. 2^jjd. sterling; the I Rigsdaler or 48 SkilUng Fieee, worth about Is. l^d. sterling ; the 16 SkiUing Piece, worth about ^^ij^^ sterling; and the 4 Skilling Fieee^ worth IjVu^* sterling. The silyer used in the coinage of the Dalers and the Dobbelt- dalers is {ths fine, that is, it consists of 7 parts of pure silver and 1 part of sdloy (copper). The pieces of 48 Skilling, 16 Skilling, and 4 Skilling, though silver, are of an inferior standard. Dalers and Dobbeltdalers are coined at the rate of 18i Dalers from the Cologne Mark weight (3608 grains Troy) of fine silver, while the pieces of 48, 16, and 4 Skilling are coined at the rate of 20 Dalers from the same weight, and no one is obliged to receive at a single payment more than a limited amount of the smaller and less pure coins which con- sist of about equal weight of silver and copper. GOLD COINS. The gold coins are Christian d*or and Frederick d'or, equal to 7 Dalers 86 Skilling, and worth about 16s. 2id. These are commonly seen in North Germany, but are rare in Denmark itself. BRONZE COINS. The bronze coins are the Sailing Piece and the ( SHlHng Piece, The bronze in these coins is composed of 90 parts of copper, 5 of tin, and 5 of zinc. There are no copper coins properly so called in circulation. BANK NOTES. The National Bank of Copenhagen issues notes for 1, ^, 10, 50, and 100 Rigsdalers. These are in very general use as a medium of payment, and are received at their full nominal value, being always convertible into specie at that rate. 42 MONET. Danibh Value op Enolish Monet, at 2s. 2Jd. for a BlGBDALEB. English. id. - Id. 3d. 4d. Od. . Is. a DanUh, English. Danish. a SkilUng 28. - 87?^ Hkilg m .. 28. ed.-lRigsdaler 13111^ „ m „ 5s. -2 „ 2m M mi „ lOS. cr4 53H „ 14JS „ £1 -9 lOU M 2in ,. £5 -45 „ 44f8 „ «« .. £10 -90 „ 89?J „ SWEDEN. The denominations of monej in Sweden are the Ore and the liiksdaler. Hwedlsh value. Systematic name. English value. Ore - -^d. 100 Ore - 1 Riksdaler - Is. lid. Silver is the standard currency of Sweden. The *'Mint Silver " or silver used in the coinage is of the fineness of jths, that is, it contains 8 parts of pore silver to 1 part of an alloy of copper. Two Swedish pounds/ of <* Mint Silver" (ahont 80 ounces British) are coined into 100 Riksdaler pieces ; and the same proportion is followed in the coins that are multiples or parts of the Biksdaler. GOLD COINS. There are no gold coins in the present legal currency of Sweden. Swedish gold Ducats have heen coined, hut they are rarely met with in the transactions of purchase and sale, and they have no fixed legal value. They are received at the Bank of Sweden at the same rate as Dutch Ducats, namely 8 Biks- dalers, 50 Ore per Ducat. The bank charges 10 Ore per Ducat more for them than it pays. SILVER COINS. The silver coins are the 4 Riksdaler Piece worth about 4s. 5id. sterling, the 2 Riksdaler Piece worth about 2s. 2|d. ster- ling, and the JBi^(2al^r worth Is. l^d. sterling, the 50 Ore piece, NOEWAT. 48 the 25 Ore piece, and, the 10 Ore piece, worth respeotiTely, about 6fd., S^d., and l|d. sterling. The piece of 4 Biksdalers is not yery common, the coins in most general use are the 2 and 1 Riksdalers, and the 50 Ore, 25 Ore, and 10 Ore pieces. BILLON COINS. There are no billon coins in the present legal oorrenoy of Sweden, bnt some old pieces of ^th and |rd of a Riksdaler in debased silver are sometimes met with, and are taken in market transactions. COPPER COINS. The copper coins are pieces of 5, 2, 1, and half-ope worth respectively, fd., -^.i -j^d., -^d. sterling. There are still Bome copper coins of the old system in oircolation. These are a legal tender nnder the present system, bnt they are fast dis- appearing. The " Mint Metal " nsed in the copper coins con- sists of 95 parts of copper to 5 of tin and 1 of zinc. 100 pounds (Swedish) of ** Mint Metal " are coined into 5000 5-ore pieces, 7500 2-ore pieces, 15,000 1-oro pieces or 80,000 half-ore pieces. So that " Mint Metal " of Sweden at its current value is worth Is. 8d. sterling per tb. BANK NOTES. . 1,000, 500, 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, and 1 Bixsdalers. Swedish Value of Enolish Money, at 18 Bikbdalebb for £1 Sterling. Swedish. Englith. Suftdith. a 12 ore 2b. -> 1 Biksdlr. 80 ore EnglUh, id. 4d. « Id. 8d. 4d. 6d. Is. 8| „ 74 „ 224 „ 80 „ 45 „ 90 „ 2s. 6d, 58. 10s. £1 £5 £10 - 2 „ 25 - 4 „ 50 « 9 » 18 . 90 -180 NOKWAT. Norwegian value. Systematie name. Bngliih value. 24 Skilllngen 5 Ort 1 SkiUing 1 Ort or Mark* 1 Speoies-Daler id. lOfd. B 4s. 54d t» n * It iB called a Mark in South Norway, but in West and North Norway it is called an Ort« 44 HOiinsT. It is proposed to introdnoe the decimal Bystem in Norway, and the snoject is still under the consideration of the Storthing. In the present system of currency Speoies-Dalers are coined at the rate of 19-^ from the Mnnzpfnnd of 600 French Grammes, or 9i Sp9cies-Dalers from the Cologne Mark weight (8608 grains Troy) of fine silver. SILVER COINS. The silver coins are the Speciet-DaUr, worth 4s. 5 id. sterling, and the Half-Species-Dalert worth 2s. 2}d. sterling, the Ortf Half-Ort, and Qitarter-Ort respectively. In small silver money (Skillgmynt*) there are Pieces of 4, 8, and 2 Skillengen, coined at the rate of 21-j^<^ Species-DaJera from the Miinzpfnnd. These are worth respectively 1^. and f d. sterling, t COPPER COINS. The copper coins are the 2, the 1, and the ( Skilling Pieeet worth respectively ^d., |d., and |^d. sterling. There are no gold coins in the cnrrency of Norway, and for sums ahove 1 Ort, Paper money is the chief medium of pay- ment. BANE NOTES. The Bank Notes in circulation are those of 100, 50, 10, 5, 1, i, and \ Species-Daler. The notes of 100 Species-Daler are on pink paper, those of 60 Species-Dalers are on green paper, the 10 on yellow paper, the 5 on hlne paper, and the 1, i, and \ on white paper. The Norwegian Bank exchanges these notes for ipecie at a rate varying from 110 to 116 Paper-Dalers for 100 Species- Dalers. * The term sMllemvnt denotei imall copper money of 2 and 1 SUHen- gen, as well aa amallailver money of 4 and 2 Skillingen. f Swedish and Danish money drcnlate in Norway. They pass freely in towns but not so readily in the interior of tne conntrr. In old debafied silver, much worn, there are Danish 8 and 4 Skilling Pieces which were issued during the War from 1808 to 1814; these pass for 6 and 8 Skillingen respdctively. There are also in plated copper Danish 2 Skilling Pieces of the period (1880-1814) when Norway and Denmark were politically united. In Christiana and Bergen one frequently meets with Swedish half -daler and quarter-daier pieces. 8WITZKBLi.in>. 45 NORWBOUM ValUB OF BMOLISn HOVBT AT 4s. 6|d. FOB 1 8FB0IB-IULBB. EnglUh, Nonetgian. 28. 6d.-i2 Ort, 191 Skiliingen. ^*- 1 1 BpcB.-dlr- 15 „ 1 Aa ] ^ BpocicB-dalera 1 5rt ^^•" je BkilUnffon £1 M 4i SpooioB-Dalera £5 - 22i £10- 45 Jd. ht SkilHng. *d. H Id. 2i Skilliugen. 8d. 6| 6d. 181 iB. f 27 lOrtS 28. 2 • 1 6 M it tl SWITZEBLAND. Switt valut, 100 Rappen or Centimes } - Byittmatie Name 1 Rappe 1 Frano SnglUk value, 9id. The Bystem of ourreney and the gold and silver coins, as well as the Swiss value of English money, are the same as in France. (See pp. 17-18.) BILLON COINS. The billon or mixed metal coins are the Zwelthatzen or 20 Centime Piece^ tho Batten or 10 Centime Fiece^ and the Haibbatzen or 6 Centime Piece ^ worth rospeotively l^^d.. ||d., and J|d. sterling. These coins contain reapootively 150, 100, and 50 parts of pore silver to 850, 900, and 950 parts of alloy. The alloy is composed of copper, zinc, and nickel. COPPER COINS. The copper coins are the Zweier or 2 Rappen Piece and the Happe, worth respectively ^^\d. and ffgd. sterling, and weighing 2i and 1^ grammes. No one is obliged to receive in payment more than 20 Francs in value of the silver coins under the 1 Franc piece, more than 20 Francs worth of billon or Rappen, or more than 2 Francs worth of copper. 46 HOKET. ITALY. When the Italian States were united into one kingdom nnder King Victor Emmannel, one nniform system of monej, as well as of weights and measures, began to be gradually inkoduced, so that the money in which accounts are kept, both in public and private establishments, is as follows. (See, however, the tables of money for Rome, the Two Sicilies, and Tuscany). Italian value, Syitematie Name, English value. 1 Centime — ^^d. 100 Centimes ■» 1 Lira - 9id. GOLD COINS. The gold coins are pieces of 100, 50, 20, 10, and 6 Lire, of the same weight, fineness, and value as the gold coins of France. (See pp. 17 and 18.) SILVER COINS. The silver coins are pieces of 1, 2, and 6 Lire, and of 50 and 20 Centimes, of the same weight and fineness as the silver coins of France. (See pp. 17 and 18.) BILLON COINS. In Lombardy and Piedmont there are still some old pieces in Billon, which as they fall in readily enough with the decimal system have not yet been called in. These are the Mouta and the Half-Mouta^ equal respectively to 40 and 20 Centimes, and worth about 4d. and 2d. sterling. COPPER COINS. The copper coins are pieces of 1, 8, and 5 Centimes, worth respectively -j^d., -j^., and id. sterling. ^ * Tho followinff ooini, now obsolete, are very rarely met with in eir> enlatlon. The gold Dappia and Half-Doppia of Savoy, the former eqoal to 28 Lire 45; Centimes, and worth about £1 2s. lO^d. sterling, and the latter eqnal to 14 Lire 22^ Centimes, and worth about lis, S^d. sterling. The Quadruple-Doppia of Oenoa. eqnal to 79 Lire, aud worth abont £8 8s. 4d. sterling ; and pieces of i, t, i of the Qoadrnple-Poppia. ROME. 47 SABDINIA (ISLAND OF). The moneys of aoconnt are the same as those of Italy, and the oorrenoy oonsists of Italian and French coins. Fonnerly this island had a apeoial oorrenoy, and aooonnts were stated in Href ReaUt and SoU, as follows :— 5 Sols =- 1 Real 48 Centimes - 4'Siad. sterling. 4 Reals = 1 Lira . loa If - 18'048d. ^ The following is a list of the old coins of the Island of Sardinia :— Bardinian. Italicm. EnglUh value. OoiJ>OoiK8:~- Lin. Lira. Gantlmei. £ 1. d. Oarlino ^— sa — 60 i- 9 i ditto ~'*" 18 -- 85 3 — 1 Dopietta ' - 6i ..: 10 -- 8 RiLyxB Coins:— Bcndo ' ~ a* - 4 80 - 8 9'ia i ditto — u = 9 40 1 10-66 i ditto -:— « -^ 1 SO z=a 11*26 Billon Ooivs:— Sols. Real -— 6 -r 48 » 4-604 i ditto - 34 - S4 0-269 CoppsB OoiRs :— Sol 1^ 1 10 — 0-989 i ditto Z-' * " 6 " 9 0-469 Oagllarese ' — hf - 1 » 0094 BOME. By a Papal edict in June, 1866, the old monetary system, ooneisting of Qnattrini, Bajocohi, Paoli, and Scndi, was aholished, and all the old coins of those denominations were called in. The following is the present monetary system of Rome : — Boman value, 20 Soldi or ) 100 Gentesimi ) * Syttematie name, SnglUh value £ B. d' 1 Lira » 9d 00 Lire 60 11 20 11 10 11 6 11 6 11 2 „ 50 0. 2 ♦» 1 11 k ft k It 48 MOKET. GOLD COINS. B 18 Scudi 60*5 Bajocchi - 4 - 9 „ 30-26 „ - 2 - 8 „ 73-1 „ = 16 » IScndo 86*05 „ - 8 93-025 „ « 4 SILVER COINS. 93025 „ - 4 46-612 „ -020 37-210 „ - 1 7 - 18-605 „ - 9* « 9-302 „ • 41 4-651 „ -. 2f The 5 Lire Piece is I'^ths fine ; the 2^, 2, li, i Lire Pieces are only a fraction above -^^the fine ; and so 1,000 Lire in 5 Lire Pieces would contain a qnantit j of pnre silrer greater by 69 Lire than the same sum in the smaller or ** fractionary " coins — the pieces of 2^, 2, 1, |, and ^ Ure. BRONZE COINS. 4 Soldi or 20 Centesimi- 8-721 „ - Ift 2 „ „ 10 „ - 1-860 „ « 1 1 Soldo „ 5 „ . O-930 „ - 04 i 11 11 2J „ - 0-466 „ =- Oi 1 Centesimo - 0-186 „ - 0^ Prior to 1860 the moBetory syitemof Borne and of the Papiil Dominions was as follows :— Bawum value, Systematie name, EnglUh vahu, 1 Bajoccho = id. 10 Bajoochl « 1 Paolo - od. 10 Paoll or 1 f 1 Scudo or \ _ Au qa 100 Bajocchi ; * 1 Eoman Crown J " "'^ Bankers' accounts were usually stated in Paoli. The values just given for Roman money are higher than the estimated par of Exchange, which was about 46*88 Paoli in gold, or 47*58 Paoli in silver for £1 sterling. The gold coins were the 10 SctuU Piece, worth about 41s. 8d, ; the Pietole or Gold Doppia, worth about ISs. 6d. : the SequUi (22 Paoli), worth about 9s. 2d. ; the Double Bequin^ worth about 16s. 4d. ; and the Half-Beqin (11 Paoli), worth about 4s. 7d. sterling. The silver coins were the Seudo, worth about 4s. 2d. ; and the Hd^- Beudo; and the pieces of \, 1, 2, and 8 Paoli, worth respectively 2id., 6d., lOd., and Is. 8d. sterling. TXTSOAKT. 49 In base sUver, or billon, there were the pleoei of 9, 4, 7ii and 15 Bajoochl. The two last were called Single and Douhlt Carlini. The copper coins were the Bajoccho, the Ualf-Iio^oceho^ and the QuarUr-Baioceho^ worth respectively about ^d., 4d., and Ad. sterling. Bank notes (CeAoU) lot 5, 10| 90, 26, and 100 Scudi were used in pay- ments above 6 Scadi. THE TWO SICILIES. (Naplkb.) }feapolitan valru, Syitematie name, Englith value. 1 Orano -» .. v d« 100 Qrani « 1 Dacat ^ 9:%\d. The Daoat was equal to aboat 8s. S^d. sterling, and that is oaloolating the exchange at 678 Qrani for ill sterling. Aooonnts were kept in Ducats and Grani only, but the Ducat was divided into 10 Garlini, each Carlino into 10 Qrani, and each Qrano into 10 Galli. The Ducat weighed 23'048 grammes of silver Jths fine, and was, therefore, equal to 4'S'6 Francs. Payments were usually made in . Neapolitan dollars, each {worth 12 Oarllni or 120 Qrani. ^here were no gold coins in circulation when the Kingdom was merged in that of Italy, but the gold coins that had been isHUod under the law of the 20th April, 181H, were pieces of 80, 16, and 8 Ducats repec- tively. The silver coins wore the Dollatf equal to 12 OarlinI or 120 OranI, and worth 5fld. sterling ; the Half-Dollar, equal to 6 Carlini or OO.Qrani, and worth 28d. sterling ; the i, 1. 2, 8, and 4 Carlini Piecet. The copper coins were pieces of 5, 4, 8, 2^, 2, 1^, 1, and | Grant respec- tively. The Half'Orano Piece was called a Tornete. The Qrano had formerly been divided into 12 Oalli, and among the poorer classes three Oalli-pieoes were in circulation when the Kingdom became a province oj Italy, but these passed only for 2^ Galli. TUSCANY. 100 Cents — 1 Florin. By the law of lOth^July, 1826, the money of account was orilered|to be from 1st January, 1827, Florins and Cents, but owing to the apatiiy of the people and the Government, the law was never enforced, and accounts continued to be kept, even in the Government offices, In Liret Soldi, and Denari, Tueean value. Syttemaiie name. Snglith value. 12 Denari = 1 Soldo - «d. 90 Soldi ^ 1 Lira -- 7Jd. E 50 MOVET. The Lire wai equal to about 8d. atorllng. The Denaro was an iznagi- iiary coin, and the lowest coin in cironlation was the Quattrino, equal to 4 Denari, and worth about ^f d. sterling. GOLD COINS. The gold coins were the 80 Florin Piece, equal to 188 lire 6 Soldi 8 Denari, and worth at par £4 8s. lOd. sterling; the Baepone, equal to 40 Lire, and worth £1 68. 8d. sterling ; and the QigUato, ot ZeechUw, equal to 18 Lire 6 Soldi, 8 Denari, and worth 8s. lOd. sterling. BILVEB COINS. The silTer coins were the Dena, equal to 10 Lire, and worth 0s. 8d. sterling ; the Frtmeeeeone, equal to 6 Lire, 18 Soldi 8 Denarl, and worth 4u. 5d. sterling ; the Me»a-Dena^ equal to 6 Lire, and worth 8s. 4d. ster^ ling ; the FraneetehinOi equal to 8 Lire 6 Soldi 8 Denarl, and worth 2b. 2^d. sterling ; the Teitone, or 8 Paul Pieee, equal to 3 Lire, and worth 1h. 4d. ; the Ilorino, equal to 1 Lira 18 Soldi 4 Denari, and worth Is. l^d. sterling ; the 2 Paul Pieee f equal to 1 Lira 6 Soldi 8 Denari, and worth lOld. sterling ; the Lira, worth 8d. sterling; the Megzo-Fiorino, equal to 16 Soldi, 8 Denari, and worth 6|d. sterling ; the Paolo, equal to 18 Soldi 4 Denari, and worth 6^d. sterling ; the Mezzo-Lira, equal to 10 Soldi, and worth 4d. sterling ; the Cinquino (1 Florin), equal to 8 Soldi 4 Dtjuari, and worth 8id. sterling ; and the MezzO'PaolOt equal to Soldi 8 Denari, and worth 8|d. sterling. The Lira weighed 8*9448 grammes of Bilver '968 fine. COPPER AND MIXED COINS. The copper and mixed metal coins were the Due Crazie Pieee, equal to 8 Soldi 4 Denari, and worth l^d. sterling ; the Due Soldi, equal to 2 Soldi, and worth id.; the Crazia, equal to 1 Soldo 8 Denari, and worth fd. sterling ; the Soldo, worth |d. sterling ; the Duetto, equal to 8 Denari, and worth ^f d. itferling ; and the Quattrino, equal to 4 Denari, woirfb ^|d. sterling.^ * In Luce* aoooontf wera kept In Lire, Soldi, and Denari, aa follows s- Lueehete value. SyeUmatie name s Bnglieh value. 1 Denaro * tTd. 12 Danari - I 8old» — H SO Soldi - 1 Lira " 8d. The followlnff were the coins in circulation I— Lire. SoldL Frs. Onto. ■• d. TtteGoldDoppia == » 6 = 10 60 ^ U The SlWer Scudo — 7 10 = 6 a ^ 4 6i . „ Hezzo.8oldo= 8 16 = 8 81 = 8 sl „ „ Terao „ = 8 10 = 1 87 1 6] „ „ Qulnto „ = 1 10 ^Zh 1 IS •~~ oiof .. „ 8 Lire Piece = 8 ^ 1 80 =:z 1 4 ,. „ Lira = 10 ' 84^ —— 8 „ „ M ezxa'Llra = 10 i^ 41 i^ 4 The Two Lire Piece was rery like the French Two Franc Pleoe, and might have been mlntaiLen for it Toacau money oiroulatea side by ride with tixeJUneehese currency. 20 Grani • 1 Taro - ltd. 12 Tari * 1 Soado •» Is. 8d. MALTA. 51 MALTA. (With iti ItUt depindinciei Oozo, OoM»o, anJ Fzlfla.) ' Meroantile aecoanta are kept either in Sendit Tari^ an I Oranit or in Piecioli, Carlini^ Tari^ and Seudi^ as follows : — Malt4ie valu*, Syitemitlc name, SnglUk value, 1 Grano * -^1. ltd. lo » Is or, 60 Piooioll - 1 Oarlino - id. 2 Carllni • 1 Taro - Ifl. 12 Tari « 1 Soado <• Is. 8d. The Pezza, or Dollar of Bxohange, contains 2| Sondi, 80 Tari, 60 Carlini, 600 Grani, 3,600 Piecioli. The Government aooounts of the duties and reyenne are kept in Potinrff, Shillings, and Penes sterling, as in Great Bfitain ; and BritiBh silver coins at their nominal value are a lefi^l tender without limitation, and are in very general use. The following gold, silver, and copper coins form the cur- rency of Malta :— GOLD COINS. Vahte in Maltete Ourrenejf, Boadi. Tui. Otaoi. Doubloon of Spain, Mexico, Sb South America - 88 4 16 British Sovereign .. ..' .. -12 „ Half-sovereign ■■6 SILVER COINS. Dollar of Spain, Mexico, and South America «■ 2 6 Pezza, or Dollar of Sicily* .. .. 2 4 16 British Crown (Ss.) —3 „ Half-crown (2s. 6d.) . . . . - 1 6 „ Shilling -.0 7 4 „ Sixpence » 8 12 „ Fourpenco .0 2 8 „ Threepence « 1 16 * The Sicilian Dollar passed oonventlonally for 80 Tari, or 4s. Sd. BterUng, although by an assay, at the British Mint, it was found to ooutoln an average of only M dwts. 17'45 grains of pare silver. Its intrinsic value, oaloulating its average weight at the rate of fis. per os. of British standard ■liver, was only Ss. ll||d. ; but by a royal proclamation it was ordained that the Sicilian Dollar should pass current and be a legal tender in tho Island of Malta and its Dependencies at the rate of 4b. sterling, equal to 98 Tari 16 Grani In Maltese Ourrenoy. 52 MOHET. COPPEB COINS. Value in MaUete Cwrreney. SendL TarL Ora&L British Penny — 12 ,, Half-penny » 6 „ Farthing «0 8 The coins of the Order of Malta, which are now nearly ont of circulation, are the Donble, Single, and Half-Xx>ni8 d'or, coined by the Grand Master, worth 20, 10, and 5 Scndi. In silver the Dollar and Half -Dollar, current at 80 and 15 Tan ; the Scndo, at 12 Tan ; and the Half-Scndo at 6 TarL The copper coins are pieces of 4, 2, and 1 Tari. These latter coins are greatly over-rated, which formerly led to a distinction between silver and copper money, making the former to the latter as S to 2. TITBKEY. Tvrkith vaUie, By$tematie name. EnglUh value. 1 Para - ^yd. 40 Paras « 1 Piastre » 2Xd. • 100 Piastres - 1 Medjidie,* or> -^ LiraTurca C " ^™' The present monetary system of Turkey was introdnced in the reign of the late Snltan, Abdul Medjid ; hence the name Medjidie as applied to the Lira and "Real and their subdivisions. The Medjidie, or Lira Turca, and the Piastre are the only integral denominations of money now used in keeping accounts, Paras being written as fractions of the Piastre. In retail transactions of the shop and the market, the Piastre is divided into 40 Paras, and each Para into 3 Aspres. The Para is worth about -j^., and the Aspre -^^ sterling. GOLD COINS. The gold coins are the Medjidie^ or Lira Turca, worth from 17b. 9d. to 18s. sterling ; the Ywrim, or Half -Medjidie ^ worth from 88. 10^ d. to 9s., and the Tzeirekt or Qvarter- Medjidie, worth from 4s. 5id. to 4s. 6d. sterling. The gold coins contain 11 parts pure in 12. In ECConntB,— Pr. denotes Piastre, and ^deaotes Medjidie, or Lira, Turca. TT7BKET. 58 SILVER COINS. The silyer coins are the Qinmuh, or lUai'Medjidie, of 20 Piastres, worth from Ss. 64d. to 8s. T^d. sterling ; the silver Yarim, or Half ReaUMe^idU of 10 Piastres, worth from Is. 9-^d. to Is. 9{d. sterling ; the Tteirek or Quarter Real- Mfdjidie^ of 6 HastreSy worth from lO^d. to 10|d. sterling ; the TkUik, or 2 Piattrt Piece, worth about 4^^. sterling; the PioBtre Piece^ worth about 2^. ; and the Ha{f Piastre Pieee^ worth about l^d. The silyer coins contain 87 parts of pure silver to 8 parts of alloy ; and silTer is the chief standard of value. COPPER COINS. The copper coins are the Piastre Piece,* worth about 2,^d. sterling ; the Half Piastre Piece^ worth about 1^. sterling ;lthe Quarter Piastre Piece^ worth about |Jd. sterling ; the 6 Para Piece^ worth about -^d., and the Para Piece, worth about \ of a farthing sterling. A l^ve Piastre Piece was assayed by Sir John Herschel, in 1854. It weighed *1925 of an ounce Troy, and its fineness was '8814. At the Mint price of 58. 6d. per ounce for standard silver this would give ll'4192d. sterling as the value of the Five Piastre Piece ; but, compared with gold at the market price, its value to the nearest thousandth of a penny would be only 10'64d. sterling. In rough calculations the English value of the Piastre is usually taken at 2d. sterling. The moneys of England, France, Austria, Spain, the South American Republics, Russia, Germany (in small quantities), and Egypt, are all circulated as freely as Turkish money. Their exchange value is constantly fluctuating, one kind of coin bearing sometimes an unusual premium, owing to its being required for a special purpose. It sometimes happens that a coin circulates at a higher rate than it bears in its own country. For instance, the Austrian Florin has been known to circulate in Jerusalem at an exchange value of ^th higher than its nominal value, To the undermentioned foreign coins the following are the nominal values assigned in Turkish currency, and the actual exchange rates at which some of them are received in the markets of Constantinople and Jerusalem. * The Piastre Piece Is not generally oarrent It is not reoeiyod by the goyernment at all, bat is aooeptod by men of business at a discount of from 20 to 25 per cent 64 MOVET. Gold Coins. Soyereign, English Napoleon, French . . . < Imperial, Bassian* Half Ditto New Dnoat, Anstrianf . Silver Ooinb. Dollar, Spanish Dollar, Anstrian (Maria Theresa) Bnble, Russian* Five Frano Pieoe, French . . Frano, French Half-Crown, English} Florin, Shilling;, i» If Nominal value. Piastres. 100 88 U 68 281 22i 16 Exchange value. Piastres. 112 to 188 90 to 106 98 to 106 24i to 81 25ito 27 18 to 20 26 4 to 5 12 to 16 lUto 12 6ito 6 Egyptian gold is at abont 10 per cent, preminm as compared with Tnrldsh gold. The Turkish Lira Medjidie, nominally equal to 100 PiastreB, always bears a premium of about 6 per cent. OLD GOLD COINS. There are various old gold pieces in circulation which, how- ever, are never received by the government and seldom ac- cepted as payment in the transactions of the market. They are chiefly used as ornaments for women. The principal old gold pieces are the Vanducklee or Qhaziy valued at 20 Piastres of Government money, the \ Vcmducklee and the \ Vanducklee. There is also the Old Ohazi-^ 25 Piastres and the Old i Ohazi, It is the most probable that these will be soon withdrawn alto- gether from the circulation. BILLON COINS. Throughout the whole of the Turkish Empire there are in circulation silver colas of a very low standard, largely alloyed with copper and greatly worn. These billon coins are as follows : — (1) The Beshlict estimated at 6 Piastres, Government money, but worth much less in intrinsic value ; and the }, ^, •^, and ^ Beshlic pieees. * Not in general ciroulation, but chiefly used as ornaments. f Also called Sequin (Zeeohin) or Magyar. This coin being very pore is la great demand in Turkey. t Not much liked* OBBXCE. « 65 (2) The Altlie, estimated at 6 PiastreB, GoTernmant money, and the i and \ Altlio pieces. (3) The 1, t, and \, Old Piaatre pieces of the same inferior standard as the Altlic and Bethlie money. (4) There are besides some old coins of a still lower standard, saoh as the NtuMie yalned at 84 FiaetreSi and prindpally in use as head-ornaments worn by women. In many parts of the empire there exist several money standards for the different coins. Thns, in JeruBalem for instance, there were in April 1864, the following rates : — (1) The Government rate called SAgh (good). (2) Schiruk Qow), for the shop and the market. According to this valne 1 Lira Tarca-118 Piastres; £1 sterlings 128 to 130 Piastres; 1 Napoleon -101 Piastres; 1 Imperial -108 Piastres; 1 Dnoat»68 Piastres; 1 Beal Mejidie»28i to 24 Piastres; the Spanish Dollar- 27 i Piastres; 1 Rable-21 Piastres; 1 Altlio -7 Piastres; 1 Beshlio^e Piastres; 100 S^A or Government Piastres— 115 to 116 old silver Piastres. (3) Sehituk (low) for transactions with the Fellacht or peasants. According to this valuation £1 sterling — 140 to 145 Piastres ; 1 Lira Turoa — 128 to 132 Piastres. Many places in Palestine, snch as Bethlehem, Hebron, and Jafia have special rates for coins. TURKISH VALUB OF ENOLISH MONBT AT 188. FOB A LIRA MBDJIDIB. Bngliih, Turkith, Engliiih. TurkUh. id. - 4^f Paras 2s. - 10 Piastres 44 ♦ Paras id. - 9,V 2s. 6d.- 13 353 „ Id. - 14U 58. - 27 31^ ,. 8d. - 1 Piastre 15f 10b. - 55 22} „ 4d. - 1 II 34^V £1 - 111 4* ,1 6d. « 2 II 81^ £5 - 555 22} „ Is. - 5 II 22} £10 -1111 4} ,. CANDIA (or Crete). The money of account and the currency of Candia are the same as in Turkey. GBEECE. Greece having acceded to the Convention of 1865, her mone- tary system has become identical with that of France, Italy, M icoinsT. Belgiam, and Switzdrland (Bee pp. 17 and 18), tlie Drachma being the same as the Frano, ana the Lepton as the Centime. The law establishing the new monetary system was dated 7th March, 1867, and subsequently, by a royal decree, the 18th January, 1872 was fixed as the date for the introduction of the new monetary system. Oreek vaUu. 100 Lepta 8if»temati4t name, 1 Drachma XnglUh vdlut. 9id. The following table shows the standard of fineness, the weight, and English value of the Greek coins : — Standard of ii Denomination of flnenesB In Weight? in Entfliah ▼alne. Coin. grammes. parti. Gold Com s : — £ s. d. 100 Drachmai • . 900 82-25806 3 19 2 85 50 „ »f 16-12903 1 19 7 28 25 „ »» 8-064515 19 9i 20 „ t» 6-45161 15 10 21 10 „ «» 8-22580 7 11 19 6 „ t» 1-61290 8 Hi 17 SiLYBft Conrs:^ 5 Drachmai .... 900 25 8 Hi 87 2 „ 885 10 17 27 1 „ M 5 9i 28 50 Lepta »> 2-50 4| 18 20 „ >f 1-00 v^ 16 Bnoyzx Coins :— 10 Lepta ] 950Copper ' 10 1 80 5 „ .. . 4Tin . 5 Oi 25 8 „ ■ • 10 Zinc. 2 01 20 1 Lepton / > 1 0^, 15 In the old system of currency and accounts, established by the law of the 8th February, 1888, the monetary unit was the Drachma, weighing 4*477 grammes of silver of the standard of i^jths of pure silver and y^th of copper alloy. For details of this system see Appendix iV. OHIVA. 67 THE IONIAN ISLANDS. (OoBiu, Santa Maxtba, ObpbaiiOitu, Zanti, CbbioO| Itbaoa, AMD PaXO.) The monettry Bjstem is that of Ghfaeoe. While thaM islands were under British protection (1830^1864) aeooiinte were kept by some persons in Dollan, of 100 OboH; hj others In Poundi of SO Shillingif of 12 Penes Ionian oorrenoy, and by others in Piattm, of 40 Parat, BoffUth. 6 Obolici - 1 Oboliccio - : id. 100 Oboli : r 1 DoUar 4s. Sd. IS Pence — 1 Shilling (currency) ls.&H<l- 90 ShllllngB _ 1 Pound ( „ ) -- Ml Os. »)d. 40 Paras - - 1 Piastre -- «iVd. The current coins up to the cession of the islands by Great Britain were British gold, silyer, and copper coins ; Spanish, Bf exioan, Bouth American, Austrian, and Yeoetlan Dollars. The Rpanlsh DoUar was reckoned at 104 Oboli, and all other Dollars at 100 Oboll. There were also the following pieces of Ionian currency :— In silyer, the 80 Obot< PUeet worth 8d. sterling ; and In copper, the pieces of 1 OboUeeio and 8^, 6, and 10 Oboli, worth respeotlTcly i^>d., id., id. and Id. sterling. CHINA. The denominations of monoy nsod by tho Chinese in keeping aooonnts are Leang^ Teieny Fun, and Le, called by foreigners Taeis, Maeet Candareena, and Cash. Keokoniogs are never made above Taels, and the lower denominations are genorally expressed as decimals of the Tael. Chineit «altt«. 8y»t«matic name EnglUh value. Cash (Lc) • tJtj^' 10 Cash » 1 Caudareen (Fan) « -^d. 10 Candareens » l Mace (Tsien) « 7d. lU Mace - 1 Tael (Loang) - 6b. lOd. In China silver is the chief oironlating medium, and there are no national gold or silver coins. For large payments, bullion of known purity passes current by weight. In Shanghai, Tien-Tsin, Kewkeang, and Chinkeang, accounts are kept in Taels, and the medium of payment is the Tael 58 MOITET. weight of Bflrer, and tli« Mezioftn Dollar if now also largely need; bat in Hong-Kong, Canton, Amoj, Fooehow, and Swatow, Dollars and Cents are the moneys of acoonnt, and the Dollars of Mexico and the Sonth American BepabUos form the chief medium of payment. The Tael is a definite weight, and its snbdifisons, the Maea and Candareen, are likewise weights, or rather decimal parts of the Tael. As denominations of money of account, they denote their respectiTe weights of (reputed) pure silver. The monetary Tael is equal to 679*84 grains or 1*208 ounce Troy, and its ▼alue at that rate is about 6s. 6|d. sterling. The Commercial Tael is heavier than the Monetary Tael, it is equal to 583 1 Troy grains, that is assuming that 1 Chinese Cally^lllbs. Avoirdupois*. * The diffarenee between the Monetaiy and Oommerolal Tael may be proved in this way : " Attnining the oorreotnesa of the Bombay Mint return, that the average weight of a new Dollar it 416'95 grains Troy, then $1000 should weigh 717 Taels 8 M. 6 0,A or about Half-a-Dollar wutre than they oonnt, which any one who has seen new Dollars weifffaed must know is below the average ; whereas, snnposing that the weight of (ha If onetary Tael were 688^ grains Troy, then llOOO would weigh 718 Taals O M. 6 0.,{ or about $6 thorter than they oount, and this never oocnrs with Mexioan Dollars.*' If the weights in the Ohlnese markets sre tried by the Hong Kong Standard Tael Weights it will be found that the Commeroial Tael is heavier than the Monetary by -Aths per ocnt— Butter. 7 OrainsTroy = 16 Taels = 1 Oatty == 1 lb. AToirdnpois = 1 Tael Commeroial 1 Oatty I lbs. Avoirdupois 7000 Grains Troy 4/^ = 1 1=1 I — 8 = 4 1 — 7000 7000 la -688i t ? Taels ll 679-84 grains t ? Taels $1 588| tiooo 416*96 grains Troy ITael 4159&U(0 " 717*85 Taels. 679b4 liooo 416*96 grains Troy ITael 124786 1760 w 718*00 Taels. CHIKA. 59 The Mexican Dollar is the current coin in Canton, and the South of China. In Foochow, the chief medium of payment consist of broken Spanish Dollars, while in Shanghai, Tien- Tflin, Han-£ow, and the Northern Ports, it ia the Tael weight of silver. The value of the Dollar in relation to the Tael varies, accord- ing to the rate of exchange, from 700 to 760 Taels for 1000 doUars. If payment is made in dollars they are taken at the market rate, but in accounts among foreigners the customary rate is 717 Taels for 1000 dollars.* The weight of 717 Taels is put in one scale and as many doUars as will balance it in the other. Hence a debt of 1000 dollars might happen to be paid by a number of dollars either exceeding or falling short of 1000. In China the fineness of gold and silver is expressed by divid- ing their weight into 100 equal parts called Touch. The num- ber of these parts denotes the proportion there is of pure metal in 100 parts by weight. In Hong-Eong and Canton gold leaf is manufactured for com- mercial purposes as a medium of payment, and although guaranteed to be of 100 Touch has usually a touch of about 98 or 99 only. The alloy used is called Pakf ong, and is a mixture of zinc, nickel and copper. The native Chinese banks have furnaces in which they fuse the precious metals (plate and foreign coin) and form them into ingots of various sizes and shapes, weighing from 3 Mace to 10 Taels. The date and place of issue, and the names of the assayer and banker are marked on each ingot. The most common weight of the ingots is 10 Taels each ; they are smooth and flat on the upper surface, and' rather rough and rounded on the lower ; their shape bears a slight resem- blance to a Chinese shoe, hence foreigners call them shoes. The silver ingots called shoes, of 5 Mace to 10 Taels are nsed as money, but the Gold ingots are regarded as articles of commerce. In the maritime provinces, Spanish, Mexican, and South American dollars, as coin, though not accepted by the Government, are used as a medium of payment at their nominal value ; but the habit of stamping Uiem soon destroys their weight, and then they are melted down into ingots. * There have been, and perhaps BtUl are, some exceptions to this role —viz., " In settling for teas m Canton and Fooohow, at so many Taels per Picnl, the amount is converted into Dollars at 720, while, when pay- ing the account, it is rendered back to Taels at 717; for Malwa opium the Chinuso pay fureigners at 720, and for Bengal drugs at 718 ; and again the Chinese among themselves are suuposed to pay at 712 to 716."— 60 Mom:Y. Ten TaelB of pure alvtr are reckoned equal to 1 Tael of pure gold. Wdn-Yin is the Chinese term for fine silyer, but the term Se-Sze (fine silver), or Sytee is also used. Sysee silver is never altogether pure. For the purposes of trade in the different .provinces of the empire, ingots are moulded of different sizes and touches. The ingots forwarded to the Imperial Treasury at Pekin in payment of taxes are of a touch of from 97 to 99, while the Sysee silver of oommeroe is generally of the fineness of 96. When Chinese liabilities are liquidated in Sysee silver, 710 Taels are estimated as 1000 Dollars ; thus the sUver paid to the British authorities at Canton under the treaty of Nankin, in discbarge of the Chinese indemnity, was received at that rate. This silver was found on assay to be of between 97 and 98 touch {i.e. 13 dwts. better than British Standard), and each lb. troy contained 18^ grs. of pure gold. Reckoning 717 Taols as 1000 Dollars, and the Dollar as 4s. 2d. sterling, we have about 6s. lOd. as the approximate Dollar value of the Tael of Silver. The Lo, or Cash,* is the only coinissued by the Chinese Government. It is a circular piece of mixed metal (chiefly copper), about V^i^ths of an inch in diameter. It has a square hole in the middle by which the pieces are strung in bundles of 100, for convenience in reckoning and carrying. It is cast, and not minted. It consists of 79 parts of copper, 10 of zino, 7 of lead, and 4 of tin. The obverse bears the name of the province in which it is cast. The reverse has the name of the reign above and below the hole with the words Tung Pan, signifying current moneys on the right and left of the hole. Its weight should be 1 Tsien (Mace), equal to 67*98 grains, and its value the i^j^j^th of a Tael weight of silver ; but its actual weight is from 62 to 64 grains, and its value is considerably below the legal standard, and from 1200 to 1400 Cash are commonly given for a Tael of silver. Hence it appears that the copper coin called a Cash, although it should be the same as the Cash of account, namely, y^^th part of a Tael weight of silver, is quite distinct from it and of leHS value. The value of the copper Cash varies alsf with tlie Kupply ; the rate is usually from 1000 to 1400 coppei Cash for a Dollar. From a chemical assay of 9 coinages of Cash issued by th( Chinese Government in each reign since the commencement o the present dynasty in A.D. 1644, it appears that the intrinsit * It is called Sapeqne by the French. CHIKA. 61 yalne of the Cftsh yarieg from 4b. to 6s. 6d. per 1000. The re- sult of that assay, as oommnnicated by the Master of the Mmi, in a dispatch dated 26th February, 1862, to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, is as follows : — " Assaming copper to be worth £100 per ton, and the alloy (zinc and lead) £20 per • tun, the intrinsic valae of 1000 Cash will be as follows, be- ginning with the earliest and ending with the latest coinage, tiiat of the last £mperor : — Jntrifuie value of 1000 Canh, Of 1st Emperor 2nd Emperor 3rd Emperor 4th Emperor 5th Emperor B. 6 6 4 rist 6 ' 2nd 4 Ist 6 2nd 5 fist 6 d. 6 4f 34 04 8 2i OJ s. (!• of which 6 104 1b copper. 6th Emperor {gndS Hi 7th Emperor 4 64 II II 11 II II II II 11 n 4 8 5 8 5 4 4 8 8 94 81 94 6J 114 6 2i 1 4i II II II II II II II II 11 Calculated from this assay, the average intrinsic value of the legal Cash issued by the Chinese Government, and at present in circulation, is about 6s. l^d. sterling for 1000 cash. But the proportion of counterfeit Cash in any single payment is usually very considerable, sometimes exceeding one-third, and the average rate at which in commercial transactions Cash are converted into Dollars is 970 Cash for a Dollar, or 48. 84d. for 1000 Cash. The actual value of a Cash in 1854 in Canton was ^th of a Candereen, but its value is constantly fluctuating. A mint, presided over by a Government Director, and supplied with coinage models from Pekin, exists in each provincial city of the empire. The Director weighs out the proper quantity of copper, receiving back from the workmen a corresponding amount of Cash (Le). But occasionally the workmen put a little sand and iron dust into the model, so as to produce the required number of Cash, and retain a Uttle of the copper for themselves. Hence the Cash has fallen below the Government standard. The Cash are chiefly used for small transactions in the Bazaar, or to pay cooUes and labourers. Large payments are made in silver or gold by weight. Government taxes are always paid in this way. 62 MOKET. BANK NOTES. The Bank Notes in circulation vary from 300 Oash to 1,000 Taels. In the North of China Bane Bills form a chief medium of payment. They are printed on coarse mnlberry paper, and are considerably smaller than Bank of England Notes. They are iRsned for sums varying from 100 to 10,000 Cash and upwards, and are generally at a considerable discount for gold and silver. Pup^T money is more abundant at Pekin than at Tien-Tsin. The rate of exchange between notes and Sysee silver is subject to constant variation. At Pekin there is a copper coin called Tang-shih. This coin does not circulate beyond the city, its value was 10 ^Cash, and in weight and purity it was nearly equal to the legal standard of the Cash. It was soon depreciated in weight, however, and fell to the intrinsic value of 4 Cash. Hence, with the view of avoiding the use of these Tang-shih pieces, the paper currency wiis issued at Pekin. Ten Cash in coin are considered equal to Twenty Cash in paper money. In exchanges between Shanghai and Hong-Eong the exchange is sometimes quoted at a discount on Hong-Eoug ; thus, if the diecount on Hong-Eong is quoted at 24 per cent. ; the quotation means that Shanghai gives Hong-Eong (100 — 24-) 76 Taels for 100 Dollars. BATE OP INTEREST. At Canton the usual rate of interest is from 10 to 15 per cent, per annum. When no special agreement is made the rate is 12 per cent. The rate of interest charged by pawn- brokers is 3 per cent per month in summer and 2 per cent, in winter. HONG-KONG. The denominations of money, in which all accounts, both public and private, are kept, are Dollars and Cents. ; but in statistical information furnished to the Mother Country (Great Britain) the amounts are stated in Pounds^ Shillings^ and Pence sterling. Eong-Kong value, BytUmatle name. English value. 1 C^nt - id. 100 Cents » 1 Dollar « 4s. 3d.* * The rate of 48. 8d. above ansigned to the Dollar is the Ooyemment part or the rate at which the DuUar is issued in payment to tiie Navy, the Army, and the civil Mrvants of the Grown in Hong Kong and itn dependencies, and also throughout China and Japan. This rate was fixed by a Proclamation approvud bv an Order in Council, dated Ibt November. 1864. Previous to that date, the Government par was 4ii, 2d. According to the calculation of Six H. Robinson, some time Governor of Hong-kong. the dollar is worth 4b. l^A., and its true par in that Colony u about Is. 4d. sterling. UONQ.KONO. 63 GOLD COINS. Gold coiiifl ilo not form a part of the legal circulation of the eolony, and silver in the standard of vaine and the chief medinm of commerce. SILVER COINS. The Bilver coins are the Mexican Dollar, weighing 416 grains Troy of silver, -j'^thfl fine, and worth 48. 2d. sterling ; other Silver Dollars of equivalent valne; and the 10 C^nt Piece, weighing 41*6 grains Troy, and worth 6 Ad. sterling. The Dollar is the only legal tender of payment for sums above two Dollars in Hong-Kong and Its dependencies. The 10 Cent pieces contain each 80 parts of pnre silver to 20 of alloy, aod are a legal tender for any snm not exceeding two Dollars. They have for the obverse impression the efl9gy of Her Britannic Majesty crowned, with the inscription, "Victoria Qneen,'* and for the reverse impression an inscription, indi- cating the vake of the Piece, with the words ** Hong-Kong/' and the date of the year, and the same inscription repeated in Chinese. ' COPPER COINS. The copper coins are the 0»/, representing one hondreth part of a Dollar, and worth a little over id. sterling ; and the Milt or British Cash, representing one thousandth part of a Dollar, and worth ^,^d. sterling. Cents and Mils are a legal tender for payment of any sum not exceedlDg one Dollar. The Cent has for the obverse impression Her Britannic Majesty's effigy crowned, with the . inscription, *' Victoria Queen." and for the reverse impression the inscription, *' One Cent, Hong-Kong," with the date of issue, and the same in- scription repeated in Chinese characters. The Mil has a hole in the centre, and has for the obverse impression *'V. R.," surmounted by a crown, with ** Hong- Kong, One Mil," and the date of issue, and for the reverse im- pression the inscription Hong-Kong, one Cash or one Mil, represented in Chinese characters. There are still in circulation considerable quantities of Britii^h silver and copper coins. These are exchanged by the Qovemment for the new currency at a par of 48-. 2d. to the Dollar. The free mint established at Hong-Kong for the Coinage of British dollars was closed in 18G7, and when about to be removed to England it was purchased by the Japanese Govern- ment in 1868, and the machinery was set up at Osaka, the late master of ihe Hong-Kong mint and the requisite staifof officers being transferred with the mint to Osaka. 64 MOSEY. INDIA. In 1885 the Government remodelled the onrrency of IndU, and eBtablished a nniform sjgtem for all the presidencieB. So that throughout Bengal, Bombay, and and Madras, accounts are almost always kept in Rupees t Annas, and Fiei, as follows : — Nominal Indian value. SyBtemn tie name. English value 1 Bie # ' id. 12 Pies a 1 Anna a lid. 16 Annas « 1 Rupee - 2s. Od.* Silver is the universal standard of value, but gold coins are accepted as tokens representing a certain sum in silver, and a gold standard on a limited scale has been strongly advocated. The Government, in 1885, authorised the issue of the Gold Mohur, or 15 liupee IHece, and the 10 and 5 Rupee Pieces as tokens — that is, as representing a certain sum in silver money ; and by the law of the 28th October, 1868, No. 8,287, British and Australian Sovereigns and Half-sovereigns of legal weight and fineness were constituted a legal tender, as the equivalent of 10 Rupees and 4 Annas, and of 5 Rupees and 2 Annas respectively. SILVER COINS. The silver coins are the Rupee, the Half-Rupee, the Quarter- Rupee, and the One-eighth- Rupee, or Double-Anna, worth respectively 2s., Is., 6d., and 8d. sterling. Siagle Annas, each worth about Hfd. sterling, were minted in 1885, and for some time afterwards, but they have not been issued of late years. The Double- Rupee, worth about 4s. sterling, was authorised by the Government, but it has never been put into circulation. The silver coins are all -Uths fine ; they contain 220 parts by weight of pure silver to 20 parts of alloy. English standard silver contains 222 parts of pure silver to 18 of alloy. By English assay the silver coins of India would be reported 2w., i.e., 2 dwts. worse, or below the English standard. * The Intrinsic ^valuo of the Rupee it If. lO^d. tterling. INDIA. 65 Tbe Rnpee woighs 180 grains, and contains 165 grains of pare silver and 15 grains of alloy. The weight of the other silver coins is proportionate to that of the Rapee. Taking the Talne of silver as 61d. per ounce troy of English standard (which contains 444 grains of pure silver) the average bullion value of the Rupee is about 22id. or 22|d, sterling, but for all ordinary purposes the value of the Rupee is taken at 2s., that of the Anna at lid., and that of the Pie at id. sterling. A Lae of Rupees is 100,000 Rupees, and, reckoning the Rupee at 2s., is worth £10,000 sterling. A Crore of Rupees is 100 Laos, or 10 millions of Rupees, and is worth 1 million sterling. GOLD COINS. The gold coins are the Afoftur, equal to 15 Rupees, and worth about 80s. sterling ; the Douhle-Mohur^ equal to 80 Rnpoos, and worth about £8 sterling ; the Ten Rupee Piece y equal to twO'ihirdi of a Mohury and worth about £1 sterling ; tho bHve Rupee Fuce^ equal to one-third of a Alohutt and worth about lOs. sterling; British and Australian Sovereigns and Half- Sovereicns » 10 Rupees 4 Annas and 6 Rupees 2 Annas, respectively. The gold coins of India are all of the standard of i^ths fine, that is, they contain 11 parts (out of 12) of pure gold to 1 part of alloy. The Mohur weighs 180 grains troy, and contains 165 grains of pure gold to 15 grains of alloy. The other gold coins are in their proportion as to weight. COPPER COINS. The copper coins are the Ilalf-Antui, weighing 200 grains troy, and worth a little less than Id. sterling ; the Quarter- Anna, weighing 100 grains troy, and worth a little less than id., and the Pie^ weighing 88 i grains troy, and worth a little less than id. sterling. In Bengal the Quarter 'Anna is called a Paisa or Pysa.* In BouBAT accounts are sometimes kept in Rupees, Quartertt and Raes* Thus : — 1 Rae -i fK^d. sterling. 25 Raes >- 1 Anna • lid. „ 100 Raes - 1 Quarter •- 5 fid. „ . 4 Quarters » 1 Rupee "^ Is. lO^d. „ In Madras accounts were formerly (and in some places are now) kept in Pagodae^ Fanamt^ and Oaf /», as follows : — 80 Cash -i 1 Fanam -i Ijd. 45 Fanams » 1 Star Pagoda • 7s. Od. * Pronoonoed ptee. 06 HOKET. Bat in all the old Govemmei^t accounts^ the Pagoda was divided into 82 Fanams. The Star-Pagoda was always con- sidered as 8i Rupees. In some of the old GoTernment ac- connts, the Pagoda was divided into 16ths, and -^th of a Pagoda was eqnal to 3^ Annas. There were several kinds of Pagodas, but the British Star Pagoda was a gold coin weighing 52^56 grains. It was 19^ carats fine, and contained 42-7 grains of pure gold, which, at the English mint price of £8 17s. lO^d. per ounce, gives its value as 7s. 5f|d. sterling. Previous to the year 1835 each Presidency had it^ own Rupee, and even at the present time the old coins are still met with. The Sicca Rupee y circulated in the lower provinces of Bengal ; the Furruckahad Eupee^ in the upper and north- western provinces; the Jrcot Rupee^ in Madras; and the Bombay Rupee, in Bombay. These were all -^ths fine. The Madras and Bombay Rnpees weighed each 180 grains; the Furmckabad, 179*16 grains ; and' the Sicca Rupee 19r916 grains. After two years circulation, the Sicca Rupee was called a Sonaut rupee (or coin of years) and was held to be 4i per cent, inferior to the Sicca Rupee. Then after further circ^ation the Sonaut became the Current Rupee, which was held to be 64 per cent, inferior to the Sicca Rupee. Hence Sonaut Rupeet and Current Rupees gradually crept into accounts, although they had no legitimate representatives in the cuiTcncy. The present Rupee is equivalent to the Bombay, the Fnr- ruckabad, or the Sonaut Rupee, and to i^^ths of the Calcutta Sicca Rupee, and 16 of the present Rupees are equal to 15 Sicca Rupees, and 100 Siccas equal 106| of the present Rupees.* In 1835 the ratio of gold to silver was fixed at 15 to 1. This was too low a valuation of gold, and consequently it did not come into circulation. The relative value of gold and silver in India at present is 15-^ to 1. In Bengal the term " gold Mohur " is often used in the sense of 16 Rupees. This is because the Mohur, previous to 1835, weighing 204'71 grains, ^ths fine, was a legal tender for 16 Sicca Rupees. In 1848 a distinct copper currency was introduced in the settlements of Penang, Singapore, and Malacca, to meet the want of a les:al coin to represent, and to pass in Exchange for, fralctions of the Spanish Dollar. This currency consists of the following coins : the Cent^ weighing 144 grains Troy ; the Half -Cent, weighing 72 grains Troy; and the Quarter-Cent^ weighing 36 grains Troy. * The Bnpee struck in 1885 was, nntil 1862, stamped and called the '* Company's Rupee." Since 1863 the stamp has been ** Victoria '' on one side, and " India" on ths other. CSTLOK. 67 CEYLON. Ou the Ist Jann&ry, 1872, a new xnonetftry system was in- trodaced. The basis of this system is the Rapee of India, of 180 grains weight and I'^ths fineness, with the decimal sab- divisions of that coin (i Rnpee or 8 Annas — 50 Cents, ^ Rapee or 4 Annas — 26 Cents, \ Rapee or 2 Annas — 12^ Cents. 100 Cents— 1 Rnpee— 2s. * Weight in Grains. FinensBS. AU07. Nominal English Value. SiLYEB Coins: — Rnpee 180 \i Vf 2s. ff »> 90 m «, • • Is. 4 »» • • 45 ■ • • • 6d. 10 Cents 18 • • • * 2id. CopPBB Coins: — 5 Cents • • • • • ft lid. 2 ,, t • • • • » id. X ,« . • ft • * • i id. •^ »> • • • • • ft tori ohalUe The nominal par of Exchange with London is 1000 Rnpees, £100 cnrrenoy, for £100 Sterling ; but the real par ^ taking the Valne of Enp^lish Standard Silver at 5s. per>dunoe, is 1076 Ru- pees, or £107 128. currency per £100 Sterluig. From the year 1825 to 1872 accounts were kept in Pounds, Shillings, and Pence local currency ; and nominally the currency consisted of British Silver Coins (for sums below 40?.) ; Silver or Paper Rix Dollars at the rate of Is. 6d. per Rix Dollar : Treasury notes in terms of British Sterling ; English and Australian gold Sovereigns and Half Sovereigns ; and British copper coins, as well as the copper coins of the Island. But British silver coins and silver Riz-dullars disappeared from circulation in a few years ; the paper Rix-doUars and Treasury notes were called in and cancelled ; and English and Austra- lian gold coins were never in circulation, and when imported * The Imperial pay of the troops and of Civil and Military establish- meats in Ceylon is issned.in rupees at the rate <if Is. lO^d. Sterliag per rnpee ; the intrinsic value of the rupee at the present average price of silver, being Is. lO^d. sterling ; the difference between the nominal and intrinsic value of the rupee was taken into account by the Military Com* mission of 1865 in fixing the Colonial allowances granted to the troops and officers stationed in the Island* 68 MONET. were treated as merchandise, and sold generally at a preminm yaryiog from | to 10 per cent. Under these ciroumstances the Rupee of India', at the nominal rate of 2s. with its snb- diviflions, became the real metallic cnrrencj of the Colony. For the 86 years prior to 1872 the Ponnd of local currency was 10 rupees, and the coins that constituted the currency of Oeylon were as follows : — Decimal of Rupee. Fraction of Rupee. EngliBh:valae. Silver Coins: — d. Rupee 1 1 24 ■ If •6 i 12 7 >i •26 i 6 4 Penny piece •166 i 4 2 Anna piece •126 i 8 1 Fanam •063 -^ (or 1 Anna) 14 Copper Coins: — 1 Penny •0416 * ^ (or } Anna) 1 2 Stivers or Pie •0812 ■^ 1 1 Halfpenny •0208 tiV.for ^Anna) i 1 Stiver •0156 } ^ (or i Anna) TiV (or i Anna) 1 1 Farthing •0104 \ 1 ChalHe . . ^ -0062 T*T i Previous to the year 1825 the public accounts were kept in Rix-dollars, Fanams, and Stivers or Pice (6 Pice»l Fanam ; 12 Fanams a 1 Rix-doUar), the currency consisted of silver Riz- dollars, coined at the British Mint for the Colony, of copper Fanams (->lid.). Stivers or Pice, and Challies, and of incon- vertible paper Biz-dollars, issued by the local Government. The Rix-dollar was issued to the troops and to all civil and military officers, whose pay was specified in British sterling, at the rate of Is. 9d. The intrinsic value of the Rix-dollar of the coinage of 1821 at 5s. per oz. (British Standard) , the then market price of silver, was only Is. Bid. GO A (In Portuguese India). The chief money of account in Goa is the Pardo, which is divided into 4 Good or 6 Bad Tangos, It is also divided into 340 Good or 800 Bad Rett. The Pardo is equal to about 2s. 4d. sterling. •i PU; f4Pie; tSPie 112 Pie. BUBICAH. 69 MALAYA. The only native coin is the Mon, or Zeni^ or Pitt, or Ca$h. It is a piece of tin with a hole in the middle. In large transac- tions amon^ the natives the precioas metals pass current by weight. Foreign moneys, especially Spanish and Mexican Dollars, and the Rupees Ilalf-Rupeet &nd lower coins of India, are also accepted. Those in Malacca, Singapore, and Penang form the legal corrency. BUBMAH. The chief monetary unit is a Tical or Eyat's weight of silver, Burmeie vcUue. Syitematie Name, EnglUh Value* 4KRwehs}- 1 Baia (Tubes, Toques) - lid. 2 Bais » 1 Mu's » 8d. 2 Mu's » 1 Math « 6d. 4 Maths - 1 Tical (Eyat) - 28. Od. There is also for money reckonings the decimal subdivision of the Tical, as in China. The Tical, or Eyat, is a weight equal to 851 grains troy. Its value is generally reckoned at a Bupee of India, or rather the Rupee is generally accepted as a Tical. If the silver were of the purity of English standard, the Tical would be intrinsically worth about 2s. 8d. sterling, but the quantity of alloy in the precious inetals in Burmah varies very considerably. There are no coins, and large payments are made by means of gold and silver bullion by weight. Silver is the standard of value and the principal medium of payment. There are ingots of both gold and silver varying in size from a round cake, weighing from 268 Ticals, to very small pieces. In small payments pieces of lead are also used. The value- relation of silver to lead is usually reckoned at about 1 of pure silver to 500 of lead. Occasionally, however, 15 Yiss of lead are given for a Tical, but sometimes in cities a Tical is reckoned at 7 or 8 Yiss. 70 MOKET. SIAM. Siamete value. Systematic name. BnglUh value. 200 Cowries] to - or • » 1 P'hai-nung — H^' 450 Bier 4 P'hai-nnngB « 1 Fuang » 3|d. 2 Faangs a 1 Salung or Miam «■ 7id. 4 BalangB or Miam l- 1 Tical or Bat 2b. 6d. 4 Ticals - 1 Tamlung a IOb. Od. 29 Tamlangs - 1 Cattj'or Ch&ng — £10 Ob. Od. 100 Changs or Catties |a 1 Pecul £1000 Ob. Od. Formerly CowHeg^ and kidnej-flhaped pellets in silver and gold, impressed with stamp, and of varions sizes, formed the only medium of payment in Siam, but now there is a regnlar coinage. SILVER COIN. The silver coin is the TicaU which weighs 236 grains Troy, and is worth about 28. 6d. sterling. The device on one side is an elephant, and on the other something like three umbrellas standing one above the other. The standard of purity of the new Tical is (I think) 900 parts of pure silver to 100 parts of alloy. Formerly the fine- nefiB was 9i dwts. better than silver of the English standard. GOLD COINS. Hitherto the Government has not issued any gold coins ; but gold is received as payment by the Tical weight. 8 Siamese Ticals are equivalent to 5 Chinese Ticals. Lately the Spanish Dollar, worth 4s. 2d. sterling, has become a very frequent medium of payment, especially with for3ign merchantB. Dollars are accepted in payment at the rate of 3 Dollars for 5 Ticals. PEWTER COINS. The pewter coins are the Half and the Quarter P*hai-nung. These are used instead of Cowries for small change. They bear the same device as the Tical, and also an inscription in Siamese, Chinese, and English, stating their value. ANAM. 71 AN AM (or Coohin China.) Accounts are commonly kept in Quarij Mas^ and Sapeksi as follows : — Anamese value. Systematic name. . English value 1 Sapek, or Dong, or Cash = -j-V^- • 60 Sapeks = 1 Mas, or Mottien, or heap » s^d. 10 Mas s 1 Qnan, or String » 2s. 9 id. These yalnes are calcnlated at the rate of 1^ Quan for the Spanish Dollar, worth 4s. 2d. sterling. Until a comparatively recent date there was no native gold or silver coinage in Anam, and the only coin was the Sapek, or Dong, or Cash, a piece of zinc of the same shape as the Chinese Cash, and like it, having a hole in the middle. 600. of these Sapeks form a Quan, or string, and are strung upon a piece of ratan and kept ready for use. Sapeks form the chief medium of payment in all small trcuis- actions. For large transactions Ingots of gold and silver of various weights, and bearing the Government Stamp, are accepted in payment, although they are not considered coin. These have different names, and are as follows : — GOLD. The^oW Iftffol, or Loofot 10 Taels* weight, and the Half Ingot or Loof, 6 Taels weight, worth respectively about £53 and £26 10s. sterling, and the DinA Vang, or Golden Nail of 1 Tael, and worth about £5 6s. sterling. SILVER. The silver Ingots or Nen-bac of 10 Taels* weight and worth about £3 4s. sterling ; the Dinh-bac, or Silver Nail, weighing 1 Tael, and worth about 6s., and the Half-Dinh-bac, or Una- Dinh-bac, and Quarter-Dinh-bac, worth respectively 3p. and Is. 6d. sterling. The Spanish Dollar is in general use in foreign trade. SILVER COINS. For the convenience of foreign merchants, a coinage of Dol- lars was issued in the year 1830 ; but these, although of the same weight as the Spanish Dollar, contain | their weight of copper, and their value is estimated at about 3s. 2id. sterlin< ig- 72 MONET. GOLD COINS. For the same pnrpose there are in circulation Gold Dollan, Half'DoUart, and Quarter -Dollars ^ worth re«pectiTely about £2 10s., £1 58., and 12s. 6d. sterling. The Anamese gold and silver coins first issued were some- what the shape of cakes of Indian ink, and had their value and the date of issue marked on them in raised letters.* When new coins are issued the old ones are only taken at a considerable discount. PERSIA. Silver is the standard of value in Persia and the denomina- tions of money used in reckoning and keeping accounts are as follows : — Persian value, Sysiematie name, English value. 50 Dinars « 1 Shahi « H- 1000 Dinars or 20 Shahis « 1 Keran » ll^d. 10 Eerans « 1 Toman » 9s. S^d. . GOLD COINS. The gold coins are the Toman, worth about 9s. 8jd. sterling, the 5 Keran Fiece, worth about 4s. 7|d. sterling ; and the 2 Keran Piece, worth about Is. lOfd. sterling. The Persian gold contains no alloy. A variable number of Shahis, per Toman, are charged for changing gold. The pre- sent rate is 2 Shahis per Toman. SILVER COINS. The silver coins are the Keran, worth about 11 ^d. sterling, The Half-Keran, worth about 5^d. sterling, and the Quarter. Keran or o Shahi Piece, worth about 2||d. sterling. There are no Billon coins in Persia. COPPER COINS. The copper coins are the 5Aa^t, worth about fd. sterling; tliu l'oi»t equal to f 6i the Shahi, or 33^ Dinars, and worth about -^d. sterling ; and the Half » Pool, worth about •^. star- ling, or a little less than an English farthing. There are also the following foreign coins in circulation. JAPAjr. 73 FOREIGN aOLD COINS. BpiUmaHe immm. Pef$ian vaiut. Mejidie, or Turkish Urs » *21 K«nuM Rassian Half-Imperial » *17 „ 12 Bhahis Dutch Ducat » *10 „ 4 „ FOBSIGN SILVER COINS. The old silver coins and the present silver coins of Russia, viz., the Mairah or 80 Coptek Pitee, and the 25, the 20, the 16, the 10, and the 7 C^peek Pieeet, The 80 Copeck Piece is equal to S| Eerans, and the others in proportion. ABABIA. AooountB are kept in Piastres and Caveefs (or Cavears) as follows : — Armbian value, Sfttewmtie turns. SniflUh vakie. 1 Caveer '^ ^d. 80 Oaveers — 1 Piastre or Mocha Dollar » tds.-od. The Spanish Dollar is the chief medium of payment. It is received as equal to 1^ Mocha DoUars, The native coin of Arahia is the c^mmasss^ a silver coin of a low standard purity, containing only 7 parts pure out of 24. The Commasse passes cnrrent as the ^^th part of the Mocha Dollar. Its English value would, therefore, be l^d. sterling. It is only used in small payments. JAPAK^. In 1671 a nerw monetary system, based upon a gold standard was introduced in Japan. The Ten, weighing 1| grammes or 25*72 Troy grains of gold ]^f ths fine, was constitated the funda- mental unit of the system ; the Yen is divided into 100 Sen, and the Sen into 10 RId, as follows : — Ja-pcuMit wAue, Syitematie name, BnglUh value, 10 Bin - 1 Sen - id. 100 Sen - 1 Yen -t 4s. 2d. * The rate at which these coins are given and reoeired in payment is ■abject to constant vaiiation. <f This valae is reckoned from the exchange of Spanish Dollars for Piastres, at the rate of 100 Spanish Dollars for 121 ^ Piastres. G ih 1 Gold Coma :— 20 Ten 10 , 6 „ ..;... 2 , 1 „ Ath BtLTBB Coras :— 1 Yen* BO Ben 20 „ 10 „ 6 Att 34-2 10 4 2 1 C0PP«B CoiNB :— iSen 1 1 im. :::;:: •• 1 ■s ■1. i 3 i 1! A if 7- ^H g s a : — — - SSI 514-41 16 357-3( 8 128-61 S 1 51-41 1 35-72 36'9G7 416-61 .3-5 >193 5-0 1 77-2 2'SO ' 3B'6 1-36 19-3 1 7-13 110 B-5G 55 0-00 14 Enllah " 5* GoM ooioB ol each kind ait a lepal Under to any amoant. The silTer coini, eicept the I Ten piece, are Bnbaidju? and are A legftl tender for any ixaa not exceeding 10 Ten. Tlie copper coins are a legal tender for an; gam not eiceadinp 1 Yen. 'Two Bygtemg of monetae; acconntB wero in use in Japan prior to 1871. One was the Rio Bjatem, in wbicli the denomi- natioDB were Siai, Iliiiooi, Ze^tia. or Mongim^i, and the other was the onrreac; Noinine system, in which the denomi- nations were the Nomme (equal to 5834 Troy graiaa) ol eilTer b; weight, and its BnhdiTiHioni and multiples. The latter Bystem was based npoQ an nncoined carreney, coneisting of irregnlarly shaped pieces of eilrer of low standard, bat beajing a Goiemment stamp and paasing by weight. £ B. d. ^ 100 Zeuis K 1 Tempo - 0^ (16 or] 17 Tempos - 1 Itaiboo - 4 4 Itaibooe - 1 Rio - 6 6 • Tb* 1 Ten ■llnr^wa !• the aUrer gain of eommnea, and !■ to be need In paTniant ol import uid eijnrt dnttea and all taiM st the open porta, and Id trsnaiietlODi betiraeD Jmpanaie and fonlgn nenhanM. 3XBAS. 75 Weight in Troy Oraini. Gold Coin : — £ 8. d. Kobang, or Rio 61-26' •88 6 6 Gold and Silveb Coins, Mixed: — • Niboo (or 2 boo piece) 93184 1-6 2 9 Itsiboo-kin 46-592 0-8 1 4i Silver Coins : — 2-8 Itsiboo 138-96 0,1 ^1% Rio (or 4 boo piece) . . * * w w Kisha 8r Ishn 29-12 •6 4i COPFEB OB BbONZE Coins : — Hachi-monseng Tempo . . • • 817-00 -446 Ibon Coins : — ■ Zeni (or Monseng) . . The Rio, or Eobang, was a thin oval coin, soft, and easily bent, about 2 inches long, and 1 broad ; it originally weighed a Tael. According to an assay made in the BritlBh Mint, in December, 1862, it contained 29-664 Troy grains of pure gold, 21-86 grains of silver, and -192 of a grain of copper. The Kobangs in circulation prior to the year 1860, were between three and four times more valuable, botb nominally and intrinsically. The Niboo, or Niboo-hin, was an oblong coin composed of gold and silver mixed, it contained 20-384 Troy grains or -85 nomme of gold, and 72*217 grains or 1-24 nomme of silver, its nominal value was 2 Itsiboos, or half a Rio. The Itnboo'kin, also composed of gold and silver mixed, was half the Niboo-kin. The Itsiboo was an oblong rectangular silver coin ; a great many Itsiboos were made of Mexican dollar silver, in the pro- portion of 811 Itsiboos to 100 dollars. The Itsiboo was the chief coin of the silver currency of Japan. It bore upon the Qpper part of the obverse a superscription, meaning " Certain, fixed,** and upon the lower part, *' Mint silver is always of this standard.'* The reverse was inscribed ** lUiboo-kiut^ 4 of a 76 MOKET. silver Tael. There were also in Niphon the Ita-gonct or money slip, and the Kodama : these were pieces of irregular weights, but stamped to indicate their fineness. The Kishn was a silver-gilt rectangnlar coin ; its valne was 2 Ifihus, or half an Itsihoo, its weight was not material. The Ishn was a small oblong silver coin, its nominal value was a quarter ol an Itsiboo, but its real value was one-fifth of an Itsiboo. The Zeni, or Mongseng, was a circular coin, almost wholly iron, with a square hole in the centre; its nominal value varied from time to time ; sometimes 1,600 Zeni and some- times 1,700 were reckoned to the Itsiboo. The Hachi-monseng, or 6 Monseng piece, was a circular coin, composed of iron and copper mixed: it was the same coin as had formerly passed as a 8hi-monseng, or 4 Monseng piece. The Tempo,* more properly called Toohiyaku, or Hiyaku- mong-zeni, or 100 Mongscng piece, was the highest copper or bronze coin ; it was a large oval coin with a hole in the centre ; it was composed of 81 parts of copper, 9 of tin, and 10 of lead ; it passed for 100 Zenis, 16 (or sometimes 17) Tempos went to the Itsiboo. The superscription on the obverse was *' Current money of Tempo ;" on the reverse was tiiie name ** Tdohiakn," with the impenal cypher below the hole. BANE NOTES. There was also a paper currency, consisting of Bank Notes for i, |. and 1 Eoban. It-Kan^ or ' String ^ was a denomination of money used in colloquial reckoning, but not in regular accounts ; its value was about 9 Mace of silver, or about lOdO copper Mon-Zeni. The Spanish Dollar was received at the bullion, and not at the coin, rate of value. The Dollar weighs about 71 i Oanda- reens, and this at the bullion rate is equal to about 160 Oandareens, or i of a Tael, that is an Itsiboo, The Itsiboo was equal to 16 T'dohiaku ; and the Dollar, which is about treble the weight of the Itsiboo and intrinsically worth 48 Toohiaku, was also received at 16 Tdohiaku. * So called from the Uengo^ ot reign (A J). 1880-1848), In which It was flrit issued. STBATTB SETTLXMIVTB. 77 STBAITS SETTLEMENTS. SINGAPORE, PENANQ, AND MALACCA. AooonntB are kopt 'in Dollart and Cents by some, and in Rupees^ Jnnatt and Pies by othen, bat Goyemment aoooants rendered to the Home Anthorities are made oat in £ s. d. sterling. Singapor* value. SytUmatie name. Engtiik valiM, 1 Cent id. 100 Cents -^ 1 Dollar m 4s. 8d. 12 Pies 1 Anna lid. 16 Annas • 1 Rupee Is. ll|d. 1 Pie « •24 Cent 1 Anna m 2-91 Cents 1 Rupee ma 46*6 Cents 10 Rupees M 4 Dollars 66 Cents 100 Rupees M 46 Dollars 60 Cents 1000 Rupees - 466 Dollars ' Bup*«i. Annat» ?<••• 1 DoUar M 2 2 4i 1 Cent m n too DoUars m 214 1 6 1000 DoUars \ 2147 6 Silver is the standard of value, and the Mexican Dollar is the chief current coin. SILVER COINS. The silver coins are Mexican and Spanish Dollars, Ruptss, and IIai/-2iupees» GOLD COINS. There is no gold coinage ; formerly both gold and silver cir- culated by weight ; and a gold coin worth about Is. 2d. sterling was once issued, but has long since disappeared. COPPER COINS. The copper coins are the Cent, the HaWCgni^ the QHarttf' Cent ; Dutch and other Doits ; and ties of India. * In PennnK tho DolUr la aometlmoi dlvidod Into 20 Oopangii, and OAoh Oopaug into 6 Floe. 78 MONKY. JAVA. The money of acconnt of Java is the Bame as that of the Netherlandfl. Jana value, Syntematio name, EnglUh value, 1 Cent - id. 100 Centen -i 1 Guilder or Florin • Is. dd. The Exchange value of Java money is less than that above given, being at the rate of 7 J^etherlands Ouildert for 8 Java Guilderg. So that at that rate the valne of the Guilder and Cent are respectively Is. 5|d. and /^d. sterling* bilvi:h coins. The silver coins are the FloHn or Ouilder^ equal to 100 Centen, and worth nominally Is. 8d., and in Exchange Is. 5|d. sterling, the Half-Ouilder^ and the (Quarter- Quilder, and the Limt, equal to 10 Centen, and worth nominally 2d., but in exchange l|d. sterling. COPPER COINS. The only copper coin is the Cent, worth i>^d. sterling ; the old Doit is no longer in circulation. GOLD COINS. Gold does not form any part of the legal currency of Java, but gold coins, and also Rilver coins of all nations are taken as articles of commerce. Some pieces of the now suppressed gold currency of Holland, such as the 10 Ouilder Fiecet^ and the Jhtcata, and also Dubloons and English Sovereigns, are often met with. BANK NOTES. The Java Bank at Batavia issues Notes for 1000, 500, 800, 200, 100, and 50 Guilders or Florins, and a Note of 25 Florins, •zohangeable only for Silver. FHILLIFINB ISLANDS. Viz. :— LUZON OR LUCONIA, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, MASBATE, ZEBU, BOHL, LEYTE, SAMAR, MINDANAO. PhilMpine value, SyBtematie name, Bnglinh value. 1 Cent - ^gd. 100 Cents « 1 Real « 2id. 20 Reals- 1 Peso, or Hard Dollar- 48. 2d. TEIPOIil. 79 Formerly .aooounti were kept in Pi909 of 8 Reels of 12 GranoB, but these denominations gave place to the di?iBionB of the Pesos adopted in the mother oonnti^ (Spain). The ourrenoy consists of Spanish pfold and silver coins. Mexican and Sonth American Dollars are recoined into pieces of 1, 2, and 4 Dollars. The mint of Manilla bnys gold, con- taining not less than 880 parts pnre in 1000, at the rate of 4*22 CentH per Troy grain. In Mindanao the universal legal coin is the Chinese Kansang, a large Nankin piece. 26 KauBangvl Gantang* about 10 Spanish hard or Silver Dollars* £2. Is. Sd. sterling. EGYPT. Egyptian value* Byttematic name, EnglUh value. 1 Fuddah, or Para » ^d. 40 Paras * 1 Piasti'e.orCkirBh -■ 2id. Egyptian money is considered to be of the aame value aa that of Turkey. The smallest Egyptian coin is the Fuddah, There are also pieces of 6, 10, and 20 Fuddah. The Dollar of Spain, Mexico, and South America, is also a constant medium of payment. GOLD COINS. The gold coins are the SaadeeyeAi equal to 4 Piastres, and worth lOd. sterling, the Khe^reejfeh^ equal to 9 Piastres, and worth about l9. lO^d. sterling. Doubloons and British Sovereigns are also in circulation, and the coins of Turkey are a legal tender, but are seldom met with. There is besides a nominal money called a Ryaly equal to 4i Piastres, and worth about lOgd. sterling. The Keea, or Purst, is equal to 600, Piastres, and worth about £6. 4s. 2d. sterling. The Khuzneh^ or Treasury t equal to 1000 FurteSt ifi worth about £6208. 6b. 8d. sterling. TBIPOLI. Tripoli value. Systematie name. Englieh value. 1 Para ■■ ^j^d. 40 Paras » 1 Piastre « 2id. 20 Piastres - 1 Mahbub - 4b. 2d. 80 MOKET. TUNIS. The denominations of money ased in reckoning and keeping accounts are. the Piastre^ the Karub and the Fel as follows : — Tunia value. Systematic name. English value 1 Fel B i^Vifd. 3 FelB « 1 Eamb as m o %j 16 Kanibs = 1 Piastre B 5M. SILVER COINS. The silver coins are the 5 Piattre Piece ^ worth 2s. 54d. ster- ling, the Piastrey wort.h6jd. ; the Quarter Piastre^ worth 11 ^d. sterling ; the 2 Karub Piece^ worth ||d., and the Karub ^ worth ||d. The three last coins are of a very low standard, and are rather billon than silver. COPPER COINS. The copper coins are the Karub and the Fel. ALGEBIA. Since the Conqnest of the country by France, in 1830, the de- nominations of money nsed in reckoning and keeping accounts have been Francs and Centimes (100 Centimes s 1 Franc) as in France (see France). The currency of France has not yet altogether superseded the old system, and the native coins are still in circulation. Formerly accounts were kept in Bitdschus, or Buschus, and Miuuhns, or Mozounaht. The Budschu is the Pataca or Alge- rine Piastre, and the Mttsuhn is sometimes called a Tomin. Algerine value. Systematic name, French value. English value. 1 Musuhn = '0776 Francs — f|d. 24 Musuhn » 1 Budschu « 1 Franc 86 Cts. « Is. 5id. GOLD COINS. The Tsechine^ or Sultanine, is worth 4^ to 5 Budschns ; but its value in relation to gold fluctuates. Its English value is from 6s. C^d. to 7s. 3 id. sterling. HOBOCOO. 81 SILVER COINS. The BuBchu^ or BtuUehUf also called the Pataea, or Piastrs of Algeria, is eqnal to 1 Franc 86 Centimes, and worth Is. 6|d. sterling. The Douhle-Budschu^ equal to 3 Francs 72 •Centimes, and worth 2s. lid. sterling. The Half-Budseku^ equal to 98 Centimes, and worth 8|d. sterling. The Quarier-Budsehut equal to 46'5 Centimes, and worth 4fd. sterling. The Three' Musuhn- Piece f equal to 23*25 Centimes, and worth 2i^d. sterling. BILLON COINS. The Karubah, or Ealf-JUueuAtt-Pieeet equal to '08875 of a Franc, and worth }}d. sterling. COPPER COINS. The Jspre-rhique^ equal to the 29th part of a Musuhn. The Spanish Dollar is also in circulation at the rate of 70 MuBuhns, or 6 Francs 86 Centimes. MOBOCCO. Accounts are kept in MitkuUt Ouncet^ BlankeeUy and Fluei, as follows : — Morocco ooliM. Byttematie name* MnglUh valMe. 1 Flue 24 Flues - 1 Blankeel 4 BlankeelB » 1 Ounce 10 Ounces - 1 Mitkul - S^d. 8s. Id. 54 BlankeelB are considered equal to 1 Spanish Dollar. GOLD COINS. Name of the coin, • MitkuU. Owncct, BlanJbli. Flue9» EnglUh value. The Doubloon « 24 1 „ Half-Doubloon - 12 „ Quarter-Doubloon » 6 „ Two-Dollar-Piece - 8 „ Madrid, equal to ) iq m 10 Dollars ° ^^ ^ 2 1 12 - 64b. - 82b. » 16b. ^ 8b. - 408. SILVER COINS . TheDoUar - 1 8 „ Half-Dollar - 6 „ Quarter-Dollar -0 8 2 8 1 12 - 4s. 2d. - 2s. Id. - Is. O^d. 82 MONEY. ABYSSINIA. The moneys of aoeonnt are as follows :— ■ Abyssinian value, BystemaHe name. 8 Borjooks* — 1 Kibear 10 Kibears - 1 Bivanis 4 Bivanis - 1 Harf 23 Harfs « 1 Pataka or Dollar 2i Patakas « 1 Sequin English value - 0«. 4 id. Tliis country has no coinage of its own, and the current ooinH are chiefly Venetian Sequins, Spanish Dollars, and Imperial and Austrian Dollars. Since the British expedition to Abyssinia, in 1867-8, British Sovereigns and Indian Bupeea have been in circulation. The Austrian Dollar is called a Pataka, Large payments are usually made in gold ingots, weighed by the Wakeat an Abyssinian weight, equal to 400 troy grains English. Small oblong pieces of salt, about 7 inches long, are also used as money. They are tied into bundles, and carried on the backs of mules into the interior ; these pieces form an important part of the commerce of Abyssinia, and of the whole of North-Eastern Africa. Their value varies with the cost of transport, and the distance from the coast ; about 80 of them are valued at a wakea of gold (400 grains troy). Estimated in gold the value of the Pataka as money of account is at the rate of 12 Patakas for 1 Wakea, WEST COAST OF AFBICA, VIZ., SI£BBA-LEONE, THB GAMBIA, THB GOLD 00A8T (Gape Ooaet Cattle), 8ENBGAL. On the West Coast of Africa accounts are kept in Pounds, Shillingst and Pence sterling, as in Great Britain. At Uie' Gambia some merchants keep their accounts in pounds, shillingB, and pence sterling, others in pounds, shillings, and pence currency, calculating four dollars to the pound, or five •Borjookf are glass beads of varioos coloun, and are used for small payment!. MAUBITIUS. 83 shillings to the dollar, so that the ponnd onrrenoj equals 16s. 8d. sterling, and the shillinga and pence onrrenoy in a like proportion, and others again keep their aooonnts in dollars and cents. An Order in Connoil of 10th May, 1843, assigned the follow- ing rates to the undermentioned coins. Doubloon of Spain, Mexico, and South America, 64b. sterling. The 20 Franc Piece of France 158. lOd. „ Dollar of Spain, Mexico, and South America . . 4b. 2d. „ The 5-Franc-Piece of France 8s. 10|d. „ The currency consists of the abore named coins, and of British gold, silver, and copper coins, at their full nominal value. But the chief medium of exchange, both on the Gold Coast and at the Gambia, has long been gold dust, valued at £4 per ounce, and as gold dust transmitted to England is worth, on an average, alter deducting the usual charges for freight, insurance, and commission, about £8 12s. per ounce, the par of Exchange for bills upon England, at 3 days' sight, is generally quoted at 11^ premium ; that is a bill upon England, for £90 would purchase 25 ounces of gold dust, equal to £100 currency. EAST COAST OF AFBICA, VIZ., MOZiLMBIQUE. Accounts are kept in Rein, 1000 Reis being termed, as in Portugal, a Miireu, The English value of a Milreis is about Is. 9d. sterling. MAUBITIUS. The Government accounts are kept in Pounds^ ShiVUngs^ and Pence sterling, as in Great Britain; but merchants and bankers reckon and keep their accounts either in Dollart and Centimes^ or in DoUarSy Livrea, and HovSt as follows. Mauritiut valw. Syat&matie name. 1 Cent. - EnglUh valMe 8s. lOd. 100 Cents - 1 Dollar, current » 20 Sous 10 Livres - QT 1 Sou = 1 Livre - 1 Dollar - 44d. 8s. lOd. 84 MOKEX. The Manritias Dollar of aecoont was valued in 1825 at 48. sterling, but its present valne is about 3s. 10d« sterling. The cnrrency of the Mauritins consists partly of the current coins of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, bnt chiefly of the gold and silver coins of British India, and of the gold and silver coins of foreign states. By a royal proclamation of 1st February, 1 843, relating to tha cnrrency of the Mauritins, the following British rates were assigned to the coins specified. GOLD COINS. Value in Value in Mauritius. Britieh sterling. Dollars. Cents. £ s. a. Doubloon (of Spain, Mexico, l—ig 0b840 and South America) .... J ' Gold Mohur (of India — coined 1 „ ooi i o o since 1st September, 1835) J "^ ' ^y* - ^ w ^ 20 Franc Piece (of France) . . » 3 95| -■ 15 10 SILVER COINS. [-1 H- Dollar (of Spain, Mexico, and South America 4 2 Rupee (of India coined since ] ^ ^es niin Ist Sept., 1836) 1 - " 46| - 1 10 Five Franc-piece (of France) or one and two fVanc-pieces to the same value, viz. : 5 Francs - 96| » 8 101 These rates are disregarded in business, and the Mauritius Dollar passes as two Rupees. British gold and silver coins, although a legal tender to any amount, are very scarce, and the currency consists chiefly of the gold and silver coins of India. CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. Since 1st January, 1826, all contracts for the Public Service have been made, and all accounts kept, in Pounds, Shillings, and Pence sterling. Previous to the year 1826 the moneys of account were Rixdollars, each Rixdollar containing 8 SohillingB, and each Schilling containing 6 Stivers, and declared to be of tha value of 48 full weighted Pennies of Holland. The CANADA. 85 cmrenoy then ooDflisted of inoonTerUble Paper Rixdollwrs, which were first iasned in 1781 » about 48. per RixdoUar; but in 1825 this valne had fallen to Is. 6d. per BixdoUar. In 1826 British silver money was constituted a legal tender at the rate of Is. 6d. sterliog for a Rixdollar. In 1835 the outstanding Paper Rixdollar oorrency was made payable, or exchangeable, only at the Treasury, and in 1840 it was notified that no Rix- dollar Notes woold be aoeepted in payment or exchange after 3l8t March, 1841. And at this latter date the onirenoy of the country became a metallic one, the old depreciated paper having been gradually withdrawn. Although the pubUo accounts are all kept in PouDds, Shillings, and Pence sterling, the accounts of private persons are often still kept in the old denominations of RixdoUars Schillings, and Stivers, as follows : — 1 Stiver «■ fd. sterling. 6 Stivers = 1 Schilling « 2id. „ 8 Schilling » 1 Rixdollar - Is. 6d. The term Guilder is used to denote 6d. sterling. The currency consists exclusively of British gold, silver, and oopper coins. Spanish, Mexican, and South American Dollars and a few Indian Rupees are met with, but are not much in use as a circulating medium. BANE NOTES. There are Notes for £5 and upwards. At Cape Town and Graham^s Town the average amount of notes in circulation is about £40,000. ST. HELENA. Accounts are kept in Pounds^ SAiiiinffs^ and Pifnee sterling. The currency of the island consists of British coins and of gold Doubloons of Spain, Mexico, and South America, valued at 64s. sterling, and of silver Dollars of Spain, Mexico, and South America, valued at 4s. 2d sterling. CANADA. In British North America accounts are kept sometimes in Dollars and Cm/j, and sometimes in Pounds^ ShUHngSy and Pence currency, the word currency being used to distinguish those denominations from Pounds, ShilSngs, and Pence sterling of Great Britain. 86 MOIfET. By the Act 16 Viot. c. 158, the denoroinationi of monej in Canada are fixed as Ponnds, ShillingH, Pence, Dollars, Cents, and MilH, the Dollar beinft ^ of a Ponnd ; the Cent, -^li^ of a Dollar, and the Mil -^^ of a Cent. The Ponnd was held to be equivalent to 101*801 grains of standard gold. By the same Act the copper Penny of the United Kingdom was fixed as equiralent to 2 Cents, and the Half -Penny to 1 Cent. Canadian value. Byitemaile name. Sterling value, 1 Mil - ^»od. 10 Mils - ICent - ^d. 100 Cents » 1 Dollar - 48. l^d. 12 Pence — 20 Shillings « or. 1 Penny * |d. 1 Shilling - 9|d. 1 Pound a 166. 5id. Currency, Od. jd. 5s. '02 Cents. 20 4 Dollars. Although accounts are stated in Pounds, Shillings, and Pence currency, the Spanish dollar has always been the real measure of value and standard of comparison in monetary transactions. The difference between sterling and currency value arises from different valuations of the Dollar. In 1817 the nominal value assigned to the Spanish Dollar was 4s. 6d. Bterling, and this valuation is implied in statements of the ex- change between Great Britain and the United States, although the present Dollar contains 14 grains of fine silver less than the dollar of 1817. In Nova Scotia, and throughout North America generally, the value ansigned to the DoUar has been 5s« currency, and the nominal par of exchange was computed by adding one-ninth to the old valuation of the Dollar at 4b. 6d., or a par of £111^ Halifax currency for £100 sterling. But the value of the Dollar in sterling money is now only 48. 2d., and the real par of Exchange is about £120 Halifax currency for 480 Dollars for £100 sterling, that is Halifax and Canadian currency is about 20 per cent, less valuable than British ster- ling, although the names of the moneys and their relations to each other are the same. The Pound currency is 4 Spanish Dollars, each Dollar being called 5s., but as the value of the DoUnr is only 4s. 2d. sterling, £1 currency is equal to 16b. 8d. sterling. By the Act passed by the Canadian legislature in 1841, the following rates in Canadian currency were assigned to the undermentioned coins. CANADA. S7 GOLD COINS. Name of the Coim, British Soyereign (20b.) Eagle of the United States , coined hefore July Ist, 1834, and weighing 11 dirts. 6 grs. . Eagle coined since July Ist, 1834, and weigh- ing 10 dwts. 18 grs. Gold Coins of France, and multiples and diyfsions thereof, in sums not less than £50 curreney . . per onnce Old Donhloon of Spain, Mexican, and Chilian Donhloon, and the parts thereof, in snms not less than £60 currency . . per onnce Gold coins of La Plata and Oolamhia, in sums not less than £50 currency . . per onnce Gtold coins of Portugal and Brazil, in snms not less than £60 currency . . per ounce SILVER COINS. Nam$ of the Coine, Value /n Canadian Curreney, £ 8. d. 14 4 8 13 4 2 10 4 13 u The British Crown (5b.) The British Shilling Milled Dollar of Spain, the Dollar of the United States, and of the several States of Peru, Chili, Central America and Mex- ico, not weighing less than 17 dwts. 4 grs. The Half-DoUar of the same nations and governments The Quarter Dollar The Eighth of a Dollar The Sixteenth of a Dollar 4 14 6 VtUue in Canadian Curreney. £ ■. d. 6 1 2 1 6i S 74 34 The Dollar and Half-DoUar are a legal tender to any amount. Between Canada and Great Britain the par of Exchange is £121 13s. 4d. Canadian currency, for £100 sterling. In state- ments of the Exchange with England, the nominal valuation of the Dollar at 4b. Sd., and the Halifax valuation of 6s. are still employed. And as £121 18s 4d. contains as many Dollars of 6s. each as £109 10s. of 4b. 6d. each, the par of Exchange 88 MOlfST. is stated as £109 10b. , or 9i premium. This will be better nnderBtood from the following figures : — £ 0. d. British sterling money 100 Premiun 9 10 9)109 10 ^ added to the valnation of the Dollar at 4s. 6d. . . . . . . . . 12 8 4 Canadian Cnrrency 121 13 4 In the currency of Canada the same value is assigned to United States Dollars, as to the Dollars of Mexico and South America, but the latter contains 878 grains of pure silver, and is about the i per cent, better than the former, which contains only 871 i grains of pure silver. Hence the par of exchange BO deduced would be £122 5s. 6d. currency for £100 sterling, or lOi premium. Government Exchanges are quoted at so much sterling per Dollar, thus ttie Conunissariat quotes Drafts at 4s. 2d. or 4s. Ifd. per Dollar, that is on being paid so many times 5s. currency it will grant Bilit on the Lords of the Treasury for as many times 4s. 2d. or 4s. Ifd. sterling. In Canadian price lists British Sovereigns are quoted at a variable number of shillings currency (says 24s), thus the expressions, **4s. 2d. sterling per Dollar," '*24s. currency per English Sovereign," ** Exchange at 9| per cent, premium," and **£100 sterling for £121 18s. 4d. currency," all mean the same thing. The circulating medium consists of coins of Great Britain and of the United States, and of Bank Notes for one dollar or five shillings currency, and for four dollars or one pound currency, there being no metaUio cur- rency in Canada corresponding to the currency values. Four British Shillings was called One dollar, so the shilling is valued at 25 cents currency. NOVA SCOTIA. The denominations of money used in accounts are either Dollars and Cents, or Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, Kova Bcotia valus Syitetnatie name* EnglUh value. 1 Cent - id. 100 Cents » 1 Dollar - 4s. 2d. or, 1 Penny — fd. 12 Pence » 1 Shilling » 9id. 20 Shillings « 1 Pound « 16s. Od, iriW BBITirBWIOK. 89 By an Act passed by ilie Le^slators of the Provinoe, in the Tear 1842, the following rates in cnrrenoy of Nova Sootia have been assigned to the ondormentioned coins in oiroolation in Nova Sootia : — GOLD COINS. Value in Nopa Name of ih$ Coim* Seoiia Currenetf. £ s. d Donbloon (weiffbing not less than 415 grains) ..400 Amorioan Eaglo 2 10 British Sovereign 160 SILVER COINS. Bollar of Mexico, South America, and the United I n 5 2^ DiaCOs •* •* •* a. •* f English Crown (5s.) English ShilliDg (Is.^ English Sixpence (6d.) For debts and obligations contracted in sterling money the Doubloon is a legal tender for 648., the British Sovereign for £1, the Dollar * for 48. 2d. sterling; and all British silver coins are a legal tender up to, but not exceeding, SOs., at rates proportionate to that of tne Sovereign. British copper Pence and Half-pence circulate as Penny and Half-penny Pieces cur- rency, and are a legal tender up to, and not exceeding, 12d. The par of exchange with England is now £125 currency for £100 sterling, or 12 1 per cent, premium on the sterling money. 6 8 1 8 7i NEW BBIJNSWICE. Accounts are kept either in Doi/an or Centi^ or in Poundst SAUlinps, and Pence currency. New Brumwick vikM. Syitematie name. EnglUh value. ICent m id. 100 Cents • IDoUar or, " 4b. 2d. 1 Penny ■■ <d 12 Pence •« 1 Shilling M • lOd. 20 ShilUngs " L Pound • 16b. 8d. * When of the full weight of 416 grains, and oontainlug not less than 878 graina of pure allver. 90 HOn^ET. The sterling value of any sum in New Bnmswick enrrency may be approximately lonnd by deducting one-tixth from the sum in New Brunswick enrrency. The currency of New Brunswick consists of the following coins which circulate at the undermentioned rates assigned to them by law. GOLD COINS. Valu« in New Name of the eoin» Brtmewiek eurreney. £ 8. d. English Soyereign 14 United States Eagle 2 10 SILVER COINS. Spanish, Mexican, South American, and United States Dollars 6 English Crown (5s.) and its aliquot parts at proportionate rates 6 English Shilling 1 2| In this table the American Gold Eagle, containing 232 grains of pure gold, is over valued with reference to the Sovereign containing 118 grains of pure gold, by about li per cent., and should have been valued at £2 9s. 8d. currency. The American Gold Eagle when issued from the com- missariat chest at New Brunswick is (and has been since Ist May, 1864), rated at £2 2s. Id. sterling. THE BEBMUDAS. Accounts are kept in Founds^ ShiUingt and Penee^ sterling, as in Great Britain. Doubfoont of Spain, Mexico, and South America, of not less weight than 17 dwts., 8 gn^. troy, are current at the rate of 64s. sterling, and Dollars of the same countries, at 4s. 2d. sterling. All taxes and revenue are received either in British sterling money, or its equivalent in Foreign coins. 3!rBWF0UKDt.A.KD. 91 NEWFOUNDLAND. Aoeonnts are kept either in Poundt^ Shillinfft^ and Pence currency, or in Dollars and Cents as follows : — Newfoundland value, Syttematie name, EnglUh value. 1 Penny — Jd. 12 Penee - . 1 dbilUng - lOd. 20 SbillingB - 1 Ponnd currency •• 168. 8d. or 1 Cent « id. 100 Cents « 1 Dollar ~ 48. 2d. Tlie coins in circulation are chiefly silver Dollars and British gold, sUyer, and copper coins. There are also Bank Notes of the Bank of British America, which has a branch at St. John's. The English shilling is received sometimes at Is. 2d. and sometimes at Is. 3d. cnrrency, and the following are the average rates at which the nndermentioned coins pass csrrent. GOLD COINS. Value in Name of the Coin, Newfoundland eurreney, £ s. d. Doubloon » 8 16 9{ British Sovereign » 14 SILVER COINS. Dollar " 6 British Crown (5s.) - 6 „ Half-Crown - 8 „ Shilling - 10 Bnt there are no fixed rates at which British and foreign coins circulate, and the values assigned to them in the currency of the colony are subject to constant variation. The nonuDal value of the Dollar is 5b. currency. Its sterling Talue is generally estimated in the colony at 4s. 4d., while its real sterling value is 4s. 2d. The par of exchange with England is reckoned at £115. 7s. 8|d. for £100 sterling. On account of the over valuation of the Dollar in sterling money, Bills on England are usually at a premium of from 4 to 6 per cent. 92 H09ET. UNITED STATES OF NOBTH AMEBICA. American valtM. Syitematie name, EnglUk value, 1 Cent - id.)* 100 Cents - 1 DoUar - 4b. 2d. f The nnit of acoonnt is the Dollar ($) ; although Dollars and Cents are practically the only moneys of aoconnt, there are the denomina^onB Dimety or tenths^ and JHilUt or thousandths of the Dollar. The Dime has its legal representative in a silver coin worth about 4'9d. sterling. There is no eoin to represent the Mill. 20 Dollars 10 5 2i tf »♦ »» Gold Coins! — Doable Eagle • Eagle « Half Eagle » Quarter Eagle 8 Dollar Piece 1 Dollar Piece . . SiLYBB Coins — Dollar Half Dollar . . . . Quarter Dollar .. .. Dime « ^ Dollar Half Dime ■■ 5 Cents 8 Cents Nickel Coins — . 5 (}ents 8 Cents Copper Coins — Cent (88 parti copper a If nlekd) Half Cent • • Fnll weight in Orains. 516 258 129 64^ 77| 25| 412i 192- 96 38f 129 « 9 a Aths. ft ft »f tf ff ft «f tt iths. W^ Weight of pure Metal in Grains. English Taioe £ S. d. 464{ 4 8 4 2d2| 12 1 8 n^^ |i 10 58^ ,0 10 6 12 6 4 2 4 2 2 1 o2** 871* 172| 86f .0 1 Oi 84Ty»5 '0 6 11^ 2* 9/, 1| 2i 1| Oi Oi * These are the valaes of the Gold and Sllyer money. f In 1868 a Bill was introduced In Oongress for aeslniilating the gold eurroncy of the Ameriean Union to that of the Fnnah system, bat it never beaame law. In Febmary, 1870, the Senate adopted a resolntion reqaesting the President to invite correspondence with Great Britain and other pollers, with the view to promote the adoption, by the LegisUtnres of the several powers, of a common standard of international coinage. UNITED STATES OP ITOETH AMEBICA. 93 BANK-NOTES.* 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 1 dollars ; and ** fractional ourrency notes," ▼iz., 50, 20, 3 cents. COURSE OF EXCHANGE. The conrse of exchange on London is stated to be above or below par, as the rate exceeds or falls below 9^ per cent., 9^ per cent, being called par of exchange. In this statement the British sovereign is estimated at 4 dollars 44 cents in American gold. By Act of Congress of 2nd April, .1792, the weight of the American gold eagle was fixed at 270 troy grains of gold ^ths fine. It was at that time a legal tender for ten dollars, the British sovereign being at the same time a legal tender for 4 dollars 44 cents. By Act of Congress of 1st Jnly, 1834, the weight of the eagle was reduced to 268 troy grains, and its fineness to -^Tjths, but was still maintained a legal tender for ten dollars. This change in the value of the American coins placed tbe British sovereign at a premium of 9^ per cent, as compared with the American coins, and gave rise to the present manner of quoting the course of exchange — viz., expressing it in terms of a percentage upon an assumed par of 4s. 6d. sterling per dollar. The true par stated in this form is 9i per cent, premium or £109 10s. in dollars valued at 4s. 6d. each for £100 in British sterling money. When the premitim is above 9^ per cent, the exchange is in favour of England, when it is below 9^ per cent, it is in favour of America. To calculate the rate of a sterling bill payable in United States paper currency (greenbacks) : multiply the par of exchange, or gold rate for sterling (109*5) by the price of gold and divide by 100; multiply the quotient by 240 and * Previous to the Civil War all the American Banks redeemed their notes with coin on demand, bnt since the year 1861 they have all been Permitted to snspend specie payments for an indefinite time, and their notes have consequently been at a heavy discount. On the 25th Febru- ary, 1862, Congress passed the Legal Tender Act, authorising the issue of United States' notes, or, as they were afterwards called, " greenbacks," and the Act declared that such notes " shall be lawful money and a legal tender in payment of all debts, public or private, within the United States, except duties on imports and interest " upon the bonds and notes of the Federation. Previously the only legal tender was the gold dollar, and its multiples. The notes issued under the provisions of the Legal Tender Act increased in amount during the continuance of the Civil War nntil at last the total issued was nearly 460,000 OUO dollars. In 1864 the value of the paper dollar had fallen to 85 or 40 cents., but after the War it gradually rose until in 1871 it reached 80 or 83 cents. That is, at the latter date, the value of gold was still from 17 to 20 per. cent, above United States' notes or greenbacks. In February, 1870, the supreme court of the United States declared that Congress had no power to make United States' notes or greenbacks a legal tender for debts in existence at the time of the passing of the Legid Tender Act, thus esta? blisbing the principle that specific contracts to pay coin are valid, such debts being recoverable in coin, and that all debts contracted prior to tbe date of tbe Act, are payable (principal and interest) in coin. 04 MOKET. diyide by 64, or multiply by 40 and divide by 9. Then State £100 : Sterling bill : : currency of £100 : currency required. Example.— Where the price of gold at New York is 180, and the rate for sterling is 109' 5 what is the ralue of a sterling bill of £1,600 payable in United States currency ? 109-6 ISO 82-860 1,09 6 142,86^ dollars of 48. 6d. for £100 sterling. 40 9)669,400 682-66 dollars for £100 sterling. 100 : 1,600 : : 682-66 : 9489-9 dollars for £1,600 sterling. MEXICO. Accounts are kept in Dollars and CenU^ as follows : — Mexican value, Syttematic name. SnglUh value. 100 Cents 1 Cent 1 Dollar 4d. 4s. 2d. GoLi> CoiHs"; — * Doubloon^(16 dolls.) k i SiLTEB Coins: — ^ Dollar i i \ (real) Peseta (20 cents.) CoppEB Coins: — Quartillo (^ dollar) Octavo (or Claco) aoaJv 104A 417tV 208,V 104/, 8Vt (A?) « i !iths Weight of Pure Metal. ft f lOj 12 ths 9f 12 ths f* 892 196 98 89 62 Org. Alloy. Bnfl Val lliBh ae. 62A 26T*ir 18^f, 26 £ s. 3 6 1 18 16 4 2 12i 13 21 8 4 8 2 1 1 0* 6^ 10 ivv Of* * The gold odoB at the rate of 8^ donbloone, and the silver coins at the rate of 8^ dollan to the castUe mark (_ : 85i>ui troy grains.) WEST INDIES. 95 Dollars and half-dollari oontain 10| parts, and pesetas and reals 9f parts pore oat of 12, bat pesetas and reals of Bolivia oontain only 8 parts pore ont of 12. Money of account may have reference either to these small silver coins of lower standard, or to the Hard Dollars. If reckoned in the small base ccftns its value is less than it wonld he if reckoned in Hard Dollars. CENTBAL AMEBICA, or GUATIMALA, OUATIMALA, BALVADOB, NICARAQUA, HONDnRAS, AND OOSTA BICA. The currency and the moneys of account are the same as those of Mexico. In 1869, Guatimala and Salvador commenced to re-coin the cut money circulating in them ; and Honduras established a national coinage in imitation of the United States. WEST INDIES. (British.)* In most of the West India Islands accounts are kept in Pounds, Shillings, and Pence sterling, as in Great Britain, but sometimes they are kept in Dollars and Cents, as follows : — 100 Cents « 1 Dollar - 48. 2d. English. GOLD COINS. English Sovereign and Ilalf-Sovereign ; Spanish, Mexican, and Columbian Doubloons, current at 64s. sterling each (or 15*86 Dollars) ; United States Eagle, current at 41s. 8d. sterling ; the Half-Eagle, at 20s. lOd. sterling ; Quarter^Eagle, at lOs. 5d. sterling ; Two Dollar Piece, at 8s. 4d. ; Dollar, at 4b. 2d. sterling ; and Quarter Dollar, at Is. O^d. sterling. SILVER COINS. Crown (5s.), Half-Crown, Florin, Shilling, Sixpence, Four- pence, Threepence, Twopence, Quattie (lid.), Dollar (4s. 2d.), Half-DoUar (2s. Id.), Quarter-Dollar (Is. O^d.) * The British West Indies include Jamaica ; the Windward IslandR, viz., Trinidad, Tobago. Grenada, Bt. Vincent, Barbadoes, and St. Luoln ; the Leward Islands, viz.. Dominica, Montserrat, 8t. Kitts, Antigua, Kevis, AngnlUa, Barbuda, and the Virgin Islands ; the Kahamas ; the Bermudas ; Demerara, Berbioe and £sBiquibo, and Honduras. 06 IfOlfEY. The Doabloon is a legal tender, at the valne of 648., and the Dollar at the rate of 4s. 2d. sterling, and gold and silver coins of Great Britain are a legal tender to any amount at the rates cnrrent in Great Britain. BRONZE COINS. The bronze coins of Great Britain, although nominally a legal tender, are not in general circulation. The lowest coin in general use is the Quattie. There is a great want of coins of low value which the working people would accept ; and pieces of 1, 2, 5, and 10 Centimes in Nickel would be very likely to be accepted by the lower orders. Previous to the year 1838 the currency of the West Indies was on a very unsatisfactory footing. Accounts were kept either in Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, currency, or in Dollars and Cents, and to these denominations, arbitrary values were assigned which varied in the different islands. From the over- valuation of the gold coins in circulation relatively to those of silver, the Spanish Dollar had almost wholly disappeared from circulation ; mutilated coins or parts of coins had been sub- stituted, and there was even a difficulty in retaining these latter in sufficient quantity to meet the wants of domestic interchange. The want pf small silver coins for the ordinary transactions of the market led to the practice of cutting Silver Dollars into ** Bitts," nominal values in the currency of the islands being assigned to those Bitts. The number of Bitts reckoned equal to a DoUar, varied at jliSereni places ; thus at Dominica, Nevis, Montserrat, St. Eitts, Antigua, and Demerara, 12 Bitts, at Barbadoes 10 Bitts, and at Trinidad 9 Bitts, were reckoned equal to a Dollar. A Royal Proclamation, dated 14th September, 1838, fixed the British sterling value of the Doubloon and Dollar respectively at 648. and 4s. 2d. sterling. Immediately after that Proclama- tion the Governors of the several islands determined the colonial currency rates at which the Doubloon, the Dollar, and the British Shilling were to be a legal tender. . These rates were as follows : — Britiih Douhlonn» Dollar. ShUling. £ H. d. B. d. 1. d. Jamaica 6 8 6 Hi 1 8 Barbadoes 6 6 6 1 6} Trinidad, Grenada, St. Vincent, Dominica 8 10 6 2 6 Montserrat, St. Eitts, Antigua, Nevis 7 4 9 4* 2 3 HATTI. 97 WEST INDIES. (Spanish.) CUBA, FOBTO-RICO, AND THE ISLETS OW MABOARITA, TBSTiaOS, TOBTUOA, BLAKQUILLA, OBCHILLA^ BOCA, AKD AVBB. The denominations of money in which accounts are kept are the same as those of Sjiain. (See Spain.) The current coins are gold jboubloont aud bilvcr DoUars and their suhdivisions. WEST INDIES. (Dutoh.) VIZ., BONAIRZ, CUBACOA OBUBA, ST. MABTIN, SABA, AKO ST. EUSTATIUS. The money, weights, and measures are the same as those of the Netherlands. WEST INDIES. (Danish.) TIZ., ST. THOMAS, ST. JOHN, ST. CBOIX. The money, weights, and measures are the same as those of Denmark. WEST INDIES. (Swedish.) VIZ., ST. BABTHOLOMBW. The money, weights and measures, are the same as those of Denmark. HAYTI (or Hispaniola, or St. Domingo.) Accounts are kept in current LoUan (c&Iled Gourdes) and Centi. Hantian value, 8y»Umatie name, EnglUh value. 1 Cent - ^d. 100 Cents » 1 Gourde, or Dollar — 8|d. The native currency consists of Depredated Paper Gourdes, and of copper coins. 98 MOHET. The yalne of the Paper Gourde is yery flaetnating. It may be taken, however, at about 16 Haytian Gourdes or Dollars for 1 Spanish Dollar. This would give 8 id. sterling as the English value of the Paper Gourde, or about 77 Gourdes for £1 sterling. The chief medium of payment in all small transactions is copper money, consisting of 1 and 2 Cent Pieces, Some old silver pieces of 25 and 50 Cents (called Gourdins) and of 2^ cents are still in circulation. Their value is four times that of the paper money, the 25 Cent Piece being equal to 1 Paper Gourde. In large commercial dealings with foreign countries the chief medium of payment consists of Spanish, Mexican, and South American gold Doubloons and silver Dollars, and their subdi- visions. The Doubloon » 64s. and the Dollar ■■4s. 2d. sterling. COLOMBIA (United States of). VIZ., • NEW OBANADA, VENEZUELA AND BCVADOB. In wholesale commercial transactions, merchants reckon in Dollars of 9 Beali^ or 10 Decitnost or 100 Ceniavot^ but generally in practice only two denominations, namely Dollars and Cen- tavos, are used in keeping accounts. Colombian vahu, SyttematU} name, BnglUh value. 1 Centavo ■■ |d. 100 Centavos- 1 Peso « 4s. 2d. * In domestic trade retail dealers and shopkeepers are in the habit of reckoning by the Sencillo or Macuquina Peso, divided into 8 Reals, thus : — 8 Reals « 1 Sencilla, or Macnquino Dollar ■■ 8s. 4d. The Maeuquino or Peso Dollar is a coin of an inferior standard of fineness, and is equal in value to about f ths of a Spanish or an American Dollar ; so that 4 Spanish or American Dollars are equal to 5 Macuquina Dollars. Colombia having no special coinage of her own nsei the currencieB of other oonntries, assigning thereto definite rates. qviajsjl. 99 GOLD COINS. 4 8. d. Donbloon of Spain and America —IS Dollars «8 6 8 Half ditto „ „ „ - 8 „ -1 13 4 Qnarter ditto „ „ „ b 4 ,, -^O 16 8 French 20 Frano Piece . 4 ,, «-0 16 8 ,. 10 «, „ - 2 „ -0 8 4 ,. 6 „ .. • 1 „ -0 4 2 English Sovereign „ - 4 „80Cntv8. -1 M Half-Sovereign .2 ,,40 ,, »0 10 SILVER COINS. Dollar of Spain and America » 1 Dollar ••0 4 2 English Crown (5b.) -• 1 „ Half-Crown (28. 6d.) - ,, Florin (28.) - „ Shilling — French Five Franc Piece « 1 „ Two Franc Piece — ., Franc a Dntoh 2i Golden Piece * 1 it Gnilder « 20C6ntavo8— 6 60 „ -0 2 6 48 ,, -0 2 24 H -0 1 -0 4 2 40 „ .0 18 20 .. -0 10 -0 4 2 •I 1} 40 „ -0 18 COPPER COINS. The Centayo and the Half-Centavo, eqnal respectively to id. and |d. sterling, are the nominal copper coins, hnt all copper moneys of equal value are accepted, such as the French 5 Centime Piece, the English Half -penny, and the American Cent. GUIANA. (British.) O^ion^ Sjfttematie tMm$, EnglUh Value. 1 Cent - |d. 100 Cents - 1 Dollar - 48. 2d. GOLD COINS. English Sovereigns and Half-Sovereignt at their fnll nominal value; Spanish, Mexican, and South American Doubloons, at the rote of 64s. sterling each, and United States Ea^lee, Half- Eaglet, Quarter-Eagles, and Gold Dollars at the respective rates of 41b , 208. 6d., lOs. 8d., and 4s. Id. sterling. 100 HOKET. SILVER COINS. Tho silTer coins of Great Britain are in circnlation, as also Dollars of Spain, Mexico, and Sonth America. PreyiouB to the year 1889 accounts in British Guiana were k«pt in Guilders, Stivers, and Pfennings, BnglUh Value* 16 Pfennings » 1 Stiver » |d. 20 Stivers - 1 Guilder i- Is. l^d. The Current coins were tokens of rarions denominationB, from 3 Guilder Pieces downwards, coined at the British Mint ; of British silver coins at the rate of 14 Guilders for 20 shillinors Fterling, and of Mexican and South American Dollars. In 1889 Dollars and Cents were estahlished as the legal moneys of account ; there were no rates fixed hy law for the Doubloon and the Dollar; but the old currency was converted into Dollars at the rate of 8 Guilders for a Dollar. The local government paper currency, consisting of Joe notes and Half-Jofi notes (the Joe being equal to 22 guilders), was at the same time rendered convertible into specie of the Dollar currency at the same rate of 3 Guilders for a Dollar. In order to meet the wants of the negroes and the labonring peasantry, who were in the habit of computing by Biits, that ia fractionad parts of the currency, the Dollar was declared equal to 12 i ISilts, the Shilling to 8 BitU, and Fonrpenny Piece to 1 Bitt and the Twopenny Piece to Half-a-BitL BANK NOTES. There are notes (of the British Guiana Bank and of the Colonial Bank) for 5, 10, and 20 Dollars. These are payable in silver on demand. CAYENNE (or French Guiana^. Money, weights and measures, same as those of France. BUBINAM (or Dutch Guiana). Money same as the Netherlands. BRAZIL. Brazilian value. SyttemaHe name, Englith vt^lue, 1 Rei » yj-d. 1000 Beis » 1 Mihreis (1(000) « 2s. Od. The only denomination of money used in accounts is the Bei, with the same system of notation of thousands, miUiouB, and thousands of millions, as in Portugal. nsv. 101 The oironlatinpt mediam ooasiits of an inoonyertible Paper oarrenoy, greatly depreciated, and of an irregnlar and debased copper coinage. PAPER MONET. The paper money oonsistB of Treasury Notes for a Milreit and upwards. When first issued this paper money was equal to specie in value, thus a 960 Rett NoU was equal in value to a 8 Fatacon Pieee^ or Brazilian Silver Dollar (a Spanish Dollar restamped). Taking the Brazilian Dollar (960 Reis) at 4s. 2d. sterling, the original value of a paper Milreis (1000 Reis) at that rate was 48, 4^d. sterling. In like manner a note for 4000 Reis was originally equal to a gold Moeda of 4000 Reis. Before the introduction of the paper currency, the ohwi media of payment were the gold Moeda of 4000 Reis, and the silver Dollar of 960 Reis. The value of the Moeda in the paper currency is about 7800 Reis, and that of a Dollar about 1620 Reis. So that at that rate the value of a Milreis in the paper currency is about 2s. 6d. sterling. COPPER COINS. The copper coins are pieces of 10, 20, and 40 Reis. PBBIT. Accounts are kept in Peiost or DoUartt and Centetimot^ as follows : — Ptfuvian vakM. By*t€inatU name* EfiglUh value. 1 Oentesimo — A'o^* 100 CentesimoB — 1 Dollar* «■ 8b. Id. The actual coined Dollar is, as in Spain, equal to the 19th part of a gold Doubloon ; but the Dollar of Account, also called tho Current Dollar, a denomination used in commercial reckonings is equal to -^ih part of a Doubloon, and is therefore 6i per cent, less valuable than the ooiuod Dollar. The coins hitherto current in Peru have been gold Doubloons and their subdivisions, and the depreciated Bubdivisions of the Bolivian Dollar. By the law of 2Qd October, 1857, it was ordered that the fol- lowing coins should be struck. * This value is taken from the quoted exchanges, and refers to the old aurrenoy of Bolivian DoUarM. 1U2 MONET. ) GOLD COINS. Weight in grains. Finenttt. Sonne (20 Dollar Piece) 669 ■f^\h% Half- Sonne (10 tf a I 284i II Doubloon ( 6 tt M ) 142| II Crown ( 2 i» »i ) eev'^ II Half- Crown ( 1 ti If J SILVER COINS. 28A II Dollar (100 Centesimos) 476 II Half-Dollar ( 60 »i J 237i II Peseta ( 20 fi J 95 II Dinero ( 10 II ) 474 II Half-Dinero ( 6 ** } COPPER COIN. 231 11 1 Centesimo Piece. It 'has been recently announced that tbe Goyemment of Peru has made arrangements for introducing a new standard national coinage. All Bolivian coin will be sent out of the country or melted in Lima within two years (from 1864). CHILI. The denominations of money in which accounts are kept are Pfton current, and Centavott i.e.. Dollars current and Cents t as follows: — Chilian value. Byttematie navM. English ffnlue. 1 CentaTO — /,d. 100 Centayos b 1 Dollar or Peso current b 8s. 91. Tbe current coins of Chili since 1861 have been as follows :— GOLD COINS. The Condor - 10 DolUrs* - £1 17s. 6d. Doblon <- 6 Dollars ■> 18b. 9d. EKcudo •• 2 Dollars ■• 78. 6d. Tbe gold coinn are aU -^^tbA fine. Tbe Condor weighs 16 253 grammes, the Doblon 7*626 grammes, and the Escudo 3*051 grammes. * 100 Dollars In silvtr are reckoned equal to 107i Dollars in gold. ■B 8fl. 9d. a l8. lOid. « 9id. wm 4|d. a. 24d. BOLIVIA, 108 SILVER COINS. The Dollar (weighing 25 gramm«fl] • Half'Dollar ( „ 12i „ Piece of 20 CentavoB ( „ 6 „ n it 10 n ( i» *9 »» M M O ,, ( ), 14 II / ^ The silver coins are also -As^^' ^^* COPPER COINS. The copper coins ore the Cent^vot worth ahont ^%d, sterling, and the Il/rff-CentavOt worth ahoat ^gd. sterling, or a id. and \d, respectively. The following foreign coins are also cnrrent at the under- mentioned rates : — Pillar Dollars at 8 per cent, premium. Other dollars at 7 1, ,. ,» Englinh Sovoreign at ahont 5^ Dollars. French 20 Frano Piece „ 4f „ American Eagle „ 11 ,, The old national Dollar of ('hili, Issued prior to 1851, was coined at the rate of 8^ Dollars to the Oastifian Mark ( » 8860| Troy grains) of silver of the flneness of 10| Dioeros. that is, 10} parts pure out of 12. It weighed 417*7 Troy gi'aius, con- tainod 374*19 Troy grains of puro pilver, and was valued at 4s. 2d. sterling. This was likewise the standard of the Spanish Dollar, and of the Dollars of all the South American Repahlics, except Columbia. BOLIVIA. Accounts are kept in Dollars and Centenoi as follows : — Bolivian value, Syttemaiic nam«. Sngliih valu€» 1 Centena ■» I'nVd. 100 Centenas » 1 Dollar « 8s. Id. COINS. The current coins are gold Doubloons and silver Dollars and their subdivisions. The Bolivian Silver Dollar, when of the fall weight of 4I7|f Troy grains, and of the flnonoss of 10 dwts. 20 grains in 12 dwts. ?that is, ^ pure), is worth 4s. 2d. sterling, but for many years tne coins iBsaed from the Potosi Mint (with the exception of the Dollar) have all been 25 per cent, below the standard. This circumstance has reduced the exchange value of the Bolivian currency to about 8s. Id. sterling per Dollar. 104 HONBT. ABGENTINE BEFUBLIC, or, LA PLATA. BUENOS ATBBS.* The denominations of money nsed in keeping aocoonts are PataconSf or Dollarti and Oentgsimos, as follows : — Buenot Ayre$ value. Byitematie name. BngUeh value. 1 Oentesimo — |d. 100 Centeslmos «- 1 Dollar or Patacon * 2s. Id. In the year 1867, the Baenos Ayres Goremment made the gold Donbloon, at the rate of 17 to the Patacon, the chief monetary nnit and divided the Dollar into 100 parts. Previoas to that time accounts were kept in Dollars^ ReaU^ and Quartos. The circnlatin^ medinm of Baenos Ayres consists principally of an inconvertible paper currency 100 Paper Dollars, Patacons being equal to 90 Silver Dollars ; but the value of the Paper Currency is constantly fluctuating, and for the present it would be impossible to resort to Specie payments or to au ex- clusive Specie Currency. The Paper Dollar had the same value as originally the Silver Dollar of South America, but it has become greatly depreciated, mainly through oveMuue. Its present value is about 2s. sterling. GOLD COINS. The gold coins, very few of which are in circulation, are Doubloont of Mexico, Peru, and Chili, at the rate of 16 silver Patacont or Dollars each ; the DoubU Eagle (20 Dollars), the Eagle (10 Dollars), the Half-Kagle (6 Dollars), the Quarter- Eagle (2^ Dollars), and the 3 Dollar Piece of the United States of North America, at par ; the British Sovereign^ at 4 Pataoons * The States of the Oonfederation were Buenos Ayres, Entre-Rios, Oorriente-*. Bants F6. nordova, Bantiago. Tacuman, salta, Catamaroa. Bioja, San Jaan, Ban LoIm, and Mendoza. Civil disputee led to a dlSBoIntioa of the Confederacy, and the country is now so many indepen- dent provinces, the leading one of which is Bnenos Ayres. Bnenos Ayres, from its maritime position, is the emporiam for the produce of the whole of La Plata, and also for Chili and Pern. The wealth and prosperity of Baenos Ayres have been rapidly increasing of late years, and no doubt if peace continue, the currency will be placed on a sounder footing. The honorable arrangement made by the Buenos Asrres Oovernment with British Bond holders has inspired commercial confidence, and British capital is finding its way into the province. Railways have been con* Btructed. A Bank with London Directors has been opened at Baenos Ayres, and an English Bank unier the protection of the Buenos Ayres Government is likely to be established at Cordova and Baenos Ayres. Bonds in the London Market are steadily increasing in price. UBUGUAT. 106 90 Gents; the British Half- Sovereign, at 2 Pataoons, 45 Cents ; the French Napoleon^ at 8 Pataoons, 90 Cents, and the Chilian Condor, at 9 Pataoons, 20 Cents. The intrinsio valae of the Donhloon is about 64r., or perhaps 648. 8d. sterling, and thns the value of the Dollar, dedaoed from that of the Doabloon, wonld be about 8s. lOd. sterling. In large meroantUe transactions gold is the most frequent medium of payment. SILVER COINS. The ifoUowing are the silTer coins which are occasionally met with in the circulation, but their amount is yery limited and they can hardly be considered a part of the legal currency. The Spanish Real, and 2 Real and 4 Real Piecee, 1. i, and i, Bolivian Dollar Piefiee, Peruvian and Chilian Do/lan, and the Pataeon or Silver Dollar of the Argentine Republic, but this latter has almost wholly dlRappeared from circulation. It was of the same weight and purity as the Spanish Hard Dollar. COPPER COINS. There are some copper coins in circulation which from being equal to |th of a Paper Dollar were called Reals, they are of the same value as the Centetimo^ viz., id sterling. PAPER MONET. The paper money in circulation consists of Notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 Dollars. The Paper Currency of Buenos Ayres is not admitted in any of the other states of the Argentine Confederation. The principal medium of circulation in those States is the Bolivian Dollar. Doubloons are also used, but are considered more as merchandize, being sold and bouf^ht for a variable number of Bolivian Dollars, generally from 18 to 19. This would give the nominal value of the Bolivian Dollar from 8b. 4|d. to 8s. 6|d. Some of the Provinces have also a depreciated Paper Currency. XTRUQITAY. (Montevideo.) Accounts are kept in Dollars^ ReaUt and Centimei, as in Spain. The currency consists of gold Doubloons, silver Dollars and their subdivisions. The Doubloon is rated at 64s. and the Dollar at 4s. 2d. sterling, but the exchanges are usually quoted ower. 106 ICONBT. PABAOUAY. Aooonnts are kept in Dollars of 100 Centimeif and the cnr- rencj is the same as that of Bolivia. FALKLAND ISLANDS. The denomination! of money used in aooounta are Pounds^ ShillififjSf and Pence sterling, and the enxrency of the islands consists chiefly of British coins. NEW SOUTH WALES. TIOTOBIA, SOUTH AVSTBALIA, WEST AUSTBALXA, TASUANIA (OB TAN DIXUEN'S LAKD). The moneys in which reckonings are made and acoonnts kept are the same as those of Great Britain. The currency consists almost wholly of British siWer coins and of Bank notetf" for £1 sterling and upwards. These notes are all payable in speoie on demand. NEW ZEALAND. Accounts are kept in Poundt^ ShilUnatt and Pence sterling, and the current coins are those of Great Britain. New Caledonia, the Botomah Islands^ Wallls Islands, Gambler's Island, the Marquesas, or Mandana Islands, The money is the same as that of France. THE SAl^BWICH ISLANDS. 107 THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. The British denominations of Poundst ShilUngSt and Fencg sterling (see p. 6^ have been declared the official moneys of account for the wnole kingdom, but merchants almost always keep their accounts in Dollars and Cents, or Dollars and Heals, as follows : — Haiioaian vahie, Byitematie name, English value. 100 Cents, or 8 Reals « 1 Dollar i- 4s. 2d. The currenpy consists of coins of other countries to which are assigned rates fixed by custom, and by the rates at which the Government receives them in payment of duties and taxes. These rates depend on the intrinsic value of the coins, and also on the extent of commercial intercourse with the countries to which the coins belong, and the proximity or distance of those countries. The following are the rates at which the undermen- tioned foreign coins are now current. GOLD COINS. Yaltie in sterlinff Value in Pounds, ShilgB., Pence. Dollars, Cente. Doubloon of Bolivia and Chili ..326 15 Chilian Ten Pesos 1 13 4 8 Eagle of the United States of North America 2 1 8 10 Brazil, 20,600 Beis 2 18 10 Sovereign of England,and Australia . 19 9i 4 75 Half- Sovereign „ 9 lOf 2 37i Ten Thaler Piece of Denmark .. 1 11 3 7 50 Twenty-five Francs of Belgium . . 19 2 4 60 Twenty Franc Piece of France . . 16 8 4 Ten „ „ „ ..084 20 Five „ „ n ..042 1 50 Central America, Two Escudos . . 14 7 3 South American Gold Dollar . . 3 1^ 75 California Twenty Dollars .... 4 1 3 19 60 „ Ten Dollars 119 7 9 50 „ Five Dollars 18 9 4 50' As the gold coinage of the United States of North America is the chief standard of value, and almost all other coins are estimated relatively thereto at a depreciated value for circu- lating purposes, the consequence is that other coins are kept out of the circulation, or driven from it. 108 MONET. SILVER COINS. Value In iterlin? Value in Founds, Bbilgfl., Fence. DoUara, Centa Five Frano Piece of France .... 4 2 1 Dollar of Columbia (Macuqnina) ..026 60 Half-DoUar of BoHvia, ChiU and Peru 1 6f 37i Quarter Dollar of Bolivia and Chili 6^ 12i SUver Buble of Bnssia 8 Ik 75 Thaler of North Germany .... 2 7i 62i Rupee of India 1 6} 87^ Half-Crown of England 2 7} 56| Shilling 1 0| 25 Sixpence „ 6^ U 6i The French 5 Franc Piece being bo convenient in the absence of any American silver Dollar subtains a relatively high current value. It passes for a Dollar, and is the common silver coin. COPPER COIN. Cent of the United States of North America « id. THE MABIAN ISLANDS. AND TINIAN. The money is the same as that of Spain. AVEBAOE COITBSE OF BXCHANOB Fos THB Teabb 1864^1872. 109 LONDON reoeiTei from or glvei to— Amsterdam Short .. 11 Qalden 17 cents For Ml Sterling. Amsterdam 8 months. . 11 Golden 79 cents It » II Rotterdam H ..11 Onldea 88 cents n It It Antwerp n ..85 Francs 48 centimes M » II Bmssels „ ..86 Francs 49 centimes » It It Hamburg Short .. 18 Marks 8 schlllinge •• i> n Hamburg 8 months. . 18 Marks 10 schlllinge ti II li Paris Short .. 86 France 81 centimes >l H 11 Paris 8 months.. 86 Francs 60 centimes II II »• ManeUIes 1, ..86 Francs 60 centimes n » II Franklort-on-Main „ .. 180^ Florins 1. *io „ "Vienna .. „ . . 18 Florins 19 cents » *1 .. Trieste .. t, ..18 Florins 81 cents •1 H 11 St. Petersburg.. ,f . . 80d. sterling For 1 Ruble. Oopenbagen . . „ . . 9 Rigsdalert 17 skOUng . . For £1 Sterling Berlin . . „ ..6 Thalers 87 groschen II M II Leipslo .. „ ..6 Thalers 87 groschen i« II n Madrid .. „ . . 48d. sterling ., 1 Dollar. Cadla ft . . 48d. sterling It II Barcelona „ . . 49d. sterling t» If Malaga . . „ . . 48d. sterling II II Bantander „ . . 48d. sterling II •• Legbom . . „ ..86 Lire 86 cents „ £1 Sterling. Milan „ ..86 Lire 86 cents II II It Oenoa „ ..86 Lire 86 cents II 11 II Venice . . ,, ..86 Lire 86 cents II II II Naples „ ..86 Lire 86 cents M II II Palermo . . „ ..26 Lire 99 cents II 11 l> Messina . . „ ..86 Lire 89 cents •1 11 11 Oporto . . 90 days . . 6ad. sterling »i IMUreis. liisbon . . „ .. Slid. „ •• II New York 60 days .. 109^* „ Per cent. Sterling. Bombay .. 88id. „ « ,1 1 Rupee. Calcutta . 88|d. .. II II Canton .. 48. 6d. „ „ 1 Dollar. Shanghai Cb. Id. „ II i» Hong Kodg . . 4s. 6d. ., * II II Buenos Ayres .. 49d. „ II 11 Rio Janeiro . . 81d. ,» „ IMUreis. Babia .. 88id. ., A II II Montevideo 61d. II „ 1 Dollar. Pemambnoo . . .. 88d. ,. M IMUreis. SonUago (OblU) .. 44d. 1, M 1 Dollar. Lima 90 days .. ^ 87d. „ II » * The exchange for '* Qreenbaoks " (or paper currency) was exceptionally Ugh dnr1n<{ the Civil War (1861--6). In 1864 the average was 808| ; in 1866 it was 168 : in 1866 it was 146) ; in 1867 it was 109 ji. The average price of gold In the year 1871 was 111}. ^ 110 PAET II. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. GBEAT BBITAIN AND IBELAND. The yard id the Btandard meagnre of leogtb ; when compared with a pendulnm vibrating seconds of mean time, in the latitude of London, in a vacnnm at the level of the sea, it is in the proportion of 80 inches to 89*1898 inches. Kngliih value, 12 Lines •* 12 Inches — 8 Feet - 6i Yards' - 4 Poles, or \ 100 Links j Syitematlc name, 1 Inch » 1 Foot - 1 Yard 1 Pole, Rod, or Perch — 1 Chain 40 Perches, or \ , iji„^v.„- 10 Chains 1 ^ ^"^^"» 8 Furlongs, or \ - ^,. 1760 Yards J ^ ^^^ 8 Miles » 1 League Equivalent value, in the Metric Hyetem CentimeirM. 2*5899 80*4794 91*4888 Metref. 6*02911 20*11643 201*16486 Kilrmieiret. 1*610981492 4882794476 The Inch is also divided into feurihs and eighthtt and some- times into tenths. A perch in Burleigh or Woodland measure ") is 6 yards j Cunuingh^m 6^ Irish 7 Forest < 8 t> it »» tt It tt It UetrM. 6-486298 5*714894 6-400681 7-8160C4 OBEAT BBITAnr A.VD IBELA.VD. Ill The Irieh mUe of 820 perches or 2340 yards • 20-i8 kilo- metres, and 6 1 Irish miles — 7 English miles, or 11 Irish » 14 English miles. To reduce Irish miles to English miles multiply by 14 and divide by 11. To reduce English miles to Irish miles multiply by 11 and divide by 14. A Palm is 8 ioohes, a hand is 4, a span 9, a cubit IB, and a sacred cubit 22 inches. A Military Pace is 2| feut. A Geometrical or Itinerary pace is 5 feet, it is the space from* ** the elevation of one foot to the same foot set down again, mediated by a step of the other foot " ; 1000 of such paces were reckoned to a mile. A fathom is 6 feet. A Cablets length is 12U fathoms. A degree of the Equator is 691618 miles, and a degree of the Meridian is 69*046 miles or 864565 feet. CLOTH MEA8UBB8. Oentlmetres. 2i Inches - 1 NaU - 5^V 4 Nails - 1 Quarter - 22^ 4 Quarters - 1 Yard - 914 5 Quarters « Ir EU « 114^ A Flemish Ell is 8 and a French Ell was 6 Quarters. IMPERIAL MEASURES OF SURFACE. Equivalent poIus BnglUh valtM 8}f$t«matie name, in the Metric SyeUm, 144 Sq. Inches - 1 Bq. Foot - .000929 Sqaafe Metres. 9 Sq. Feet « 1 Sq. Yard - 008S61 or .836097 49 Bq.Ya.. ( -(J„][J:^:^„V }- •*09687or4O-968753 ( 4840 Sq. Yds. ) Heotaree. 4 Roods- 10 Sq. Chains or • -1 Acre -40*467102 or '404671 ^100,000 Sq. Links ^ 100 Acres make 1 Hide of Land -4046*7102 or 40*467102 640 H M 1 Square Mile * Holder 112 WIIOHTS AKD MIA8T7BE0. MEASUBES OF OUBIO EnglUk valut, BjnUmatie name OAFAaTY. Equivalent value- in t\e Metrie Syttem, 1728 Cnbio Inchei 27 Cubic Feet 40 Cubic Feet] rongb timber j 42 Cnbio Feet 60 Cubic Feet] hewn timber) *108 Cubic Feet 1128 Cubic Feet 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Cubic Foot Cubic Yard Onbio MetrM. - -028815 - -764518 Load - 1182600 Ton of Shipping » 1-189280 Load - 1-415750 Btaok of Wood « 8 '058020 Cord of Fire-wood -8 '624820 A Cnbio Yard is sometimes called a Load (cart load) of earth. A Ton of Shipping is a weight as well aa a measure. LIQUID MEASURES. Enfflith value, Byetematie name. 8-665 Cubic Inches - 1 Gill « 4 OiUs 2 Pints 4 Quarts - 1 Pint: - 1 Quart « 1 Gallon Equivalent value in (he Metrie Syttem, MlllllltrM. Lltm. 141-984 or -14198 667-986 M -567986 118587 4-548487 By the Act 5th Geo. lY. the unit and only Standard measure of capacity as well for all sorts of liquids as for dry goods not measured by heaped measure is the Imperial Gallon eontaining 10 pounds Avoirdupois weight of distilled water, weighed in air at the temperature of 62 degrees of Fabrenheit*B thermo- meter, the barometer being at 80 inches. The gallon ImperiAl contains 277*27884 cubic inches. MEASURES FOR DRY GOODS (STRUCK MEASURE). Bngliih value, 2 Pints 4 Quarts 2 Gallons 4 Pecks (8GallonB) 8 Bnshels Syitematie Name 1 1 1 1 Quart Gallon Peck Bushel ■i 1 Quarter . EfuivaUni va^ue in the Metrie SyeUm* Litre*. « 11858 » 4*548487 « 8-086974 - 86*847896 Uacto TJt . 2*90788168 ■*T It * A Staek of wood if 8 F««t broad, S Foot deep, and IS Feet long, ii ilto oaltod a Fnnoh oord. f A Oord of wood is 4 Feet broad, 4 Feet deep, 8 Feet long, and wei^lOCwt At tlie Rojal Arienal Woolwich, the terms Oord and Staek are used IndiieriiDiiiately to denote 106 Onbic Feet of wood. X An Imperial Pint of distilled water weighed in raeno, at its greatest deasitj, is eqoal to 8750 Grains Tro7, or 20 Onnoet AToirdupois. SBBAT BBITAUr USTO IVKLkTSTD.. 118 A. basherof wheat weighs on ui ayerage 67 to 60 Ibt. »i ' rye „ 66 lbs. „ barley „ 47 to 49 lbs. ., oats H 88 to 40 lbs. ft malt „ 40 lbs. fi bere „ 42 lbs. STANDARD FOR H£APED XBASURI. The standard measure of capacity for ooals, onlm, lime, flsh, potatoes, fruit and all other soods and things commonly sold by heaped measure is the bushel containing 80 pounds Ayoirdnpois of water, the same being made round with a plain and even bottom, and being 19 i inches from outside to outside of such standard measure. — In making use of such bushel all coals and other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure shall be duly heaped in snob bushel in the form of a cone, such oona being of the height of at least 6 inches, and the'outsida of the bushel to be the extremity of the base of such cona ; threa bushels make 1 sack— 1*09042992 French hectolitres and 12 sacks make one chaldron— 18*08615904. OAPAOZTY AND NAMB8 OF BEER AND ALB CASKS. 9 Gallons* a FirkluB or 18 0«Uoa8 S Kilderkins, or 86 „ 8 KlldarkiuB, or 54 „ 8 Hogsheads, or 106 „ 1 Firkin of Beer 1 KUderkin 1 Barrel of Beer 1 Hogshead of Beer 1 Baft - «0*89n9 Utres. : ttl'789944 „ :ie3-664488 ,. S«ft-846789 „ •400*688464 M OAPAOZTY AND NAMES OF WINE OASK«k 49 Gallons - 68 Gallons, or U Tieree - 84 Gallons, or 9 Tieroes \ -. orlii Hogshead / 8 Tieroes, or 9 Hhds. -- 8 Pipes < 1 Tieroe 1 Hogshead of wine 1 Panoheon 1 Pipe 1 Ton mm 100-896986,, =r tittO-9878M„ = 3II1*660479k z= ft»«*475708 „ —1144*961416 w I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MI80BLLANB0US TABLE OF LIQT7ID MEASURES. Hogshead of Olaret . 46 galls. Butt of Shenj . . 110 „ Pipe of Port .... 115 „ Pipe of Madeira . . 09 „ Pipe of TeneriffiB . . 100 , Pipe of Lisbon ... 117 ,. Pipo of Malaga ... 105 Hogtihead of Hook, Khein, and Moselle 80 Hogahead of Gape . 99 Hogshead of Texftt . 69 •I It II Hhd. of Marsalas Bronte 96 galls. Pun. of S. Whisky 119 to 190 „ Pun. of Brandy . 100 to XlO „ Hhd. of Brandy . 46 to 60 Oask of Brandy 90 to 96 Pipe of Older . 100 to 118 Piece of Qoneva, about 116 Pun. of Rum . 90 to 100 Hhd. of Hum . 45 to 60 Ton of Wine .... 959 i> u •t It 11 II II * Five Imperial Gallons are nearly eqoal to six Gallons of the old system used In the vine trade. 114 WEIGHTS kVD MBASTTBSS. VL-MEDICAL BUB-DIVISIONS OF THE IMPERIAL PINT. Equivalent value BnglUh value, Syetematie name. in the Metric 8yeUm, Mimiitres. Minim (ni.) - •069159009S7 60 Minim* -1 Fluid Drachm (f.3)- 3-5496765626 8 flnid Drachms -1 Fluid Ounce (f.^.)-- 28*89661251 Litre*. 20 Floid Onncei -1 Imperial Pint (0*) « -567936 8 Pint! -1 Gallon - 4*643487 VII.— WBiaHTS. ▲YOIBDUPOIft WEIOHTB. Equivalent value, Englieh value, Systematie name. in the Metric Syttem. Oramaiei. 1 Grain - '0648 2744 Troy Grains - 1 Dram (dr.) - 1-7718476 16 Drams ' • 1 Oonoe (oz.) - 28'3495626 " ^Z ^g3 1 - 1 f o*^ ab.) - 468-6926 Kiloffrunmef. 14 Pounds « 1 Stone • 6.360302 28 Pounds « 1 Quarter (qr.) » 12*700604 ^ 112^8? ^^^] ■ ^ Hundredweight(owt.)-. 60*802416 20 Hundredweight » 1 Ton » 1016*04882 The unit and only standard of weight is the Imperial Troy pound, one twelfth of the said Troy pound is an ounce and one twentieth part of. such ounce is a penny weight, and one twenty -fourth part of such pennyweight is a grain ; so that five thousand seven hundred and sixty such grains are a Troy pound, and seven thousand such grains are a pound Avoirdupois ; one sixteenth part of the pound avoirdupois is an ounce, and one sixteenth part of such ounce is a dram. The standard Troy pound if lost might he restored by reference to the weight of a cubic inch of distilled water, which weighed in air by brass weights, at the temperature of 62 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, the barometer being at 30 inches, is equal to 252*458 grains, while the standard Troy pound contains 6,760 of such grains. WXIOHTB IN TBB WOOL TBADB. 7 Pounds ^^ 1 Olove 14 Pntinds *"^ 1 8tone 9 Stone = 1 Todd 6i Tods — 1 Wey a Weys zzz 1 Back 13 Sacks — 1 Las# In the reign of Edward III. (A.D. 1827- 1877) a Sack of Wool contained 26 Stone, as now. OBSAT BBITAIN AND XBKLAKD. 115 MISGELLANEOUB WEIOHTB, MBA8URBS, AND NUMJBBRIOAL QUANTITIBS. Bag of Hopi . . S4 owt Bag of H»mbarg K«g8 . . Sj owt BaffoffUoe ..108 lbs. Bale of Meditemaean Rags .. U to 6 owt. Bale of Featheri . . about 1 cwt. Ball or Boll of Scotch Oat- meal . 140 lbs. Barrel of American Flotxjr . .106 lbs. Barrel of Boap . .966 Ibe. Barrel (In Ireland for VlTheat. Peas, Beans and Rye) Barrel (Barley, Beer, Rap« Seed) Barrel of Goal Tar, or Stockholm Tar Barrel of Lime (Ireland) Barrel of Oata Barrel of Gunpowder Barrel of &Ialt Barrel of Anohoviei Baudle of Iron Bundle of Iron Wire up to 80 «uftge Bundle of Iron Wire above 90 stone 16 stone 86 gallons . . 88 gallons . . 14 atone ..100 lbs. .. 18 stone .. 80 lbs. 66 lbs. 68 lbs. 80 guage Bushel of Flour Gaak of Blaoklead Gask of Bristles Cloye of Wool Clove of Gheese Dosen 60 lbs. 66 lbs.* abt. Hi lbs. 10 owt. 7 lbs. 8 lbs. 18 articles Great Hundred of Timber . .120 duals Faggot of Stoel Firkin of Bnttor Firkin of Raiains Firkin of Soap Fother of Lead Gr«i88 (a) Hundred feet of Timber Hogshead of Tobi^ooo Last of Gunpowder Last of Flour or Feathers Last of Herrings Load of Straw { II „ New Hay II II It ..120 lbs. .. 6611)8. .. iiaibs. .. 041bii. . . 19^ owt. . . 144 articles ..IsiOdpalB .. 18 to 18 cwt. „ Old Hay of Bricks of Tiles of Potatoes (at Don caster) Paok of Wool Peck of Salt Pig Ballast Pocket of Hops Quarter of Timber Quintal Roll of Parchment Sack of Flour Score Seam of Glass Stone of Batcher's meat Gheese Fish Glass Hemp Iron Iron wire up to 90 guage „ ., Iron wire aboye ..9400 lbs. .. 17 owt. .. 10000 .. 11 cwt., Sqrs. 81bs...l306Ibs. . . 86 trusses of 601bs...81601bs. . .86 trusses of 661b8...a0161bs. .. 600 ..1000 •I M II M II II II II It It II 90 guage „ (, Wool sold growers ., „ Wool sold Woolstaplers to other Truss of Straw „ I, Old Hay „ „ New Hay by each ..9401b8. .. 14 lbs. . . 66 lbs. . . lA to 9 owt. .. 80 deals ..100 lbs. .. 60 skins. ..983 lbs. .. 80 articles ..180 lbs. . . 8 lbs. .. 16 lbs. .. 8 lbs. . . 6 lbs. .. 88 lbs. 14 lbs. 10} lbs. 10 lbs. 14 lbs. 18 lbs. 86 lbs. 66 lbs. 60 lbs. EngUth valu«. 24 Grfiins « 20 Peunyweightfl « 12 Onnoes — (b) TROT WEIOHT. ByittnMtic name, 1 Grain (gr.) 1 Pennyweight (dwt.) — 1 Ounce or Oarat (oz.) » 1 Pound (lb.) - Equivalent value, in tke Metrie tyetem, UtUifframmet. -. 64-799 OrammM. 1-555176 81*10852 278-24224 Diamonds and other preoiouB stones are weighed by carats, each oarat being divided into halves, quarters, eighths^ and sixteenths. The ounce Troy weighs 151 1 diamond carats, so 116 WEIGHTS AND MEA8TTBES. that the diamond carat is equal to 3^ Troy grains, or 205 4 French decigrammes. Pearls are weighed by the Troy standard, bnt the Penny- weight is divided into 30 grains instead of 24 ; and hence the Pearl ounce contains 600 Pearl grains, and 4 Troy grains are equal to 5 Pearl grains. Jpothecaries* Weight. The revised weights and measures of the British Pharma- copoea are the Grain, the Ounce, and the Pound, as follows : — Millif^ammes. 1 Grain (gr.) - 64- 799 Orammea. 437^ Grains « 1 Ounce (oz.) « 38 -34956 16 Ounces « 1 Pound (lb.) » 463*593 The Apothecaries' Weights superseded by the aboye are as follows : — Old Jpothecariei Weight, ( 20 Grains 3 Scruples 8 Drachms 12 Ounces . - 1 Scruple (3) = «■ 1 Drachm (3) ■« « 1 Ounce (5) « « 1 Pound <- TABLE OF THE SIZES OF BOOKS MlUifirmninea. 1286-98 or Grammet. 1-29598 3-88794 31-10352 373*24224 Folio Books . Qaaiio, or 4to Octavo, or 8vo paf^s. leaves, sheet. . 4 or 2 make 1 .8.4. 1 . 16 . 8 . 1 pafpes. leaves, sheet. Duodecimo, or 12 mo 24 or 12 mk. 1 Octodecimo, or 18 mo 86 or 18 . 1 24mo, 82mo, 48mo, 7^mo, &c., &c. TABLE OF THE QUANTITIES OF PAPER. 21 i quires 1 Printer's ream 2 reams 1 bundle 10 reams 1 bale 24 sheets of paper . 1 quire 20 sheets . 1 quire ontsides 25 sheets . 1 Printer's quire 20 quires . 1 ream Bizet of Paper, Pot . . Foolscap . Litlria . Post . . Large Post Demy . . ia| by Va\ inches by 16| Inches 18 18 15 16 18 by 17| inches by 18 inches by 20^ inches by 22 inches Medium . . Royal . . . Super royal . Imperials . . Double crown Dbl, foolscap by 23) inches by 24 inches Size» of Drawing Paper, Wove Antique . 25 by 27 inches Double Elephant 40 by 26 inches Atlas .... 83 by 26 inches Culumbier . . 84 by 28 inches Elephant . . 27 by 28 inches Imperial . Super Royal Royal . . Medium. . Demy . . by 27 by 29; by 80 16i by 26i 81 by 21 27 by 19 24 by 19 22 by 17 20 by 16 inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches 90 words in Chancery, 80 in Exchequer, and 71 in Common law, are 1 folio. Quills are sold by weight, called loths—a loth Is about half an ounce. GBEAT BRITAnr AHD HtSLAKD. 117 THE QUABTER DATS. Lady Day . . 25th Maroh MidBommer Day . . 24th Jane Michaelmas Day . . 29th September Christmas Day . . 26th December DIVISIONS OF THE CIRCLE. 60 seconds » 1 minnte 60 minates ^ 1 degree 80 degrees « 1 sign 90 degrees « 1 quadrant 860 degrees, or 12 signs » 1 oironmferenoe MEASURES OF TIME. second (b.) 60 seconds ■■ 1 minnte (m.) 60 minntes ■■ 1 hoar (h.) 24 hoars m, 1 day (d.) 7 days » 1 week (w.) 4 weeks » 1 ciyil month 866 days, or 52 weeks . , — 1 oiTil year (yr.) 866 days — 1 leap year. THE CALENDAR. A mean solar day is the average intenral between two snooessiTe transits of the meridian of any place past the centre of the son's disc. A solar year contains 366'212218 mean solar days, or 865 days, 5 hoars, 48 minates, 48 seconds. The civil, or common year, contains 865 days, and is, therefore, shorter by 5 hoars, 48 minates, 48 seconds, than the true year. This error, if not corrected, wonld lead to a confasion in the retam of the seasons, cansing sommer to fall sometimes in Joly, and sometimes in December. Jnlius Ciesar, peroeiYing this, ordered that eyeiy fourth Tear shoold contain 866 days. The extra day is added to Febrnary, and the year in which it occurs is called ** Leap-year." The Julian connection was too great by *007782 of a day. This error amounted in 1200 years to 8 '8384 days, and in 400 years to 8*1128 days, hence the Vernal Equinox which had fallen on the 21st Maroh, in the year A.D. 825, fell on the 11th Maroh, in the year A.D., 1582. At the council of Nice in 1582, Pope Gr^ory XIII., to rectify this error, ordered that 11 days should be omitted in that year. Causing the day succeeding the 41h October to be denominated the 14th so that in A.D. 1583, the Equinoxes and Solstice happened on the same nom- inal days on- which they fell in the year A.D. 825. To preveut 118 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. the recurrence of the error he ordered farther that every fourth year shonld contain ^66 days, but that in every cycle of 400 years, the 100th, 200th, and 300 years should contain only 365 days ; and that every 400tfa year shonld contain 366 days. Hence the Gregorian correction of the Julian Calendar, which is a deduction of three days from every 400 years, may be briefly stated as follows : — Every /our/A year is leap year, except in exact centuries, the first 3 of which are common years, and fourth is a leaj^ year. To find the average length of the Gregorian year, multiply 365 4, the average number of days in the Julian year, by 400. Sub- tract 3 from the product and divide the remainder by 400. Thus 365 i X 400 « 146100 and 146100-3 « 146097 and 146097+400= 365^^'5«365-2425 days. The average year of the Gregorian Calendar, namely 865*2425 days, or 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, 12 seconds, is greater than the true year by '000282 of a day, or 24*3648 seconds, but this error amounts only to a day in 4000 years. It was not till the year 1752 that the Gregorian Calendar, or new styUi as it is called, (to distinguish it from the JaUan Calendar or old ttyle^ (still retained in Kussia) was introduced into Great Britian. In that year, the then Secretary of State, Lord Chesterfield, assisted by two able mathematicians. Lord Macclesfield and Mr. Bradley, prepared a BUI for reforming the Calendar. This Bill enacted that the new year should begin on the Int of January, instead of the 25th March, and that 11 days, intermediate between the 2nd and 14th of Sep- ' tember, 1752, should be omitted. In works of that period, and prior to it, a double date is often met with for the months of January, February, March, up to the 24th March ; as for instance the '* 15th February, 1754 — 5." In such cases the former date indicates the year according to the old styles and the latter year according to the new style. Rule to find Leap-year. When the figures denoting the year, or in exact centuries when .the figures denoting the. hundreds in the date, can be evenljjT divided by 4, the year is leap-year ; when there is a remamder, it denotes the number of years that have elapsed since leap year. Thus, 1860 is divisible by 4 without re- mainder, it was therefore leap-year ; but 1863, on division by 4, gives a remainder of 3, thus showing that the year 1863 is the third after leap year. Again, 1600 and 2000 complete each an exact century, and the numbers 16 and 20, which denote the hundreds in the dates are each divisible by 4, hence the years 1600 and 2000 are leap years ; but in 1700, 1800, and, 1900, the number 17, 18, and 19 are not so divisible, and therefore the years are not leap years. 9BAKCS. 119 THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. VIZ., aUERNSET, JERSBT, ALDBRNET, AMD SARK. The weights and measures are the same as those of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. FRANCE. The Metric system of weights and measures is now very generally used in many conntries throughout the world. France took the initiative in introducing this system into Europe. Tho fundamental basis of the Metric system is a quadrant of the meridian, that is, the distance from the Equator to the north pole. This quadrant is divided into ten millions of equal parts, and one of these parts is called a metre. The metre is the fundamental unit of measures of length as well as of all weights and measures, and from it, by decimal multi- plication and division, all other measures are derived. Delambre and Mechaiu calculated, from measuring an arc of the meridian between Dunkirk and Barcelona, the lengUi of the quadrant of a meridian from the Equator to the Pole. The ten millionth part of that meridian is the unit of length, and is called a Metre, It is equal to 89*87079 English inches. The square of 10 Metres (in other words, a square Deca- metre,) is the uuit of surface measure, and is called an Are. It is equal to 8*995 English perches. The cube of the tenth part of the Metre, that is, a cubic Decimetre, is the unit of measures of capacity, and is called a Litre, It is equ^ to 1*7607 Imperial British pints. The cube of a Metre is the unit of solid measure, and is called a Sfere, It is equal to 8*5817 English cubic feet. The unit of weight is the Gramme, it is the weight in vacuo of a quantity of distilled* water, at its greatest density (viz., at * Distilled wator is taken at its greatest density and weighed in vacuo tor the following reasons :— Between oertain temperatures the same yolame of water differs in weight at different degrees of heat. If a por- tion of water at the temperature of meltinff ice (82o Fahrenheit, or Oo Centigrade) be placed over a source of heat, its buU(, or volume, will be observed to decrease, and therefore its denaUff increcuee. This decrease of volame, or increase of density, continues until the water reaches the temperature of 89*2o F., or 4o 0. If the heat be applied beyond this point the water begins to increase in volume and decrease in density Water is therefore at its greatest density at the temperature of 89'2o F., or 40 0. Ordinazy water always contains, either in solution or suspen- sion, a quantity of saline and other substances, and the same volume, or bulk, of different specimens of water will vary in weight according to the quantity of foreign bodies contained in it. The weight of the same sise, or bulk, of any substance is greater, or less, according as the density of the atmosphere (whloh Is constantly 120 WEIGHTS AKB HXASUBE8. 89'2* Far.f), wheih would be Btiffloient to flU a cnbe described upon |be ont hundredth part of a Metre. In other words, it is the weight of a cabio Clentimetre of distilled water at a tem- perature of 89*20 F. It is equal to 15*78244 Troy grains. The prefixes denoting multiples are deriyed from Greek, and those denoting divisions from Latin, thus : — Deoa, 10 times ; Hecto, loo times; Kilo, 1.000 times; Myrio, 10,000 times; Deoi, i^th part ; Centi, -riv^^ 1^^ > Milli, ttAfv^^ P^* MEASUBES OF LENGTH. French value. SyitematU name. 1 Millimetre 1 Centimetre 1 Deoimetre Thousandth part of Metre ^ Hundredth part of Metre » Tenth part of a Metre a Ten millionth part of dis-) t tlt * tance from Pole to Equator/ * «Le%re En^Ueh value, InehM. •08987079 •^987079 8-987079 39*87079 or 10 Metres 100 Metres 1000 Metres 10,000 Metres ^of a \ degree decimal j League of 4 kilometres League of 25 to a degree League nautical of 20 to I a degree | Mile, nautical of 60 to I a degree i ■i 1 Decametre m 1 Hectometre M 1 Kilometre M 1 Mjriametre >■ 4000 metres - 4444 „ « 5556 - 1852 ft It Ft. In. 8-87079 Tard*. 10*98688 109*8638 1098*638 Mllcf. 6*2188 or MnM.Tdf. Ft^fn. 6 876 OU-9 » 2 854i » 2 1840 - 8 796i - 1 265^ X { Tsning) if 1«M or greater »t different timef . The greater the bnoyanej of the air, the leea will appear the weight of each body, and vice verea. Therefore, to render the weight of water aeleoted as the nnit of weight free from variations arising from its impregnation with various salts, from difference of temperature, or from differenees in the density of the air, distilled water at its greatest density is weighed in vacuo. f There are three different sorts of Thermometers in use:— 1. Fahren- heit's which is nsed chiefly in Great Britain, Holland, and North America, the freezing point on which is at 82o, and boiling point at 2120. 8. Beanmnr's, which was that chiefly nsed in France before the Bevolntion, and Is that now generally nsed in Spain, and In some other Continental States; its freezing point is Oo, and boiling point 8o. 8. The Celsius, or Centigrade Thermometer, now almost universally nsed throughout France and in the Northern and Middle Kingdoms of Europe; the Zero or freezing point is Qo, and boiling point 100 ». Hence to reduce degrees of temperature of the Centigrade Thermometer, and of that of Reaumur to degrees of Fahrenheit's scale, and conversely :~ BulA 1. Multiply the Centigrade df>grees by 9, and divide the product by 6, or multiplv the degrees of Reaumur by 9, and divide the product by 4: then add 82 to the quotient in either case, and the sum is the degree of temperature on Fahrenheit's seal*. Ruub 2. From the'nnmber of de* Sreott on Fulireitheit's scale, substract 80, multiply the remainder by 5 for entigrade degrees, or by 4 for those of Reaumur's scale, and the product, in either caee, being divided by 9, will give the temperature required. TBijrOB. 121 MEABUBES OF SURFACE. AppromimaU 8quMr« Inchti. 100 Bq. MillimetreB -1 Sq. Oentimetre -^ *150O69 1062199 100 Sq. Oentimetrei »1 Sq. Dedmetre ■•16*600691052192 100 B,. Dedmetre. - {^<?-^ *^} -^oSS' " ^ 04. j»oi«« } x-19608326 100S,.Met«. -{^^treSlj- '■ FoU 1 Are or Bq. ) 8*968828969 or Bouw U9' [uwe Tftrdn. 608826 Roodi. 9*8846724* or 100 sq. Deo^atre, -{J|J<|t|^,^,,}-^J.«%^ 2 22808326 AcrM. 100 Sq. Hectometres «1 Sq. Eiloxnotre • 247*11481 100 Sq. Kilometres -1 Sq. Myriametro- 24711*481 The nnits most nsaally adopted for the measurement ot snrfaoes, are, the square Metre, the square Decametre, and the square Kilometre, hat the measurement *of surfaces of very great extent is calculated in square Myriametres. The xmit for measurement of land is the square Decametre, called in this case an Are, Its subdivision is the Centiare (100th part of an Are), or square Metre, and its multiple is the Hectare (100 Ares), or square Hectometre. There is also the Jkcare of 10 Ares equal to about 89i Boods. This may be Bhova in a tabular form as follows : — LAND MEASUKE. ' ApproBBimitt JVmmA VdlMt, SyittmaHe name, XnglUh pdhu, 100th of an Are -1 Oentiare or 1 Sq. Metre- 1*196046 100 Oentiares -il Are or 1 Sq. Decametre- 118*6046 100 Area ^flHcotareor \ 11960*47 or - I ISq. Hectometre | -^7- a|V6lfii26 * The Hectare is equal to 8 Acres Rood, 86 Perches, Engliuh statate measure, nearly. 122 WEiaHTS AJSH HZASUBXS. CUBIC, OB SOLID MEASURES. In the measnrement of idxnber and other solid coherent sub- stances, the Cttbic Metre^ in this case called a Stere^ is the nnit employed as follows : — Approximate French Vehu. SyMtematie name. EnglUh tfoUte, Cubfo Feet. ■^jfii of a Stere — 1 Decistere =^ 3*531714 10 Decisteres -« I Stere » 36*31714 10 Steres « 1 Decastere => 363*1714 MEASURE OF CAPACITY. The nnit of measures of capacity is the Litre; it is a measure whose length, width and depth are each equal to 1 Decimetre. It is therefore a Cubic Decimetre. Approximate French value, Syttematie name. English vetlue. Mininui. 1000th of a Cubic Decimetre =.lMilinitre - 16*9034247744 10 Millilitres, or 100th of > , _ ,.,.^ o^o?JI^??^*. a Cubic Decimetre ] = ^ Centilitre = 2*81723T4624 10 Centilitres 3= 1 Decilitre / Plnid OuDC^H. < 3*521546828 or { 10 Litres = 1 DecaUtre -1 Imperial Ptnts. •176077339526 ^ Ve'cSe """ "" ^""^^ } = 1 ^"^'^^ - 1*70077339525 17-6077389526 or Imperial Gall nit. 2*2009667440625 (22*009667440625 or 10 Decalitres = 1 Hectolitre = \ imperial BuBbei. (2*751208430078125 2 Bushels & 3 Pecks, nearly Imperial Galloas. r 220*09667440626 or T^lcTc^'e^ier } -^ ^o^tre^ J 21^^SS.^'s or Inperlal Qoartem. L 3*43901053759 8 Quarters, S Bushels, 2 Pecks, nearly. To facilitate the transactions of the shop and the market the use of the Half -Litre and Double-Litre, and the Half-Lictlitre and Double-Decilitre, are sanctioned by law, and these , with the Litre t are the chief measures in daily use. The English value of the Decilitre may be roughly stated at a little more TBAKOX. 123 than (ths of a Gill, and that of the Litre a little less than a Quart. As a matter of conTenienoe these measures, and also the multiples of the Litre, are made in a eyliiidiieal form, hut the oorreotness of the measure depends upon its oontaining preeiselj a Cuhio Decimetre, and not upon its shape. WEIOHTB. The Gramme, that is the weight in vacuo of a Cuhio Centi- metre of distilled water at a temperature of 39*2° Fahrenheit (4® centigrade), is the unit of weight. It is equal to 16*432349 grains Troy. The Gramme and its subdivisions the Decigramme (10th of a Gramme) the Centigramme (100th of a Gramme) and the Milli- gramme (1000th of a Gramme) are the weights usually em- ployed in the minute operations of adentifio experiments. In the large transactions of trade and oommerce, the weights most frequently used are the Kilogramme (1000 Grammes), the Metrical Quintal or 100 Kilogrammes, and the Nouvemi Tann- eaudemer^ or Tonneau Metriquet of 1000 Kilogrammes. The Kilogramme is equal to 2*204611>8. Avoirdupois, and the Qukital and Ton are respectively equal to 220*4661bB. and 8204*661bs. Avoirdupois. TABLE OP WEIGHTS. French viilue. 1000th of a Gramme 100th of a Gramme or 10 '^ Milligrammes ) 10th of a Gramme or 10 \ Oentigrammes j 10 Centigrammes, or the "^ weight in vacuo of a | cubic Centimetre of y distilled water at i 89-2® F. J 10 Grammes 100 Grammes or 10 Decagrammes 1000 Grammes or 10 Hectogrammes )- }- 8y$Umatie name, b1 Milligramme al Centigramme ibI Decigramme ■■1 Gramme >" 1 Decagramme 1 Hectogramme ■ 1 Kilogramme * Approximate SnglUh value* Qralitii Troy, •015432349 •154323488 1^54323433 15*4823438 154*823488 1543-23488 or Oi. Drams Av. 8 8*4883 IIm.At. f 2*2046(i or Iba. 01. Dramt. 2 3 4*3830 { ( 124 WEIGHTS ABD MEASVBE8. TABLE OF WEIGHTS. (Continued,) French vaJ/ut, 10000 Grammes or 10 Kilogrammes 10 Myriagnuxunes 10 Quintals Spttematio name. I oilMyxiagramme*" < d Approximate Englieh value. lbs. At. 22*0466 or lbs. Dnuna. 8 U'8804 •■ 1 Quintal Metriqne >» cwt. cwt. st> 1-97 or 1 7 »1 TonorMillier ■» / ewt« cwt* stb Ibta 19*7 or 19 6 6 IbB. At. 220*466 or lbs. oz. Drams. 10 7 6-304 lbs. At. 2204*66 or OS. "Drama. 9 16*04 It will be readHj understood that since a Litre or Cubic Decimetre is eqnal to lOOC Onbio Centimetres, and a Cubio Centimetre is a Gramme, therefore a Litre of distilled water at 39'2°F is eqnal to a Kilogramme, and it therefore follom that any nnmber of Litres of distilled water at that tempera- tore are eqnal in weight to a corresponding nnmber of Kilo- grammes. Conversely the nnmber of Grammes representing the weight of a quantity of water contained in a vessel will be the num- ber repreBeuting the cubio capacity of the vessel in Centimetres. Hence, when fiie cubic capacity of a vessel is known, the weight of water which it would contain can be readily calcu- lated without having recourse to actual weighing. From this mutual relation of the Kilogramme and the Litre, the weight of any substance of known density or spedfio gravity can be calculated from its cubic capacity, or conversely, its cubic capacity can be calculated from its weight. Specific gravity or density may be defined to be the weight of a given bulk, or volume of any substance as compared with an equal bulk of distilled water*t 39*2"^ F. (4o centigrade), the weight of the water being taken as unity, or it may be more briefly defined as the comparative weight of equal bulks ci difierent substances. ' Thus, for instance, if the weight of a given bulk of water be 100 Grammes, then the weight of an equal bulk of spirit would be 80 Grammes, that of iron 750, and that of mercury 1350 Grammes. It thus appears that (bulk for bulk of each being taken) spirit is ^th lighter, iron 7 1 times heavier, and mercury 13^ times heavier thw water. BCSSIA. 125 BxrssiA. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Jpproxiwtatt Rutaian vdtur, SifBtemaUe nawu. Xngluh value, Inche*. 1 Yenhok « If 8 Venhoks »1 Stopa ^ » 14 2 Stopas, or 16 Yerslioks — l Arschine* » S8 Feet. 3 Arschines >al Saschen » 7 r S500ft.,or6629mile8, 500 Saschens '-I Yerst «* } or 5 Furlongs, 12 (, Poles, 2 feet. The Fnss is equal to 13*75 inehes, the Kosoow Foot to 18*18 inches, and the Paletz to i an inch. The lithoanian Meile is equal to 9781 jards, or 6*5574 miles. Since 1831 the English Foot of 12 Inches, each Inch of 10 parts, has heen used as the ordinary standard of length measures. The Bhein Fnss (28530 to a Lithuanian Meile) is used in calculating the export duties on timher. 103 English Feet » 100 Rhein Fuss. MEASURES OF SURFACE. Approximate Bu»$ian value. Spatemalle namei SHglUh value, Sq. Inohe*. 9 Square Archines » l Square Sachine ■■ 784 SquanTard. 2400 Square Sachines » 1 Desatine »* 13067 The Desatine is equal to 2 Acres, 2 Roods, 32 Poles, EngUsh. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Buuian value. 100 Tscharkeys 3 Yedros 40 Yedros Syatematie name. 1 Tscharkey Approximate English value. OfaOm.nettlf. •86 1 Vedro 1 Anker 1 Sarokowaja Imperial Gallona. « 2*7049 => 8*1147 » 108*196 * Usod in Cloth Measare. 126 WSIOHTB AliTD ICEASITBSS. 100 Vedros are eqnal to 270*6955 BritiBh Imperial gallons. The EniBchka is a measnre equal to 10 Tscharkeys or tibe -^th of a Yedro, and eqniTalent to 1*08196 Imperial Qnart. MEASUBES OF GAPAGITY FOB DBT GOODS. Biuiian value. 2 Gamietz 4 Tschetwerkaa 2 Techetwerilu 2 Pajaks 2 Osnuns 16 TschetwertB BvttitnaHe nams, 1 Gamietz ■■ ■> 1 Teohetwerka ■■ ■■ 1 Tschetwerik ik - I « 1 Pajak M 1 Osmin a 1 Tschetwert •> 1 Last Approximate SnglUh value, ImpLQiiarte. 6-7696 'Impl. QaUoD* 1-4424 or Bnaheli. .•1803 Feclu. 2*8862 or Bnghel. •7213 BtuheU^ 1-4426 2-8852 5-7704 ImpLQiurten. 11-5408 A Tschetwert is nsnallj reckoned as eqnal to 5f Imperial BnshelB, and 100 Tschetwerts to 72 Imperial Quarters, bnt its more exact yalne is 72*1308 Imperial Qnarters. At St. Petersburg a Tschetwert is sometimes reckoned at 70^ Imperial Quarters. 100 British Imperial Qnarters are equal to 188*637 Tschetwerts. WEIGHTS. Btueian value, 96 Dolis 8 Zolotnicks 8 Zolotnicks 12 Lanas, or 32 Lotti 40 Funts 10 Puds 3 Berkovitz 1- Systematic name. 1 Dolis • 1 Zolotnick '1 Lotti 1 Lana Appromimate SngUeh value. ■>f of a Troy Grain ^2 Dwts. 17| Gms. Troy fl) -8 „ 6k „ „ (2) B n Ounces Av. (3j 1 Funt (Pound) »14| If ft w 1 Pud (or Pood) 1 BerkoTitz 1 Paoken - 1 Qr. 8t\7 Ihfl. (5) »3Gwt. „ 25Vrt* (6) -:9 ., 2 „ 19+ „ (7) The Pud (or Pood) is very commonly estimated at 86 lbs. Avoirdupois. The Nuremberg Pound, used by Apothecaries, is equal to 5527 Troy Grains. The Dutch Carat, used in weighing pearls and precious stones^ is equal to about 3^ Troy Grains. TOIuLVD. 127 FOIiAim. Binee 1881 the legal meaBues have been those of BoBsia. PftYiooa to that date they were as follows : — MSA8UKES OF UBNQTH. 1 Gal « lOwiexo » 1 Stopa Ap]frotHimatB EngUtkvaliu, Inohei. *98i4 6-eo64 11-2128 a* 1 Loziee ■> 1 Sazen - 1-8688 or 22*4256 « 6*6065 PoUih voliM. 6 Calow 2 Cwiero 2 Stopas 8 Loziee 1 Stopa of Graoow -> 14*08 Tuila. 1 Pretow - 4-7245 10 F^etow, or n 100 Preoikow, or [ - 1 Bznurow • 47*245 1800 Galow ) ITINERABT MEASUBE. The Verst of Russia is the xmit of distance measnres. Tdi. WlM. The Short MUe » 6075 or 8*452 The Long Mile » 4*6028 . The MHe is divided into 8 Stale. A Leagne->8 Versts, or 29688 Stopas -6*8048 Miles. SUBFAOE OB SQUABE MEASUBES. Approminutie PolUhvdiMe* BvtiewuMe namt, BnglitkvdUM, 1 Morgow -> 1-8829 80 Morgow - 1 Wloka » .) 41*486 The Morgow is snhdlTided into 90 Square Basnnrow, each Square Sznurow into 100 Square Pretow, eaoh Square Pretow into 100 Square Preoikow. 128 IVEIOHTB ASJ> MEAirSES. AUSTBIA. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Auitrian value, SyiUmatU name. 12 Punkte 12 Linien 12 ZoU 2 FUHB 6 Fusi 1 Ftmkt* s-1 Linie i-l ZoU b1 Fusb -1 EUe »1 Klafter Approwimte Englith value, Uam. Inehe*. or -0864 10871 - '0864 - 10^68 - 12-4416 ft 4000 KlafUr -l Heile (Post) - Vnt. - I'OJiTl «- 2 0742 - 6-2226 Yftrdf. ^8297 If >» 12-445 806756 Yardi. 27042 »♦ MllM. Yarda. or 4 156*992 Uritlih BUtute If ilM. or about 4| The Bohemian Elle of 22*548 Vienna Zoll is equal to 23*85 IncheB EngliHh. In Trieste the Elle for woollen goodgai26*0f and that for silk goodn 25*22 English Inches. The EUe of Upper Austria is equal to about 81*5 Inches EngUsh. 100 EngUsh Yards are equal to 117*34 Vienna Ellon. MEASUBES OF BUBFAOE. Austrian value. Bifstematie name. Approximate EnffllMh value* Hq. LiOM. Sq. lochM. 144 Square ZoU 86 Square Fuss Hq. LiOM. Sq. lochM. 1 Square ZoU - I64| or 1-9756229 Sq. PMt. Sq. Iticta«w. - 1 Square Fuss <- 1*0756229 or 154| Sq. Yards. -1 Square Klafter- 4*8026 84 Square Klafter»l Square Bathe -* 86*52088 192Sq. Buthen -1 Metze ». 2294| Sq.Ydf. StatnteAcre. JeSSIriSiter} - 1 ^'^'^ '«">^' «884 or 1-43281 The Yoch or Johart is nearly equal to IJ British statute Acre. An Austrian square MeUe is equal to 14200 British statute Acres. ▲V8TBU. 129 MEABUBES OF CUBIC CAPACITT OB SOLIDITY. AmWUm PoUtt* SfftUmtUU nam», dfprwrtmaiU XnglUh voIim. Cubio Ineh, 1 Cubio Z6U - 11162 Cnbio Fooi Ottbio laohM. 1728 Cubio Z6U-1 Cubio Fubs -1-116167668 or 1926-991296 Ottblo WML <}ablo Tardi, 216 Cubio Fuss -1 Cubio ElAfter- 240-8882 or 8*9216 MBASUBES OF CAPACITT FOBT DB;T GOODS. Auttri«m vakM. ^tUmoHo nam*. dfpro9iiMi$ BnglUk valu 8 ProbmetMn 4 Beoher 2 FuttemuMSBel 2 MuhlmaBsel 2 Aohtel 4 Viertel — 1 Beoher «1 FuttermasBel «1 Mnhlmaasel -1 Aohtel •1 Viertel —1 Metze ^ jiuaiiMS. •0182 •0629 •1067 •2116 •4280 1*6918 80 Metien .1 Muth I y 60*7686 or Qtutften. 6*8442 MEASUBES OF CAPACITT FOB LIQUIDS. Auitrkm valiM. S^tUmaHo namt* JpprowlmaU EnflUh value. Imperial Plat •6282 2 Pflff " 1 Seidel ■■ ■ i or 2« 2 Seidel - lEaane - InuMrial Pint : j T2464 2 Eannen - 1 MaiB » Qnarl 1-2464 10 Mass . 1 Viertel ^ (Hllong. 8*1148 4 Viertel m 1 Eimer M 12*4672 82 Eimer m 1 Fuder « 888*6804 130 WEIGHTS AVB MEABUBES. WEIGHTS (COMMERCIAL). 4 Pfenning » 1 Quentchen a. Drachms. 2*4694 4 Qnentclien = 1 Loth OttBoe. 9-8776 2 Loth = 1 Unze » 1 8-7652 4 Unzen — 1 Vierdinge - 4 16-0208 2 Vierdinges » 1 Mark -> 9 14'0416 lbs. ATolr. 2 Marks « 1 Pfnnd ~ } lbs. 1-2347 or , Oz. Drachms. C 1 9 12-0832 lbs. At. 100 Pfnnd = 1 Centner a 123-47 A Hnnd (Tariff) is equal to 1*10, and a Centner (Tariff) to 100 U>B. Avoirdnpois. SILVER AND SILVER MONEY WEIGHTS. The Mark, snbdiyided into 2 Vierdinge, or 8 Unzen, or 16 Loth, or 64 Qneutchen, or 256 Pfennings, is the chief unit employed in weighing silyer and silver money. It is equal to 4331*019 English Troy Grains « 9 oz. dwts. 11*019 grs. 100 Vienna Marks are equal to 76-191 English Troy Pounds. APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. Austrian value, 20 Gran 8 Scruple 8 Draohmen 12 Unzen Byitetnatie name. Approximate Englith value. Troy Grains. = (1) 22-52 Dwto. » (2) 2 19-536 Oz. => (3) 1 2 12-384 - (4) 18 10 H 1 Scrupl^ 1 Drachme 1 Unze 1 Pf und The Apothecaries* Pfnnd is {ths of the Commercial Pfnnd, that is, it is equal to 1| Marks, or 24 Loth. 0) -0488 Om. Troy: (3) 67*56 Orains, or 'USf! Os. Tr«y; (8) 540*4 %aliifl, or I'laca Ox. Troy ; (4) 6484*8 OraiOB, or 13-610 Oz.Troy. To face p. 181 of the " Merehanti Handbook:' From Ist Janq^rj, 1872, under the law of ISth June, 1868, the Metric System of Weights and Measures (see France, pp. 119-122) became compulsory for the whole of the German Empire. METRIO MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Metre, or Stah* ; Centimetre, or New-ZoU* ; Millimetre, •or Strich* ; Dekametre, or Kette* (Chain) ; and Kilometre. The Mile of 7,000 Metres is the measure of distance. METRIC MEASURES OF SURFACE. Square Metre, or Quadrat-Stab ; Ar, or 100 Square Metres ; and Hectar, or 1,000 Square Metres. METRIC MEASURES OF CAPACITY. The Cubic Metre is the basis ; the Litre or Eanne* is the unit, and is the tt^^^ P^^ ^^ ^ Cubic Metre ; \ litre, or i Kanne « Schoppen (chiefly a beer measure) ; \ Litre ; \ Litre ; and -j^ Litre ; Hectolitre or Fass* (cask) ; 50 Litres, or ^ Hectolitre, or Scheffel* (bushel) ; \ Hectolitre, or 25 Litres, or \ Bushel. METRIC WEIGHTS. The KUogramm is the unit of weight ; it is the weight of a litre ot distilled water at i9 Centigrade ; the Dekagramm, or Mew-Loth* » 10 Gramms; the Dezip[ramm; Zentigramm ; Milligramm; Pfund-^^ Kilogramm or 500 Gramms; Zentner* or 50 Kilogramme, or 100 Pfonds ; and Tonne, cft 100 Kilo- gramms, or 200 Pfnndfl. The old system of Weights and Measures is as given, pp. 181-167. * Th« names Stab, ZoU, Strloh. Katte. Kanne, Schoppen, SoheflTel. Loib, Pf QDd, and Centner, Miigned m altematiTe nameii in the Metric Svitem, were denomlnationi in the old fyftem, whoieToltteTftried in the different Statei, m appean in pp. 181-167 ; but their talne in the Metrio S/etem if the ume for the whole of Oermany. In each case where an Old name if applied to a new weight or meaanre, the old name mnat be preceded by the Metric name. TBUBSIA. 181 GERMANY, (North). PBUSSIA. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Sorth German valM. StfiUmatio name» ApproximaU BnglUh vahu. 1 Linie LiiiM. . - 1-029 or Inohet. •0859 12 Linien 12 ZoU ■ 1 ZoU 1 Fuss -12-966 „ - 102966 „ 1-029 12*856 2 FUB8 6 EUen or 12 Fuse - 1 EUe 1 Rutho F«et. - 2-0596 -12-8676 „ Yardii. 4-1192 2000 Ruthen . 1 MeUe Imp]. Yda. - 8238t „ Mtlei. 4-6806 The ohief measureB of length are the Ftits and the Slle^ bat the value of those mcaBures and of their flubcUyisions varies in different Btatea and often in difforont provinces of the same state. The foUo\ving are a few of the vtuiationB in the length of the Fuss in North Germany. The FttBB English In ■ ■ BniuBwick — Hanover « HoHsia (Electorate) — Oldonburgh «= Prussia » Saxuuy » The Lachter, of C Fuss, and the Spanne of 9 Fush, are measures used by miuers. The Liichter is equal to 6*864 English Feet, and the Spanne to 10*2975 English IncheR. The Laohtor ib divided into 8 Aohtel, each of 10 LaohterzoU, and each LachterzoU of 10 Lachterliuien. The Decimal System in Measures of Length is being intro- dnoed into the'ooimtry, and Engineers and Surveyors now use it. InchM. Foot. 11-230 m* •935 11-484 ■e •957 11-316 M •043 11-640 a •970 12-356 M 1-029 11*155 SB •029 182 WXIGHT8 AVB HXjUFBSS. BUBYEYOBS' UEASUBEMENT. Frvff dm voliM. 10 Sorapel 10 LLoien 10 Zon 10 Land Fobs 2000 Baihen Bffitematie fum§» AyproartmaU EngUth wiUte* 1 Bcnipel 1 Lizue 1 ZoU * 1 LaadFufls -> 1 Blithe - 1 Meila (Poii) IndiM. •0148 •1482 1-4828 a4'828or Foot. 1-2856 Vaot - 12-856 - 4*6807 MEABUBES OF SUBFAOE. North O^rwuMvaJMt. BffttemaHe tumt, AppratimaU BngUih vahis, flqiuufo LiiiM. SqiiMro Inolu 144 Square Linien « 1 Square Zoll •>l62'4672 or 1-05884 aqnwiFook. Sqiuve lodiaf. 144 Bqnare Zoll • 1 Sqnare Fnsa 1^1*05884 or 152*4672 144 Bqnare Fnss — 1 Bqnare Bathe ■> 16*96. ^ — Sq. Tdi. Ed«. Pto. 180 Bqnare Bathen -> lUorgen ->8054 or 2 21 nearly 80 Morgen » 1 Hofe - 91620 or nearly 19 100 Morgen abont 68*094 Engliah Acres. IfEASUBES OF CUBIC CAPACITT. North Cferffian value, BytUmnMo noiM. 1728 CuMo Linien -1 CnUeZoU 1728 CnUe ZoU -l CnUe Fnsa 1728 Cnbio Fobs -1 Cnbio Bntfae 100 PraBBian Cnbio Fnaa are eqnal to 100*184 Emdiah Cubic Feet. Approwimate Engliih uUui. Cnbio Lines. [1886*69952 or I 1-09184 CaUo InohM. 1886*69952 or ■[ Cabio FMt. or 1-09184 Cnbio Ftofe. • 1886-69952 PBUS8IA. 183 Stone and brickwork, earth, peat, faaoines, and firewood are mea»iired by the Cnbio Klafter of 108 Oubio Fuse - 117.91872 En^flh Cubic Feet, or 8 '8869 Steree. 4| Klafter make 1 Haufe. In architecture the Schachruthe is 144 Cubic Fubb -> 4*45188 Steree. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. North German «a<««. S}f$t«matia name. EnglUh value. Metric value. Quarto. BuskaL Lltras. 4 Massohen) 1 ^^^^ ^ g.^g^ ^^ .^0^5 . 3.^35 or 3 Quarts J OallonB. BttiheU 4 Metzen -1 Yiertel •• 8*024 or 878 » ld'7403 Buab«li. Qi»rt«». *48QuMtr} -1 Scheffel - 1-6121 or -189 - 54*9615 4 Soheffehi -1 Tonne -6*048 or •75604-218*846 12 Soheffein -1 Malter erl8a452 or 2 '26815 -66 8 '588 5 Malters or ) 60 Soheffein } -1 Last - 18*60890-8287*690 5^ Soheffein are nearly equal to 1 British Imperial Quarter, or, more exactly, 100 Soheffein are equal to 18*901 British Imperial Quarters. The Tonne given in the table, is the measure for salt, lime, and carbon; a Tonne of Flaxseed is 87f Metzens, or 8 '5595 British Imperial Bushels, or 128*888 Litres. The Wispel is a measure varying in quantity. In wholesale business and in railway freight it is usually reckoned as 24 Soheffein. The Wispel of wheat or barley is 25 Scheffehi, of oats it is 26 Soheffein. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. VwikOermian value. B^eiemaWi nom§. EngUeh value. MetrU value. Pint. Quart. LltrM. 82 Cubic ZoU-l Ossel -1*0079 or •1259876- -57251 Quart. GtaUlon. 2 Ossel -1 Quart -1.0079 or •251975- 1*1450881 60 Ossel -1 Anker- 7*55925 - 84.85095 2 Ankers -1 Eimer- 16*1186 - 68-7019 2 Eimers -1 Ohm - 80*287 -187*4088 or?»^hm} "^ O^oft- 46'8655 -206'1057 or6fe}-l^*«^- 181*422 .824-4228 The Fuder and its subdivisions are used for wine and spirits. The flasohe for wine is {- quart, and equals 1*512 British Imperial pint, or ^858 Litre. In Beer Measure there are the foUowmg denominations, which, however, are rather names 134 KEABTTBES. of casks than deflnite measarea. The Oebraude of 9 Knfen, or 18 Fass, or 86 Tonne, or 8600 Quarts. The Tonne of 100 Quarts is equal to 25*1975 British Imperial GaUona, or 114-508 Litres. WEIGHTS. The ZoUpfimd is the unit of weight, and is equal to ^ Kilo- fpramme, or 500 Grammes. 1 lb. Avoirdnpois is equal to 0*907 Zollpfnnd, and 1 Zollpfund is equal to 1-10288 lbs. Ay. In the ^ollverehi States, the subdiyisions of the Zollpfund' most generally used are the ^ and the -^ Zollpfund. North German Yalue. Syatematle name, 10 Com « 1 Cent 10 Cents ■> 1 Quentche a 10 Quentchen » 1 Loth « BnglUh value. MeMe value, Drauw At. Qnmm§§. 80 Loth 100 Zollpfund 1 Zollpfund 1 Cen&ier •09407 •9407 9*406464 Iba. Af . 1102 110*282 •166 - 1.66 - 16*6 Kllograininc*. - -500 « -50 20 Zollpfund - 1 Stein; 8 Centner « 1 Sohifliq^fund; 40 Centner » Schiffslast. This Decimal System of Weights, with the Half-Kilogramme (500 Grammes) or Zollpfund as its unit, has been, or is being adopted in almost all the States of Germany. In Conmiercial Weights the Zoll-Center is diyided into 100 Pfund, the Pfund into 82 Loth, the Loth into 4 Quentchen, and the Quentche into 4 Ff ennige. APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. North Qermaat value, Byttematie name, 1 Scrupel » > 1 Dracnme » 1 Unze s= 20 Gran 8 Scrupel 8 Drachmen 12 Unzen 1 Pfund Englieh value. Metrie value. Oralns Troj. OnmunM. 18-8 - 1*21799 564 - 8*65899 451*2 - 29*28198 Os. Troj. OrsmmM. 11*2779 -860*78826 GOLD, SILVEB, AND JEWEL WEIGHTS. The Pfund of 500 Grammes is now used for the precious metals, formerly the Mark was the weight used. It ■■ 8608*9506 English Troy Grains, or 288*855 Grammes, and is divided for gold into 24 Carats, each of 12 Grains, and for silver into 16 Loth, each of 18 Grains. Predons stones are weighed by the Carat, 160 Carats being equal to 9 Quentchen. PBUS8IA. 185 BAZONY. (Kingdom of) A DeoimAl SyBtem of Weights ajid MeasnreB, Bimilar to that of France, («m Franee^) oameinto operation on the Ist NoYember, 1868, but the old syBtem giyen below is still in yery oonunon Qse. It 18 as follows : — MEASyRES OF LENGTH. Saxon vaIim. SjfiUwuUie nam€» XnglUk valut, MetrU mIim. LIdm. 1 Linie • -92918 12 Linien - 1 ZoU - 11*149414 or •92912 - -02859 Inehtt. 12 ZoU « 1 Fttss « 11*149414 „ *92912 - '28819 2 Fnss « 1 EUe -> 22*298828 „ 1*85824 - *5663H 2 Ellen - 1 Stab • 44*597656 „ 8*71648 « 118276 The Ruths is the name of a Land Measure, and also of a Rood Meature» In Land Measure it contains 15 Fnss, 2 ZoU ; and is equal to 4*69721 English Yards, or 4*29504 Metres. In Boad Measure it contains 16 Fnss, and is equal to 4*955806 Yards English, or 4*58104 Metres. The Laohter used by miners is equal to 2 Metres, or 2*18726 English Yards. The MeU€ Post formerly contained 2000 Buthen, or 16000 EUen, but since 1841 it consists of 18241*987 Ellen, and is equal to 7500 French Metres, or 1*01072 Geographical Mile, or 4*660368 EngUsh MUes. The Leipsic Foot of 12 ZoU, each of 12 Linien, is equal to 11*1494 EngliBh inches, or to *28819 of a French Metre. A Leipsic EUe (of 2 Leipsic Fuss) is equal to 1*85888 English Feet. 7 Leipsic EUen are equal to 6 Prussian Ellen, or to 4 French Metres. 8 Leipsic EUen are nearly equal to 5 English Yards* MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Square Fuss of 144 Square ZoU is equal to *86826 EngUsh Square Foot, or 124*81001 Square Inches English, or •081196576 Square Metres, and the Ackerof 800 Square Ruthen 18 equal to 66*8428256 French Ares, or 1 Acre, 1 Rood, 18 Poles English statute measure. MEASURES OF CUBIC CAPACITY. The Cubic Fuss of 1728 Cubic ZoU is the chief Measure of Cubic Capacity, it is equal to -8020758288 English Cubic Foot, or *0227108688 Cubic Mdtre. In the measurement of firewood there is the Schragen of 8 Klafter. The Elafter contains 108 Cubic b uss (i. e., 6 Fuss high, 6 Fuss broad, by 6 Fuss thick) ; and is equal to 8 6*62418898 EngUsh Cubic Feet, or 2*45277878 Cubic Metres. 186 IfEASUBEB. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB DRY GOODS. Saxon value, 8y$temaHe name. 4 MaBchen 4 Metzen 4 Viertel 12 Scheffel 2 Malter 1 Masche 1 Metze 1 Viertel 1 Scheffel 1 Malter 1 Wispel BnglUk value. Quart. 1*446302 f44e802 6-786208 ImiMsrlal Dushela. 2-892704 . 84*712448 69-424896 Metrle value. Litre. 1*64285 e-6714 26-2857 1051429 1261.7148 2628-4296 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Saxon value, Syttematie name, 1 Qnartier 4 Qnartier » 1 Nossel 2 N0B8^ 36 Kannen 72 Kannen, or 2 Anker 8 Elmer 6 Elmer I- 1 Kanne 1 Anker 1 Eimer EnglUh value, •84368 « - 8-37472 - ImperUl Pint<i. » 1-64786 » IB 7*42868 - bnpertiil Oilloni. « 14-82624 - 67*36284 Metric value. Litre*. *11695 •46779 •98559 88*68124 1 Oxhoft 1 FasB or Barrel 7-41812 - 88-98744 « 202*08744 404-17488 In French wincB the Oxhoft is reckoned at 8, hnt in French hrandy at 8g Dresden Eimer. The Ohm is a measure of 2 Eimer or 4 Anker. In heer meaBtire 420 Kannen al Fass ; the Viertel is 210, and the Tonne 105 Kannen. The ahove are the Dresden standards of liquid measures, and are those most generally used in Saxony. IiEIPSIC. In Leipsic there are two Kannen of diffisrent sizes, in use, namely, the publicans* Kanne, called Schenk-Kanne^ and the excise Kanne, called Visir-Kanne, The Visir-Kanne «* 2-47288, and the Schenk-Kanne ib 2-11997 British Imperial Pints, or 1*4044 and 1*204 litre respectiyely. The Leipdo Eimer contains 54 Visir-EanBen, or 68 Schenck-Eanneu. The Fuder is 12 Eimer. The Kanne, which goes under the name of the *' Dresden Kanne "in Leipsic, is a little smaller than the real Dresden Kanne, and is equal to 1*644489 British Imperial Pint, or '98898 litre. A Leipsic Eimer of 68 Schenk- Kannen contains 81 Dresden Kannen of the Leipsic standard, and is equal to 16*69476 British Imperial Gallons, or 76*852 litres. Nine Dresden Eimer are commonly reckoned equal to 6 Leipsic Eimer. In beer measure the Gebraude of 8 Knfe, • AUttlelesfthftnlOUl. PBUSSIi.. 187 each of 2 Fass, each of 2 Yiertel, each of 2 Tonne) each of 75 Kannen (SohenJE-Eannen), each of 2 NoBsel. Tho beer Eiiner is 72 Schenk- Kannen, and is equal to 18*07974 Britiith Imperial Gallons, or 86*688 litres. The Tonne - 18*874729 Britinh Imperial Gallons, or 80*800 litres. The Yiertel - 38*7494oU British Imperial Gallons, or 180*6 litres. The Fass ■> 78*498918 British Imperial Gallons, or 361*2 litres. The Knfe - 168*99788 British Imperial GaUons, or 722*4 litrtH. The Gebriiade - 1271*98269 British Imperial GaUons, or 6778*2 Utres. WEIGHTS. Same as Pmssia, viz., the Zolipfund with its decimal subdi- visions and multiples. {See Prussia). HANOVEB. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Hanoverian value. SjfiUmatie name. 1 liinle ■> BnfflUh value, ur a Line. •95838- Mftric value* Meirei. •00'202H 12 Tiinien - 1 ZoU liinea. 114 - •0243412 12 ZoU - 1 Furs* - Inct'M. 11* - •2020947 2 Fuss - lEUe - 28 •» •5841894 8 Ellen or 6 Fuss 1 1 Eh&fter « FMt. 6} «. l-7u2r>682 16 Fuss » 1 Ruthe - fardi. Inches. 5 4- 4-673.'5152 MUee. 15874 Buthenf » 1 MeUe - 4*61016 -7418-205HK In thread and yarn measurement the unit is the Stikk or Lop of 10 Gihenden (Skeins) or 90 Faden (threads) ; but sometimes these are only 82 or 87 Faden to the StUok. 20 Lop « 1 Bund. The length of the Faden is 8| EUen. MEASURES OF SURFACE. Hanoverian value, Syetematie name, 1 Square Linie -^ Englith value, Sq. Line. •9184 - Uttria value, Sq. Mi'trvH. )00004 144 Square Linien ■> 1 Square ZoU ■■ 144 Square ZoU ■■ 1 Square Fuss ■> 256 Square Fuss ■> 1 Square Ruthe « 120 Square Ruthena 1 Morgen - 8134*79300- 2621*00981 { Sq. Inch. •9184 Sq. Feet. •9184 Square Yardn. 2612327 •OOOtJ •085319 21-84174 * 24 HanoTorian feet are equal to 28 F«ngliih Feet f 12700 Ellen, or 25400 Fuss. t S6'21009 French Ares. 138 MEAStTBEB. MEASURES OP CUBIC CAPACITY. The chief unit is the Cubic Eubb of 1728 Cubic Zoll, the ZoU being subdivided into 1728 Cubic Linien. The Cubic Fuss is equal to 1620*875 Cubic Inches English, or -024921319 of a ^ French Cubic Metre. The Klafter of 144 Cubic Fuss is the * chief measure for wood, it is equal to 3*58867 French Steres. The Malter of Ealenberg or Hanover, measure for timber, is 80 Hanoverian or Ealenberg Cubic Fuss, and is equal to 1*9937 French Steres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Hanoverian value* 4 Sechzehntel 4 Spint or Metzen 6 !^mten Systematic name. English value. Biuhel*. « 1 Spint - ■> 1 Himten« ^ 1 Malter = Metrie value. Litret. 7*788 81152 186*912 8 Malter 16 Malter or 2- Wispel •21426 « •85704 =r 6*14224 » Quarters. 1 Wispel « 6*14224 « 1486*296 1 Last « 10*28448 - 2990*592 The Vierup is If Himten, or 2 Hanoverian Cubic Fuss, and equals 49*843 French Litres, or 1*371265 British Imperial Bushels. A Tonne is 4 Vierup, and 15 Tonne make 1 Last. The Erug is -^ part of the Vierup, it is used both for dry and liquid measure. It is -^ths of a Himten, and equals 1*38452 Litre. 22 ^ Krug a 1 Himten or 8 Stubchen. 100 Himten are equal to 10*713 English Imperial Quarters. The Himten is equal to 1| Hanoverian Cubic Fuss, or 2160 Cubic Zoll. The Last « 29*90592 Hectolitres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Hanoverian value* Systematic namt ;. English value. Metric value. Imperial nnto. Litres. 2 Nossel «= 1 Qna-rtier ■■ 1-714092 « Imperial Quarts. •973489 2 Quartier ^ 1 Eanne a 1-714092 = 1*946976 2 Eaunen « 1 Stubchen ■■ 8*428184 a Imperial Gallons. 8*893956 2 Stubchen « 1 Viertel ^ 1-714092 « 7*787912 5 Viertel = 1 Anker M 8*57046 - 88*939560 8 Viertel « 1 Eimer S3 18*712736 « 62*303296 4 Anker «= 1 Ohm CB 84*28184 - 166*758240 li Ohm = 1 Oxhoft a 61*422276 = 233*63736 4 Oxhoft or 6 Ohm a 1 Fuder B 206-69104 « 034*54944 Hanover, as also Oldenburg and Schaumburg-Lippe, use the following special measures in collecting the customs of the • 8 Himten ^^ ( 5 Vierup. FB1788IA. 189 ZoUverein Urnon :— >the Steuer-Ohm of 40 Steusr-Stuheherij each of 4 Steuer-Qxtartiers. The Stetier-Quartier is exactly equal to the BnmBwiok Qoartier. It is equal to *962S66 HaaoveriAn Quaitier, or -986844 French Litre. WEIGHTS. The weights are now the same as those of Prussia, which see. Formerly they were the Hund of 82 Lotii, each of 4 Quentchen '^ 467*71101 Grammes ; the Centner of 100 Pfund, and the Last of 40 Centner. HESSB-ELSCTOBATE, or. HESSE-0A88EL. MEASUBES OF LENGTH. Cocm) vhIim. SjfttewuMe name, EnglUh valu$. Metric vaIm. Inoh. Metre. 12Limen - 1 Zoll « -94891 - -028976 Foot. 12Zoll -» IFuBS - -94891 - -287699 2 Fuss « lEUe - 1-88782 » -675398 The Brahant Elle is also used. It is equal to 2-27796 English Feet, or -69481 Mdtre. The Bnthe of 14 Old* Cassel Fuss » 4*862289 English Yards, or 3*98876 Metres. It is now only used in land measure. MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. The Square Buthe — 18-029189 Ent^llsh Square Yards, or 16-9102 Square Metres. The Acker of 150 Square Buthen — 2854*86986 English Square Yards, or '68974 Acre, or 28*866 Ares. CUBIC MEASUBES. 1728 Cubic Zoll » 1 Cubic Fuss » -8409918 English Cubic Foot. The Elafter of (5 x 6 x 6 Fuss) «» 150 Cubic Fuss » 126-14877 EngUsh Cubic Fuss, or 3*672 Steres. The Elafter of Hanau is 144 Cubic Fuss » 121*10281 English Cubic Feet, or 8-4291 Steres. 24 Cassel Elafter » 26 Hanau Elafter. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. CoMtfl value. Systematie name* EnglUh value. Metrie valui Quarters •084548 - Litre*. 4 Maaschen « 1 Metzen =» 10-0461 4 Metzen « 1 Himten ■■ •138196 - 40-1845 8 Metzen » 1 Scheffel » -27689 » 80-3691 2 Scheffel = 1 Viertel - •55278 » ieO'7382 4 Viertel - 1 Malter » 2*21112 « 642*9528 * 1 Cassel Fuss - 1<0098 Old Cassel Fuss. 140 HEAStTBES. MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Cattel value, Syttematie name, English value. Metric value. Pint. Litres. ISchoppe « -85816 » -487375 OalloM. 4 Schoppen » 1 Maass = -42908 « 1-94950 4Maa8B - 1 Viertel - 1-71632 « 7*7980 20 Viertel - 1 Olun » 34'3264 « 166'96 6 Ohm » 1 Fader « 206'9584 « 936*76 The measures in the table are used for Wine, Brandy, and Vinegar. The Beer Ohm, also divided into 20 Viertel, each of 4 Maass, each of 4 Schoppen, is equal to 38*172673 BritiBh Imperial Gallons, or 174*755 Litres, and the Viertel, Maass, and Schoppe, in proportion. 8 Beer Ohm are equal to 8*964 Wine Ohm, but in round numbers 8 Beer Ohm are usually reckoned equal to 9 Wine Ohm. WEIGHTS. The Pfund of 500 French Grammes, mth its divisions and multiples, as in Pmssia, is beginning to be pretty generally used (see Prussia), but the former system is still common, viz : In wholesale trade the (Schwere) heavy Pfund of 32 Loth, each of 4 Quentchen « 1*06755 lbs. av. English, or 484*2425 French Grammes. In retail trade the (Leichte) light Pfund, with the same divisions » 1*03136 lbs. av. English, or 467*812 French Grammes. 57 Schwere Pfund are equal to 59 Leichte Pfund. The Centner « 108 Pfund, heavy or light. SAXE-ALTEKBOHBG. Length.— Fusa of 12 ZoU =» 11*1222 English Inches, or -2825 Mdtre. Elle of 2 Fuss » 1*8537 English foot, or -5650 Mdtre. The Surveyors* Fuss is exactly equal to the Elle. It is divided into lOZollof lOLinien. The Meile is 13242 EUen» 8182*2318 English Yards, or 4*648995 EngUsh Miles, or 7*48173 Eilo- mdtoes. Surface. — ^Acker of 200 Square Buthen » 64*431 Ares, or 7706-24398 English Square Yards, or 1*592199 Engtish Acre. The Hufe is 12 Acker. Capacity, (a) dry goods. — Malter of 2 Scheffel, each of 4 Viertel, «ach of 4 Metzen, each of 4 Maschen » 1*010 British Imperial Quarter, or 293*9436 Litres. Scheffel » 4*040, and Viertel » 1*010, British Imperial Bushels, or 146*9718, and 36*74295 Litres respectively. Metzen « 4*040, and Maschen » 1010 British Imperial Gallons, or 9*18573 and 2*29643 PBT788IA. 141 Litres respeotiTely. A Sack is d Yiertel. (h) liquids, — Elmer of 60 Eannen, each of 2 Nossel. In Beer Measure the Tonne is 1| Eimer. A Tonne « 2 Metzen, and 128i Eannen m, 1 Scheffel, bat it is the custom to reckon onlj 126 Kannen to the Scheffel. Weights, — The same as those of Prussia, which see. SAXE-COBima-GOTHA. MEASUBES OF LENGTH. Ootha value. Syitematie nanu. English value. Metric value. inches. m^tre. 12 TiinieB « 1 ZoU •94365 - -02896 12 ZoU » 1 Fuss « 11*3238 - -28762 An Elle is equal to *61632 English Yard, or -562641 Mdtre. A Ruthe, Land Measure, of 14 Fuss » 13*2111 English Feet, or 4*0264 Metres. A Buthe, Forest Measure, of 16 Fuss » 16-0984 English Feet, or 4*6016 Metres. A Lachter is 7 Saxony Fuss. MEASURES OF SURFACE. An Acker, Land Measure, is 140 Square Ruthen, Land Mea- sure, and equals 2714*9603166 English Square Yards, or -560942 English Acre, or 2269*6655744 Square Metres. An Acker, Forest Measure, is 160 Square Ruthen, Forest Measure, and equals 4062*6521344 English Square Yards, or -837324 English Acre, or 3387*9556096 Square Metres. The Hufe is 90 Acker. It is diyided into i, i, i Hufe. CUBIC MEASURES. The Klafter for Wood - (6 x 6 x 3) = 108 Cuhio Fuss - -840297 English Cuhic Foot, or 2*4389 Cuhic Mdtres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Ootha value, Syttevuitie name, 4 Nossel a 1 Masschen 4 Masschen » l Metzen 4 Metzen « 1 Viertel 2 Viertel = 1 Scheffel 2 Scheffel « 1 Malter English value. MeMe value. Quarts. Litres. - 2*42736 e= 2*76726 Gallons. - 2*42736 s 11*02900 Qonrter. = -16171 B 44*116 « -30342 BS 88*232 = -60684 BS 176*464 144 HEA8UB£8. OLDEKBIJBa. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Oldenburg value. Syetematie name* English value* MeMe value. LinM. Hetrea. 12 LiBien - 1 ZoU - 11*649 - -024656 Inchei. 12ZoU m IFuBB - 11*049 - *295879 Feet. ISFniB - 1 New Bathe «- 17*4735 - 5*82582 20Fas8 » 1 Old Rathe - 19*415 - 5*91758 The Elle is equal to -63529 English Yard, or -5809 Mdtre. An Oldenburg Meile contains 33357 Oldenburg Fuss, or 1667 Old Rathen, 17 Fuss, and is equal to 6*1328 English Miles, or 8*8693558 Kilometres. There is also in use the Geographical or German Meile of 25079 Oldenburg Fuss, and equal to 4*610878 EngUsh Miles, or 7*42084944 Eilomdtres. MEASURES OF SURFACE. Oldenbwg vaJMe, Syttematie neme, EngU$hvatne. Metric vaUte. 8a. Yd. So. M«trM. 1 Sqr. FusB- '104706 - -0875449 ^^i®?- - Square I- 88*92479 « 28*8645717 *^" I Ruthe J 160 New f 6427*96692 or ^ Arat. Square - 1 Juok -^ Aor«. L •45-88881472 Ruthen [ 1-1214807 J 400 Sar. flOldSa. ) oq.YA. Bq.mhtm. FusY -{ Ruthe^ }- 41-892460815 - 85^017989 850 Old rl4e58*86128544^ ^^ Square = 1 Morgen ->•] Acrt. L »122'562964 Ruthen (. or 8*02869 J The JUck contains 5180, and the Morgen 140000 Square Fubb. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Oldenburg value; Syttematie name* Bnglieh value. Metric value Impnnal QaarU. Litre*. 4 Ort - 1 Eanne - r25472 « 1*42518 Imperial Qallona. Litres. 16 Eannen -> 1 Scheffel « 5*01888 - 22*808 8 Scheffel - 1 Tonne » -62786 -> 182-424 Imperial Quarten. Litrei. li Tonne « 1 Malter » -94104 - 273*686 12 MalterB » 1 Last « 11*29248 » 8283*632 PfiUSSIA. 145 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Olienhurg value. Sgittwtatic nawu* Engliih value. Metric value. Qallons. Litre*. 4 Ort - 1 Kanne •* '80234 s 1*373 26 Kanne » I Anker - 7*86034 - 35*698 6 Anker - 1 Oxhoft - 47*16504 » 214'!^^ The Anker is also divided into 40 Quarfcier ; tlie Qnartier ■■ -19652 British Imperial Gallons, or 1*67216 British Imperial Pints, or *88985 litre. For Beer Measare, there is the Touue of 4 Heukeman, each of 28 Bier-Kannen ■> 168*61 Litres. The Bier- Kanne is larger than the Wine-Kanne, and is equal to 1*425 Litre, or -313638 British Imperial Gallon, or 1*25455 British Imperial Qoarts. WEIGHTS. Same as in Prassia (see Prussia). BIBKENFELD. ^ The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Prussia. AWHALT. The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Prussia. SCHWABZBUBO-SONDEBHAUSEN. (1.) High Sovereignty and Arnstadt. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Fuss and Elle are those of Leipsio (see Saxony). The Buthe, in Land Measure, is 14, and in Road Measure* 16 Fuss : but sometimes this latter Buthe is also used in Land Measure. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Acker of 160 Square Ruthen, each of 196 Square Fuss «- 2993-43129074 English Square Yards, or -618545 EngUsh Acre : or 26*027 Ares : but when the Ruthe of 16 Fuss is used, then the Square Ruthe is 256 Square Fuss : and the Acker of 160 of such Square Ruthen ■» *807895 English Acre, or 32*688 Ares. o 140 MEASUBES. CUBIC MEASURE. The Klafter (Firewood) of 126 Cubic Fobs » 100*47212 English Cubic Feet, or 2'84 Stores. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The MaaBH of 4 Viertel - 82'8016675 British Imperial GallouB, or 148*088 Litres. WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Same as Leipsio. (see Saxony). (2.) Low Bovereignty and Sondershaiuen. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The FusB of 12 Zoll each of 12 Linien • 11'8809I EnglUh Inches, or -2878 M6tre. The Surveyors' Fuss - 11*12803 English Inches, or '28252 M^tre. The Rnthe of 14 Fuss — 12*976874 EngUsh Feet, or 8*05528 Mdtre. The Elle is ssid to be exactly the Leipsic EUe, (see Saxony) but it is only equal to 1-84288 English Foot, or '5617 mdtre. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Acker of 120 Square Ruthen - 2246*828698 EngUsb Square Yards, or '468909 Acre, or 18*778 Ares. CUBIC MEASURE. The Malter of 64 Cubic Fuss - 58*87994624 English Cubic Feet, or 1*528 Store. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Scheffel, each of 4 Metzen » 10002298 British Imperial Gallons, or -156285 Quarter, or 45*445 Litres. The Metzen - 2*500578 British Imperial Gallons, or 1-250286 Peck, or 11*86125 Litre. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Kanne of 2 Maass, each of 2 Ndssel i- (for Brandy), 1*746687 British Imperial Quart, or 1*984 Litre. The Maass m, 1'746687, and the Ndssel '8788486 British Imperial Pint, or •992 and '496 Litre respeotivehr. The Beer Ndssel » 7941087 British Imperial Pint, or '451 Litre. PBUSSIi.. 1^7 WEIGHTS. The PInnd of 811 Loth, each of 4 Qnentohen • 1*080056 lbs. Ay. EngliBh, or 467'218 Grammes ; the Loth « '515028 os. Ay. English, or 14*60056 Grammes ; the Qnentohen - 2*060118 English Drachms Ay., or 3*65014 Grammes. The Gold and BilYer Weight is the Mark which is exactly half the Pfund. SCHWABZBUBO-BTJDOLSTADT. (1.) High Sovereignty. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The FnsB of 12 Zoll each of 12 Linieu «- 16 047515 En^liiih Inches or *S822 M6tre. The Buthe of 16 Fuss - 608778486 English Yards, or 6*1152 MMres. The Kilo is the name as that of Leipsic (see Haxouy). The I^achter is 7^ Fuss ■> 8*0652847 English Yards, or 2*8028 MCtren. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Acker of 160 Square Rnthen, or 40060 Squaro Fuss ■■ 8 801*8824474 English Square Yards, or '80007 Acre, or 82*610 Ares. CUBIC MEASURE. The Klafter is sometimes (6x6x8 Funs) 108, or Romo- times (6 X 6 X Sjt Fuss) 126 Cuhio Fuss. Tho Klafter of 108 Cuhic Fuss » 212*048 English Cubic Feet, or 2*427 Cubio Metres. The Klafter of 126 Cubio Fuss - 248*480 EngUsh Cubic Fuss, or 2*882 Cubio Mdtres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Schaffel of 8 Achtel, each of 2 Metzen, each of 24 Nossel • 5-152269 British Imperial Bushels, or 187*27296 Litres. The Achtel • 5*162269 British Imperial Gallons, or 23*40912 Litres. The Metzen -> 2*5761847 British Imperial Gallons, or 11*70456 Litres. Tho Niiasel (87* Cubio Zoll) - -85871157 British Imperial Pint, or '48769 Litre. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Elmer of 72 Maass each, of 2 No«ro1 - 13*2488048 British Imperial GallonH, or 60*1704 Litres. Tho Maass -> 14G MEASXrilES. CUBIC MEASURE. The Klafter (Firewood) of 126 Cable Fuss ^ 100*47212 English Cnbic Feet, or 2*84 Steres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Maass of 4 Viertel « 32*8016675 British Imperial Gallons, or 149*033 Litres. WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Same as Leipsio. (see Saxony). (2.) Low Sovereignty and Sondershaiuen. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Fnss of 12 Zoll each of 12 Linien » U'33091 English Inches, or -2878 MStre. The Surveyors' Fuss = 11*12303 English Inches, or -28252 M^tre. The Ruthe of 14 Fuss « 12*976874 EngHsh Feet, or 8*95528 MStre. The EUe is said to be exactly the Leipsic Elle, (see Saxony) but it is only equal to 1*84288 English Foot, or -5617 mStre. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Acker of 120 Square Ruthen - 2245*323693 Eng^b Square Yards, or '463909 Acre, or 18*773 Ares. CUBIC MEASURE. The Malter of 64 Cubic Fnss - 68*87994624 English Cubic Feet, or 1*523 Store. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Scheffel, each of 4 Metzen » 10*002293 British Imperial Gallons, or *156285 Quarter, or 46*445 Litres. The Metzen » 2*500573 British Imperial Gallons, or 1*250286 Peck, or 11*36125 litre. MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Eanne of 2 Maass, each of 2 Nossel « (for Brandy), 1-746687 British Imperial Quart, or 1*984 Litre. The Maass « 1-746687, and the Ndssel -8738436 British Imperial Pint, or •992 and -496 Litre respectively. The Beer Nossel » '7941087 British Imperial Pint, or '451 Litre. PBUSBIA. 1^7 WEIGHTS. The Ffand of 82 Loth, 6Aoh of 4 Qnentohen - 1*080056 lbs. Ay. EngliBh, or 467*218 GrammeB ; the Loth « '516038 oz. Ay. English, or 14*60056 Grammes ; the Qnentchen « 2*060113 English Drachms Ay., or 8*65014 Grammes. The Gold and SilYor Weight is the Mark which is exactly half the Pfond. SCHWABZEHBG-BUDOLSTADT. (1.) High Sovereignty. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Fass of 12 ZoU each of 12 Linien - I6'047ol5 EngHsh Inches or -8822 M^tre. The Rathe of 16 Fuss « 6*68778486 English Yards, or 6*1152 Metres. The EUe is the same as that of Leipsic (see Saxony). The Lachter is 7^ Fass » 8*0652347 English Yards, or 2*8028 Metres. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Acker of 160 Square Rathen, or 40960 Square Fuss » 8 901*8824474 English Square Yards, or '80607 Acre, or 82*619 Ares. CUBIO MEASURE. The Elafter is sometimes (6x6x8 Fuss) 108, or some- times (6 X 6 X 3^ Fuss) 126 Cuhic Fuss. The Elafter of 108 Cuhio Fuss - 212*948 English Cubic Feet, or 2*427 Cubio Metres. The Elafter of 126 Cubio Fuss « 248*439 English Cubio Fuss, or 2*832 Cable Metres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Schaffel of 8 Achtel, each of 2 Metzen, each of 24 Nossel -* 5-152269 British Imperial Bushels, or 187*27296 Litres. The Achtel -> 6-152269 British Imperial Gallons, or 28*40912 Litres. The Metzen « 2*5761347 British Imperial Gallons, or 11*70456 Litres. The NSssel (374 Cubic Zoll) « -80871157 British Imperial Pint, or -48769 Litre. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Eimer of 72 Maass each, of 2 Nossel « 18*2433048 British Imperial Gallons, or 60*1704 Litres. The Maass « 148 UEASrBES. 1-471478 British Imperial Pint, or -8557 litre. The NdBsel (3213 CaMc ZoU) » •735789 British Imperial Pint, or '41785 Litre. WEIGHTS. The Weights are the same as those of Schwarzhnrg-Sonders- hansen (which see). (2.) Low Sovereignty and Frankenhaiisen. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Fnss of 12 ZoU, each of 12 Linien, is the same as that of Pmssia (see Pmssia). The Elle is that of Leipsic (see Saxony). MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Acker 160 Square Rnthen, or 40960 Sqnare Fnss » 3 9 09 874374 English Sqnare Yards, or '80782 English Acre, or 32*69 Ares. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Schefi'el of 4 Yiertel, each of 2 Metzen, each of 2 Miischen. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. The Eimer (Wine, Brandy, Vinegar), of 72 Maass, each of 2 Nossel. The Kanne is 2 Maass, or 4 Nossel. The Fass of 34 Stnhchen, each of 4 Maass, is also nsed for Brandy. Beer is sold hy the Ohm Kanne of 8 Maass. WEIGHTS. The Weights are Ihe same as those of Pmssia, (which see). WALDECK AND PYBMOKT. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Fnss of 12 Zoll, each of 12 Linien - 11-5120189 En^h Inches, or '2U24 M^tre. The Rhein Fnss is also nsed, it is eqnal to 12*356522 English Inches, or -81385 Mdtre. The Elle of 2 Fnss « 1*9186698 English Feet, or *5848 M^tre. PBrssiA. 140 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Mutte of 4 Soheffel - 45*26596 British Imperial Gallons, or 206*664 Litres. The SohefTel (for Wheat, Barley Rye, Peas,) - 11*31649 British Imperial Gallons, or 51*416 Litres. The Oats-Scheffel - 12*465835 Brilibh Imperial Gallons, or 56*688 Litres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Ohm of 16| Eimor, each of Maass* « 81*4842060 British Imperial Gallons, or 142*82 Litres. The Eimer -> 1*8860524 British Imperial Gallons, or 8*5692 Litres. The MaasB -» 2*5147865 British Imperial Pints, or 1*428*2 Litres. WEIGHTS. The Weights are the same as those of Prussia (see Pmssia). Formerly two systems of Commercial Weights were in use, namely. Heavy {Schicere) Weight, and Light (Leighte) Weight; the Pfnnd heing in each system divided into 82 Loth, each of 4 Quentchen. The Schwere Pfund - 1*050194 lbs. Av. English, or 476*852 Grammes. The Leighte Pfund = 1-030480 lbs. Av. English, or 476*41 Grammes. The Pfund of 84 Loth (for Butter and Meat) - P09559 lbs. Av. EngliKh, or 406*013 Grammes. BEIJSS. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Fuss of 12 ZoU, each of 12 Liiiieu, » 11*27973 English Inches, or *28G5 M6tre. The Leipsic Fuss is also used (sco Saxony). The EUo is 2 Fuss « 22*65946 English Inches, or •6780 Mt^tre. It is divided into \, h i EUe. The Ruthe of 16 Fuss - 6*0182189 English Yards, or 4-684 Metres. Tho Leipsic Ruthe of 16 Leipsio Fuss (see Saxony) is also used. MEASURES OF SURFACE. Tho Scheffel of 120 Square Ruthen, or 80720 Square Fuss, e 3016*8776 English Square Yards, or •62811 Acre, or 25*2156672 Ares. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Scheffel of 4 Viertel, each of 4 Maass « 2*92068286 British Imperial Bushels, or 106*16 Litres. The Viertel « 150 MEASITBES. 6 941' 657 British Imperial Gallons, or 26*54 Litres, The Miass*» 1*46034143 British Imperial Gallonst or 6135 litreB. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Ehncr of 72 Kamien •* 14*6025339 British Imperial Gallon!?, or 66*346 Litres. The Kanne « 1*6225037 Brittsh Imperial Pint, or -9214 Litres. The Fass (Beer) of 6 Eimer » 87*6152034 British Imperial Gallons, or 398*076 Litres. WEIGHTS. The weights are the same as those of Prussia (see Prussia). SCHATJMBTJBG-LIFPE (or LIFPE BUCKEBUBG.) MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Fuss of 12 Zoll, each of 12 Linien, = U*421466 English Inches, or '2901 Mfetre. The Elle of 2 Fuss = 22*842932 English Inches, or •5802 M6tre. The Lachtcr of 7 Fuss — 2-2208408 English Yards, or 2*0307 Metres. The Rnthe of 10 Fuss = 6*0762076 English Yards, or 4*6416 Mfitres. The Faden is 2 Ellen. Yam is measured hy the Stuck of 20 Bind, each of 66 Faden. The Great Stuck is douhle the Stiick, and contains 5280 Ellen, the Stiick contams 2640 Ellen. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Morgen of 120 Square Ruthen - 8092*0980744 Jinglish Square Yards or -030797 Acre, or 25*8533406 Ares. The Square Rutbe » 26*7674839 English Square Yards, or 21*54445 Square Metres. CUBIC MEASURE. The Kla'ter of 216 Cubic Fass « 196-67119 EngUsh Cubic Feet, or 6*27347 Cubic Metros. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Fuder of 12 Malter, each of 6 Himten, each of 4 Metssena 8*1634874 British Imperial Quarters, or 23'737890 HectoUttes. The Malter = 6*4423240 British Imperial Bushels, or 1-978158 Hectolitres. The Hunten « 7 '256 133 British Imperial Gallons, or 32*9693 L'trcs. The Mctzcn = 1-814108 British Imperial Gallon, or 8-2123 Litres. PBU88IA. 151 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Oxhoft (Wine) of 6 Anker, each of 28 Maass, each of 4 Ort - 46'136897 British Imperial Gallons, or 2*050776 Hecto- litres. The Anker » 7*522816 BritlBh Into^ial IGidlons, or 84*1796 Litres. The Maass -^ 1*074688 British Imperial Qnart, or 1-2207 Litre. The Ort » '58784 BriUsh Imperial Pint, or •306175 Litre. The Dreiling (Brandy) of 108 Maass » 29*016576 Gallons, or 131*8856 Litres. The Dreiling* (Beer) » 168 Maass -> 45*186897 BritiBh Imperial Gallona, or 2*050776 HectoUtres. WEIGHTS. The Weights are the same as those of Pmssia (see Prussia), hat the Centner is 108 Pfund. LIPPE. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Pass of 12 Zoll, each of 12 Linnon » 11*89835 English Inches, or '289513 MHre. The Elle of 2 Fnss « 22*7967 English Inches, or '579026 Metre. The Ililthc of 16 Fuss m 5*065985 EngHsh Yards, or 4*632208 Metres. MEASURES OF. SURFACE. The Morgen of 120 Square Rnthen = 8078*60113 English Square Yards, or '636281 English Acre., H)r 267488 Ares. The Scheffel of 80 Square Ruthen -* 2053*06742-18 English Square Yards, or '424187 Acre, or 17*1658 Ares. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Rye-Scheffel of 6 large, or 8 small Metzen, or 24 Meal- Metzen. The Oats-Scheffel of 7 large Rjre-Metzen « 1*21855698 British Imperial Bushel, or 44*2917 Litres. .' 7 Rye-Schoffel « 6 Oats-SohefToI. « MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Kanno of 4 Oi't -« 1*2116057 British Imperial Quarts, or 1'87G22 Litre. The Ort -» -6058028 British Imperial Pint, or •34405 Litre. The Oxhoft of IJ Ohm or, 6 Anker, or 162 Kannen » 49*07003 British Imperial Gallons, or 2*2294764 * The Beor Drolling contains the same quantity as tho Wiuo Oxhoft. 152 MEASUBES. Hectolitres. The Anker is 27 Eannen, and » 8*17688 British Imperial Gallons, or d7'15794 Litres. The Ohm is 4 Anker, Bnd - 82*71882 British Imperial Gallons, or 1*4868176 Hecto- litres. The Beer Ohm « 100 Eonnen - 121*16057 British Imperial Quarts, or 187*622 Litres. WEIGHTS. The weights for the Zollvcrein Customs' Duties are the same as the weights of Prussia (see Prussia) ; but the Pfnnd of 82 Loth, each of 4 Quentchen, is also used ; it is equal to 1*0804801 lb. av. English, or 467*41 Grammes. The Centner of 108 Pfund a 111*2918508 lbs. av. English, or 60*48028 Kilo- grammes. GEBMAKY. (South.) BADEN. MEASUBES OF LENGTH. South German value, SyiUmatie name. Bngllth value. Metric value. Inches. Metres. lOPunkte - 1 Lmie - -118 - •003 10 Linien - 1 ZoU « 1*181 - '03 lOZoll - IFuss » 11*811 a -3 Feet. 2 Fuss - lElle - 1*96858 - -6 10 Fuss * IRuthe - 9*84269 » 8 The Elle is divided into i, \, i, -^ EUe. The Elafter of 6 Fuss -i 6*905618 English Feet, or I-8 M(^tre. For Itinerary measures the Stundeof 14814*8148 Fuss « 4860*5911 Yards EnffliHh, or 4444*4 M6tres, and the Meile of 2 Stunden *- 6*5284 Miles EngUsh. MEASUBES OF SX7BFACE. South Oerman value, SyBtematie name, Bngli$h value. Metric value, 84. Yards. So. Uetres. 100 Sq. ZoU - 1 Sq. Fufs- '1076429824- -09 100 Sq. Fuss -ISq.Ruthe-i 10*76429824 - 9 100 Sq. Buthen •• 1 Viertel - 1076*429824 » 900 4Viertel - 1 Morgen «4d05*71929C »8600 For Land Measure the Square Buihe is also divided into 10 FeUlschtihe, each of 10 Thcilo (Fcld Zollj. PBUSSIA. 158 CUBIC MEASURES. The Klafter of (G x x 4 Fnss) 144 Cnbio Fa8B-il87'81507 Enfflish Cubic Feet, or 8'BB8 Cubic Mitred. The Cubic FuBS » -OCSSTOB English Cubic Fuss, or -OOO Cubic Mdtre. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. South Otrman Falue. Sytttmailc nam, 1 Glass - >i 1 Maass « 10 jQlass 10 Maass 10 Stutzcn 10 Ohm 1 Stntze lOhm 1 Fuder BmpihhvalM, Metric valut, Ulll. Uttw. r05C82 - *16 Quart. 1*8304 » 10 UallonB. 8-8014 » 16 88014 - 160 880*140 « 1600 The Maass is also diviiled into 2 Half-Maass, each of 2 Quar- ter Maass or Sclioppeu, each of 2 Half-Sohoppeu. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS, South Qerman valuta By$t€wiatto name, BnglUh valuf, DuHheli. » IMiisslein * -0418 « 1 Bester « -4127 » IMaltcr » 4-12<}8 - 1 Zuber - 41-2670 WEIGHTS. 10 Beoher 1^ Mjisslein 10 Maltir South German value, Syetematlo name, EngUih value, UraliiKTroy. 10 As - 1 Pfennig - 7'710d - 10 Pfennig -* 1 Contas » •()il028» 10 Centas •- 1 Zehnling « *11028 » 10 Zehnling » 1 Pfund - 1*1028 - Metric value, LltrsR. 1-6 16 - 160 - 1600 l^ftrlo value, Graminci. *5 6 60 600 KlloffntmintR. 100 Pfund » 1 Centner » 110*280 - 60000 or 60 BAVABIA. Bavarian value, 12 Linien 12ZoU 6 Fnss 10 Fuss MEASURES OF LENGTH. Syetemaiic name, Bngliih value, InohQM. IZoU -i '95750 1 Fuss -- '05750 llClafter • 6-74586 IRuthe « 8*5756 Metrie value, ^ Motritii. •02'i82 *20180 . 1*75116 • 2-0186 154 MEASUBE8. Snrvejors divide the Fuss into 10 Zoll, each 10 Linien. The EUe contains 2 Fuss 10^ Zoll, and equals '91101 English Yard, or 2'73S0a EngUsh Feet, or -QZS M^re. MEASURES OF SURFACE. Bawirian value, Syitematie name. English value. Metric value. Sq.Yarda. Sq. Metres. ^^2^j[j-|lSq.Fu88 - -10187970 - -0851818 "^^^^^-jlSq.Rnthe - 10-187970 » 8-61818 (4076-18810 400 Sq. Ruthen 1 Tagwerk,] Morgen, or v Juchert j Acre. or -842 -8407-272 CUBIC MEASURES. The Cubic Fuss of 1728 Cubic Zoll » -878 English Cubic Foot, or -02486 Cubic Mdtre. The Klafter of (6 x 6 x 3^ Fuss) 126 Cubic Fuss -» 110-628 English Cubic Feet, or 3*1325 Cubic Metres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Bavarian valv£, Syitematie name. EngUsh value, Metrie value. Btubels. Litres. 4Dreisiger8 » 1 Maassl - '12745 » 463245 4Maas8l8 - 1 Yiertel » -5098 - 18*5298 2Viertel - 1 Metze - 1-0196 - 87-0596 6Metzen - 1 Schaffel » 61176 « 222*3576 Quarten. 4Scha&l - IMuth - 8-0588 - 889-4304 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Bavarian value. Systematic name. English value. Metrie value. imperial Oallons. Litres. 1 Maaskanne » -23529 » 1-00903 60 Maaskannen » 1 Eimer » 16*05856 « 68-4179 25 Eimer » 1 Fass » 876*464 » 1710*448 m The Schenk-Eimer, the ordinary Eimer used in the Wine trade, contains only 60 Maaskannen, and equals 14-1174 British Imperial Gallons, or 64*1418 Litres. WEIGHTS. II Av. Qrammei. urami Av. uramm 4 Quentchen - 1 Loth - 9-87656 - 17-5 Bavarian value. Systematic name. English value. Metric value, 82 Loth - 1 Pfnnd - 1-28467 - 660 KllograinineB. 100 Pfund » 1 Centner « 128*457 - 66000 or 66 PBrssiA. 155 The Apothecaries* Pfand, or Pftud of Nnremherg, is diyided into 24 Loth, each of 12 Unzen. 14 Apothecaries* Pfnnd ■■ 9 Commercial Pfond. The Apothecaries' Pfond « -793652 lbs. ay., or 360 Grammes. The Mark for weighing the precious metals » 8608*9506 English Troy Grains, or 283*855 Grammes, and is divided as in Prussia, for Gold into 24 Carats, each of 12 Grains, and for Silver into 16 Loth, each of 18 Grains. Li Bhenish Bavaria the Fuss « i M^tre, or 18*128596 English Inches, and the Elle » 1| Mdtre, or 47*244948 English. Inches. The Cuhic Klafter is 6 x 6 x 6 - 144 Cuhic Fuss. Dry goods are measured by the Hectolitre, (see Fnmce) divided into 4 Yiernfel, each of 2 Simmer, each of 4 Vierling. WTTBTEMBXTBa. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Wurtemburg value, SifsUmatic name. EngUth value. Metric value. Line. Metres. IPunkte - -11126 - -00028^ Inehee. lOPunkte - 1 Linie - -1126 - -002864 lOLinien » 1 Zoll » 1*126 - -028649 Feet. 10 Zoll - IFuss a •9399& - -28649 10 Fuss - 1 Buthe « 9*3995 « 2*8649 The Elafter of 6 Fuss « 6*6397 English Feet, or 1-71894 Mdtre. The Elle of 2*144 Fuss - 2*01525 English Feet, or •614234 Metre. The MeUe of 26000 Fuss - 8146*28316 EngHsh Yards, or 4*6285 English Miles, or 7*44876 KUo- me&es. MEASURES OF SURFACE. Wurtemburg value, 8y$Umaiic name, EnglUh v<Uu0, Metric value,. inn fl/infl.rA 1 Bq. Feet. 8q. Metre. ZoU f"^^-^*^*- -888606 - -0820766 lOOSquare j . J ^S^.} _ 88-8606002 - 8-207662 The Morgen is also divided into 4 Yiertels. Sq.Terds. (3768*625608) Acre. \ - 8161*78887 or -77884 j 156 ICEASTTBES. CUBIC MEASURES. Wurtembwrg vcUtie. Systematic name, 1000 Cubic BnglUh name. - Cubic Feet. Metric value. Cubic Metres. Linida 1000 Cubic , ZoU lU Cubic Fuss =1 Cubic ZoU = -00083046= -000023614 =.1 Cubic Fuss = -8304514 = -023514176, »1 Cubic Elafter- 866-985 -d'386 The Elafter is used for measuring Firewood, it is 6 Fuss by 6 Fuss by 4 Fuss. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. WurtemJmrg value. Systematic name 4 Viertlein » 1 Ecldeiu uaiions. BEcklein = 1 Vierlinsr = 1-21896 = 6-5383125 4 Vierling Metric value. Litres. -692289 SSimri EnaUsh valu>e. Quarts. = 1;21896 = Gallons. = 1 Vierling = 1-21896 = Bushels. = 1 Simri - 1-21896 = 22-15325 = IScbeffel - 4-87584 =177-226 There is also the Mdsshin of 2 Ecklein = 2-43792 English Quarts, and the Achtel of 2 Masslein, equal to half a Vierling, or to -60948 of a British Imperial Gallon. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Wurtemburg value. Systematic name, 1 Quart or \ English value. GiUs. Metric value, Litres. 4 Quarts or) SchoppenJ. Schoppen 7 1 Helleich ) \ Maass ) Maass J . 16 Imi -■' 1 Eimer 6 Eimer = 1 Fuder 8-23464 Quarts. = 1-61732 Gallons. = 4-0433 = 64-6928 «d88'1568 -45926 1-83704 18-3704 203-9264 1783-5584 WEIGHTS. Metric valuer Gnunmes. 14-5853 Wurtemhurg value. Systematic name. English value. Oz. At. 4 Quentchen = 1 Loth >- -515575 = lbs. ar. 32 Loth = IPfund - 103115 = 466-73 lS2SMPf?nd}= ^^^^^^^ -107-2396 - 4858-992 100 Light Pfund -103-115 = 4673-0 PEUSBIA. 167 The Zollpfnnd (| EHogramme) with its decimal BubdiTisions (see ProsBia) is also used. HESSE-DABMSTADT. MEASUBES OF LENGTH. Jkmuiadt •oIm. SjfBttmatie nawu. 1 Linie 10 Linien « 1 ZoU 10 ZoU « 1 Fobs 10 Fuss » 1 Elafter Engli$hvdl,ut. InchM. - -098426 - -984269 - 9*842697 Faet. » 8*2022 Mttrie value. Metre. •0025 •025 i» -25 « 2*5 The EUe of 24 ZoU « 1-9685395 English Foot, or •« Mdtre. Darwutait value, lOOSq. ZdU lOOSq. FasB 100 Square \ Elafter | 4Viertel Morgen MEASURES OF SURFACE. Sifitematie tume, EnglUh value. 8q. Fee(. -1 Sq. FosB - -6727608 1 Sq. Elafter» 67*27608 'Knl- 6727-60848 ' ] [26910-48398 r " ■ Acre. J I or -61788^ ( 1 Morgen Mttrie value, 8q. Metres. •0625 - 6-25 " 625 r2600or i 26 CUBIC MEASURES. Damtitadt value, Syitematie name. EnglUh value, MeUie voZtie, Cubic Feet. Cubic Metref . 1000 Cubic ZoU = 1 Cubic Fuss = -6518119- -015626 1000 Cubic Fa8s» 1 Cubic Elafter - 661*811903 « 16*625 The Stecken of 100 Cabic Fuss » 56*18119 English Cnbio Feet, or 1*5625 Metre. It is used for measuring Firewood, and is 5 Fuss by 5 Fuss by 4 Fuss. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Darmiiadt value. 4 Maaschen 4 Gescheid 4 Eumpf 4 Simmer SijitemaHc name. 1 Gescheid 1 Kumpf 1 Simmer 1 Malter EnjUih value. Metric value Bushels. Litres •055 « 2 •2201 « 8 -8804 = 82 3*5216 =- 128 158 icEAsrBi;8. The Maasehen is eqnal to i Litre, or *44 Britisli Imperial; Gallon. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Darmttadt value, Systematie name. English value. Metric value, Galloni. LifefSi. 4 Quarts or Schoppen ss 1 Maass ■- -44019 •■ 2 4Maas8 - IViertel » 1*76076 » 8 20 Viertel » 1 Ohm « 86*2152 « 160 6 Ohm - IFuder » 211*2912 « 960 The Qnart or Schoppen is eqnal to | Litre, or *44 British Imperial Qallon. WEIGHTS. Darmttadt value. 8y$tematie name. English value. 4 Pfennig = 1 Qu6ntchen=. •mW « Metrl€ vahie, Onunnea. 8*90625 4 Qnentchen » 1 Loth » '55116 = 32 Loth - 1 Pfnnd - ri623 » 16-625 600 100 PfuBd - 1 Centner « 110*233 « _ Kiloffnmma*. 60000 or 60 MECKLENBUBQ - SCHWEBIN : MECKLEN- BUBQ STBELITZ. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Mecklenburg value. Systematie name. Englieh value. Metric value, InchM. MetfM. 10 Punkte - 1 linie «. , ^ -11456 « -00291 10 Linien «= 1 Zoll = * 114568 « '0291 lOZoU » IFnss » 11-45689 « -291 Yards. IGFuss » IRnthe » 6*09182 » 4*656 The Linear measm-es given in the tahle are those of Mecklen- hurg, and are nsed in Land Surveying. The Rostock Fuss » 11*326936 English Inches, or -287699 Metre. The Fass nsed h.y Bonders is the same as that of Hamburg. The Rostock Elle of 2 RoBtock Fuss » 22*653872 En^sh Inches, or '575398 Metre. The Mecklenburg Meile is the same as that of Prussia. PBVSSIA. 150 MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Hufe is a TariAble ineasnre, signifying as much land as 300 Rostock Soheffeln of Grain will sow. The Morgen is also a Tariable measnre. In some places it is 400, in others 800, in others 200, and in others 100 Square Hnthen. A Square Ruthe - 26*9266527 English Square Yards, or 84*7578 Square Metres* CUBIC MEASURES. The (Builders') Cubic Furs is the same as the Hamburg Ciibio Fuss, and » '88115 EugliRh Cubic Foot, or '023584 Cubic Metre. The Faden of 147 (Builders') Cubic Fuss - 122*17905 English Cubic Feet, or 8*459498 Cubic Metres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Mchwerin value* Suitfrnatle name, Xnglhh value, Metrte value, Iiuperial Quarter. Liircn. 4 Spint or Metzen- [ ^ vlertel] * -088485- 972225 4 Viertel or Fass - 1 Soheffel « *18874 - 38-889 •12 Scheffel - 1 Drttmt - 1'60488 - 466*668 8Dramt - 1 Last - 12*88904 -8788*844 Salt and Coal are measured with a smaller Last of 12 Tonne, each of 6 Soheffeln. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Sehwerin valuei Sif$temaUe tumie, EnfflUh value. Metric value. lPoll,or\ Quartier i Imperial IMnta. - 1*594706- Lltrci. •905685 2 Poll, or Quartier — 1 Kanne - 8-18941 - 1-811.']? 2 Eannen ■- 1 Stubchei 2 Stubchen » 1 Viertel I- 6-87882 - Imporial (}aUoiM. « 1*59470 - 3-62274 7-24548 4 Viertel - 1 Eimer - 6*87880 - 28-9H192 l\ Eimer, or 5 Viertel- 1 Anker - 7-97850 - 86-22749 4 Anker, or 24 Viertel- 1 Ohm - 81*89400 - 144-909C(> U Ohm, or 6 Anker - 1 Qxhoft -47-84100 - 217-7644e 4 Oxhoft, or 6 Ohm - 1 kudcr -191*86400 - 871-05700 160 HEASX7BES. WE^j&HTg. Sehwerin value. 4 Qnentclien 32 Loth 112Pfand Sjatematie naiie. Englhh value. Metric value, Oz. At. Orunmes. ILoth ^ '56022 » 16*88215 lb«. At. IPfund 112044 - 608*229 (66921-648 or Centner — 126*48928 ^ \ Knosnmunes. 66*921648 The Schiffspfond of 20 LieBpfimd, each of 14 Pfnnd » 313*7232 IbB. ay. English, or 142*30412 EilogrammeB. There is also the Schiffspf nnd of 20 Liespfond, each of 16 Pfnnd. It is equal to 368*5408 n^s. av. English, or 197*76137 Kilo- grammes. In Bostock there are two Pfnnds of different wei^ts in use, namely, the Stadt-gevncht (public scales weight) Pfond, and the Kramer-gewicht (retail weight) Pfnnd. The former is that given in the table. The Eramer-gewicht Pfond = 1*06708 lb. ay. English or 484*028 French Grammes. HAMBUBG. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Hambv/rff value. 8 Achtel c 12 ZoU 2 Fnss B 6 Fuss SyttemaUc name, IZoll IFuss lElle 1 Klafter or Faden English value, InchM. = *94021 = 11*28252 Feet. = 1*88042 -= 6-64126 MeMe «altt#. Metres. « -02388 - -28667 = -67314 = 1-71942 The EUe giyen in the table is the Hamburg EUe, used for Silk, Linen, and Cotton goods. The Brabant Elle used for Cloths and Stuffs is equal to 1\ Hamburg Elle, and therefore to 2-2565 English Feet, or -687768 M^tre. In practice, 4 Brabant Ellen are reckoned equal to 3 English Yards. There are 8 sorts of Buthe used in Hamburg, namely the Marsch- Buthe of 14 Hamburg Fuss, and equal to 13*16294 English Feet, or 4*01198 Mdtres ; the Geest-Buthe of 16 Hamburg Fuss, and equal to 16*04336 English Feet, or 4*58512 Mdtres ; and the Bheinland-Buthe of 12 Bheinland Fuss, and equal to 12*35592 English Feet, or 3*7662 Metres. The Bheinhmd or Prussian Fuss, used by Snryeyors and Engineers, is divided into 12 Zoll, each of 10 Linien, each of 10 Theile, and is oqaal to 1*02976 English Foot, or -31385 Metre. HAHBrBG. lOL MEASURES OF SURFACE. Bumhurg valuta 8jf9tematie luime. U4Sq.Zolls ISq.Fasa » 1 Square' EiulUh value. M.7e«t. •%8400 « 196 Sqr. Fobs 966 Sqr Fuss ■}■ i)00 Sqr. Geest- Bnthen 600 Sqr.] Horsch-r Buthen j Marsch- , Rathe 1 Sqnare' Geest' , Rnthe (iSchefbl •< Geest land 1 Morgen 173-264 - 226-304 - / Sq. Yard*. \ 6 028-977 or | AOIM. 1-039 8q. Yards. '11660*983 or I I Acres. r 2-386 j Metric vMlue, 8q. Metres. 082123 16-0961fi 21-0234M 4204-G97 Ares. 42046 8q. Metres. 9667-664 ar Ares. 96*576 A space called Trayelboden is 5600 Hambnrg Square Fass, and is equal to 660*4 English Square Yards, or 469'8889 Square Metres. CUBIC MEASURES. Hamburg value, Syitematie name, EnglUh valite. Metric value. Cubic Feet. Cubic Metres. 1728 Cubic Zoll » 1 Cubic Fuss - -38115 - 2*3534 88f Cubic Fuss - 1 Cubic Elafter - 73*88 » 2*091911 120 Cubic Fuss :=» 1 Tehr - 99*788 «» 2*82408 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Syttenialic name. Sawiburg value, 2 0ssel 2 Quartier 2 Eannen 2 Stubchen 4 Viertel 6 Viertel, or ) l^Eimer/ 6 Eimer, or ) 24 Viertel J 4 Anker, or [ 6 Eimer j 6 Anker, or ) U Ohm j 6 Ohm 1 Qnartier 1 Kanne 1 Stubchen 1 Viertel 1 Eimer 1 Anker 1 Tonne lOhm 1 Oxhof t EnglUh value. Imperial OaUoiw. •1998376- •398675 - •79786 = 1-69470 - 6*37880 - Metric value, Lilrw. •905689 1-81137 3-62274 7-24648 28*98192 7*97360 88-27280 81-89400 47-84100 CI Fuder, or) ___ ^^.^^ X Tonn;au|-lW-36400 - 86*2274 = 178*89162 « 144*9096 = 217*3644 = 860*4576 1«2 HSASUBJEI. The above are the mearares for Wines and Bfiriiti, For Beer there are the Tonne of 48 Stnhchen, the Kleine-Tonue of 40 Stubchen, and the Schmal.Tonue of 82 Stnbchen. The TomM af Vinegar is 80 Stubchen. The Tonne of Oil is 32 Stnbchen. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Eamburg value. SytUmatle name. SnglUh value. Hetrie value. ImMriAl Bu«heU. LitrM. % Small Maass a 1 "Ltx^e Maasa - -04725 - 1-71762 4 Large Maass » 1 Spint '18001 B 6-870187 4 Spint - 1 Himten - -75604 - 27-48075 2 Himten » 1 Fass - 1-51208 - 64*9615 2 Fass » 1 Scheifel «. d'02416 - 109*928 10 Scheffeln « 1 Wispel » 80-2416 « 1099*28 8297*69 or 8 Wispel - 1 Last -» 90*7248 « ■ Hectolitre^ 82*9769 Of Wheat, Rye, or Peas, the Scheffel contains 2 Fass ; but of Barley or Oats it contains 8 Fass. 100 Fass -> 18*9010 British Imperial Quarters, or 64*9615 Hectolitres. The Tonne of Salt - 4*5387 British Imperial Bushels, or 164*794 Litres. The Tonne of Lime is 6 Himten or 8 Fass, and is eqoal to 4*58624 British Imperial Bushels, or 164*8845 Litres. WEIGHTS. Eamhurg value, Systematle naiHe. BnglUh value, lb. •▼. •0110282 •110282 10 Qninten 10 Half Grammen « 1 Quint » fKNew)) " \ Unze ) - fl(New' 10 (New) Unzcn » \ Metric) (Pfund Meirie vahte, Qnxamm. 6 60 110282* -i 600 100 Pfund 1 Centner - 110*282 » r 60000 or KUofrrunmu. 60 600 (New) Hnnd - 8000 1 Last ' (Com- ■ B 6619 '92 ^raerciolj^ This (New Metric) weight is employed in the trade of gold and silver bullion, hut special weights called hank weights, and gold and silver money weighu are employed for weighing silver n the Hamburg Bank, and U r weighing gold and silver money. There are also JpoOiecariee* weights used in mixing medicines. • Or,*6265MofaTn>ylb. HAMBUBe. 163 (a) GOLD MONEY WEIGHTS. Hamhurff value* 8if$tematic ttanu, BnglUh val«tf. M«Me 9mlu$% Troy QraiiiB. OrmmmM. 12GramB . 1 Carat - 1*2511 « 9*744 24 Carats, or 288 Grains 1 Hamburg ^ Cologne Mark » 80*0264 -288*856 (h) SILVER MONEY WEIGHTS. 18 Grains « 1 Unza » 1-87665 - 14*61A9I IftUnzenor' Loth, or 288 Grains 1 Hamburg Cologne Mark -* 800264 -288*855 The Hamburg Cologne Mark is equal to '62655 of the English ». Troy. (c) APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. 20 Grains - 1 Scruple - 2*893815 a 1*25 8 Scruples- 1 Dram - 67*866800875- 8*75 8 Drams - 1 Unze - 462*98047 - 80 The Apothecaries' Unze is equal to 6 Quints (J-) ef the Ham- burg (New Metric) Unze, or to *96 &c, of the English Onnee Avoirdupois. For weighing Precious Stones the Loth or Unze (see Silyer Money Weights) Is divided into 71 Karats of 4 Grains each. Com, Pulse, and Seeds are sold, wholesale, by iceightt not measure, viz. :-^ Wheat per Last of 5400 lbs. <7roM-weight. Rye J .1 . . . . II 5100 „ ,, Buck-Wheat and Barley.. „ 4800 „ „ Anhalt and Magdeburg Barley according to measure. Small Danish Barley . . per Last of 4820 lbs. ^»'OM-weighC Oats . . . . . • „ 8600 „ ,y Malt • * . • „ 8000 ,, HcU Peas and Vetches . . „ 5600 „ gross-weighi. Beans . . • . • • »i 5520 ,| », Rapeseed and Turnip-seed „ 4800 „ „ Linseed per 180 lbs. Other Seeds . . . . at 100 lbs. net Wheat-Flour for exportation per Barrel of 177 lbs. net^ ditto EBglieh, per Sack of 280 lbs. (including the Sack). 164 HlABt7BB0. BBEMEir. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Bremen value. By9Umatle name. 1 liinie . EnglUh value, iDcbe*. •09498 Metna. •002009 10 liiliieii « IZoll a •94988 '« •02411 12ZoU » IFnss a 11-89196 s •28985 2FnHR » lEUe » 22-78892 \ •67870 8 Ellen = 1 Klafter » reet. 6-69598 1-7861 8 Ellen 1 1 Bathe ■■ 16.18928 B 4-6296 Snrreyorfl and Engineers divide the Fnss into 10 Zoll. 100 Bremen Ellen are eqnal to 68'2888 English Yards, and 100 Eng^sh Yards are eqnal to 168*006 Bremen Ellen. The Bremen Brabant EUe is 1| Bremen Ellen, and is eqnal to •769468 English Yard, or -66444 M^tre. MEASTJBES OF SURFACE. Bremen talue. Systematic nam£. 144 Sq. Zoll* - ISq.Fnss » 266 Bq. Fuss « 1 Sq. Rathe » 120 Sq. Rnthens 1 Morgen • EnglUh value. Metric valmg, S4anT4«. 8qu*re Matna. •10088 «. -084 26-6868 « 21-604 fd082'2896| 2680-4801; AcTM. f ^* Am. or -68682] 26'8048 CUBIC MEASURES. Bremen value. Sy$t€matie name. Snglieh value. Metric vakie. Cable Feet. CaMcKetim. 1728 Cnbic Zollf - 1 Cnbic Fnss « -857 » '024 72 Cubic Fnss - 1 Faden » 61*704 « 1-728 The Faden is 6 Fuss x 6 Fuss x 2 Fuss. * Or 100 Square Dedmal Zoll. •f Or 1000 Cubic Decimal Zoll. BBEHSK. — L17BSC. 166 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Bremsn vdlut, SffttemaHe name, 4 Miiigeln » 1 Qnartier i 4 Qnartier a 1 Stiibchen « BnglUh value. Imperial Pints. 1-4180726 - Metric value. Litres. •787 9 Qnartier, or] , ,r. . , SiStubchonj 1 Viertel 6 Viertel 4 Anker 6 Anker 6 Ohm « 1 Anker « lOhm - lOzhoft B IFnder 6-67229 a Imperial Oallons. » 1-560 - 7-800 - 81-200 » 46-800 - 280*800 » 8*149 7*086 85-430 141-720 212*580 1275*480 The principal Measures for Wines and Spirits are the Viertel, the Anker, and the Ozhoft. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. BretMH value, Syttematiename, Englith value, Metrievdlue^ Imperial Bushels. Litres. 4 Spinta - 1 Viertel « -50 » 18*526 4 Viertel » 1 Soheffel - 2-0388 - 74*104 Imperial Quarters. 40 Soheffeln « 1 Last » 81*552 or 10*194 » 2964*160 WEIGHTS. The Weights are the same as those of Hamhorg (see Ham* LXJBEC. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Luhee value, 12Punkte 12 Linien 12ZoU 2Fn38 8 Ellen Syttemaiie name, 1 Ponkte ■ 1 Lime - IZoU » 1 Fass - lElle B 1 Rathe EnglUh value. Inches. •00655 •07868 •94865 11-8288 ' Feet. 1-88730 15-0984 Metrie value. Metres. •0001666 •0019978 •0289688 •28762 •57624 4*60192 The Lnhec Geographical Mile of 15 to an Equatorial Degree, IS eqnal to 4*6807 English MUes. 166 KEiiSTrBES. Lubee value. MEASURES OF SUBFACE. Syit&matie name. English value. Metrie value, Squnre Feet. Square Metrea. 144 Square Zoll »1 Square Fuss ^ -8904758 « -0827252 Square Tarda. 256 Square Fuss - 1 Square Bnthe « 25*32907 « 21'177667 The Scheffel is as much kud as a Sche£ffl of Grain will sow, «nd is therefore an area which varies with different Grains, and with different qualities of the same Grain. From 60 to 70 Scheffehi ai'e. reckoned to the Square Buthe, and 24 Scheffeln to the Tonne, and 4 Tonne to the Last. The Scheffel of 60 Square Buthen « 1569*7446 English Square Yards, or 1270*66006 Square Metres. MEASUBES OP CUBIC CAPACITY. The Faden- 74.912 Cuhio Feet English. For the mea- surement of Firewood there are the Stadtfaden and the Forst- faden. The Stadtfaden a 6 Fuss 7i Zoll high, 6 Fuss 7i Zoll broad. 10 Forstfaden are reckoned equal to 11 Stadtfaden. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. Lubec Value. 2 0rt 2 Plank 2 Quartier 2 Kannen 2 Stubchen 4 Viertel 6 Viertel 4 Anker 6 Anker, or 80 Viertel, or 1^ Ohm 4 Oxhoft, or 6 Ohm } Syitematie name, lOrt - 1 Plank »*1 Quartier a 1 Kanne « 1 Stubchen - 1 Viertel an 1 Eimer >" 1 Anker » lOhm -i 1 Oxhoft = IFuder English value. am. 1-6012 = Imperial Pint. •8006 « Imperial OaUona. / -20015- *40080» •80060- 1*6012 = 6*4048 B 8 0060 » Metrie value* Litres. •22734376 •4546875 •909376 1*81876 3*6376 7-276 29*100 86*375 - 32-0240 » 146*500 - 48*0360 -218*250 192144 -878 The Fass for Brandy (in the wholesale trade) — 1 Oxhoft. The Fass or Ohm for Beer (m the wholesale trade) is 80 Kannen, each of 2 Quartier or krossi and is equal to 82*79798 * Th« Quartier is also called a Bonteille in Wine measnrenient. IilTBlO. — SPAIK. 167 British Imperial Gallons, or 140 '01 6 Litres. The Beer Kanne -•40997 British Imperial Galloxis, or 1*8627 litre. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. XngU$h value, Metrie voIim; BxuImIs. Litres. - -95448 - 84*694 = 8-81792 - 188*776 Qtturteni. - 1-48172 » 416-828 - 11-45876 - 8880-624 The Soheffel and its multiples ahoye giyen are nsed for mea« snring Wheat, Rye, Barley, and Peas. The Soheffel for Oats and Fmit is larger, and » *18589 British Imperial Quarters, or 88*514 Litres. Its multiples, the Tonne, Diomt, and Last, are in proportion. Lubee value. Syttematie name. 4Fa8S a 1 Soheffel 4 Soheffel « 1 Tonne 8 Tonne a IDromt 8Dromt » ILast WEIGHTS. « Lubec value. 8if$temaHe fume* 1 Pfennmg XnglUh value, Metrie vaUte, Os. At. Ormmmefi. » -03851 - -958607 4 Pfenning — 1 Qnentche » •18406 « 8-814429 4 Quentchen ^ « ILoth a •53625 » 15*257718 2 Loth •■ 1 TJnze - 10726 - 80-415487 8 XJnzen » IMark . IM. •▼. •53625 » 248*8236 2 Marks, or ^ 82 Loths } » IPfund ». 10725 » 486-647 14 Hund » 1 Liespfnnd . Kllonammes. 15-015 • 6-813058 8 Liespf nnd, or ) 110 1>fnn<1 * 1 Centner s. l-'0725 » 54*504464 21^ Centner » 1 Sohifi^fnnd » 2805875 - 1171-845976 The Freight Schifii9pfand contains 820 Pfand, or 20 Lies- pfnnd of 16 Pfund. SPAIN. MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. The Measures and Weights are exactly the same as those ol France. The Metro is the Mdtre ; the Litre is the Litre ; the Gramo is the Gramme; and the Area is the Are, and the * Doubtless Lnbeo will soon adopt the New Metric Weights which hare been introduced at Hamburg and Bremen. 168 lasAsriafl. Tonelada is 10 Metric Quintal of 100 Eilognunmes each. Tba* Metric system came into use on the Ist January, 1859 (see- France). It is also the legal system for all the Spanish Colonies, hnt the Old Spanish system of Weights and Measures is still occasionally referred to, it is therefore giren below. OLD MEASUBES OF LENGTH. Old Spaniih value, 8f»temaUe name, 12 Pnntos ■> 1 Linea ■* 12 Lineas » 1 Pnlgada » 6 Pnlgadas •> 1 Sesma » 3 Sesmas, er\ f 1 Pies de) 12 Pnlgadas j ^ iBorgos J " 8 Pies de Bnrgos 2 Yaras 4yaras } « IVara •- lEstado «- lEstadal 5000 Varas - SOOOVaras - 1 Legna ] (CastiUan) [ I 1 Legoa (Spanish) Engliih value, InobM. •07725 : •927 « 6-564 I 11-128 feet. 2-782 6-564 11-128 Miles. 2-68446 or) Tardi. 4636f MUm. 2161 or^ 74181 Metric value. Mvtns. •001962 •028558 •1418ia •28264 •84792 1-69584 8-89168 "^ 423:9 KiloinotrM« 4-289^ Metres. f 6788-86 or XUoiMlree. 6'7888& The Vara was also sobdivided into 4 Palmos of 9 Pnlgadas, or 12.Dedos, and eachDedo of 9 Lineas. 8 Pnlgadas » 4 Dedos. The PuBo ==» 6 Vftras; the Ouerda » S^ Varas b88 Palmos. lOG EngUBh YardB =r-. 107*84 Yaras, and 100 Varag = 92-78 English Tarda. The Codo for measuring timber and masts was tiro-fhirds of the Tara. ^ The Oeographloal Legna = 7606-84 Varas : the Legoa MftTft*"** = eessae Yaras. OLD MEASUBES OF SURFACE. Old SpanUh value, Syatematie name, English value. Square Yards. 9 Sqr. Pies -rl Sqr. Vara » -8599409- 16 Sqr. Varas^l Sqr. Estadal- 18*759064 - 50Sqr. VarasslEstajo -42*9970 - 576 Square > . „ ^***** EEtidals i --1 Fanegada - 1-6874 - 50 Fanegadas-sl Yngada — 81*87 Metric value. Sqaare Metres. -7189688 11-5084982 86-9484163 ▲ree. 66*26012096 8813*00604805 fiPAisr. 169 The Faneg^da was a very rarying measure, in gome diBtriots it contained only 600 Square Estadals, or 8000 Square Yaras. It was divided into 12 Geleminos, eaoh of 4 Cuartillos and was a square whose side was equal to 24 Estadals. The Aranoada was the surface measure for Vineyards, and was uniform throughout Spain. It was a square whose side was equal to 20 Estadals. It contained 400 Square Estadals, or 6400 Square Yaras, and was equal to about ri370 Acre British. The Cahi- zada was a vague measure denoting the area on which a Cahiz of Com could be sown. OLD MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Old Spaniih value* 4 Capos 4 Cuartillos 2 Azumbres 4 Cuartillas^ or 8 Azumbres^ 16 Cantaras ByiUmaHe name, SngUth value. Imperial OllU. - -8877 - Imperial Gallons. « •11099- - -44396 » - -88798=1 1 Capo 1 Cuartillo 1 Azumbre 1 Cuartilla 1 Arroba Mayor or Cantara Metric value. Litre*. •12607 •6C4286 2017145 4*03429 -B 1 Mayo - 8-55173- 1613716 -56*2768 -258-19456 The Cuaftilla - 8 Cuartillos. The Wine Bota - 30 Can- tares. The Measure for Oil was the Arroba Menor of 25 Libras, each of 4 Panillas. The Arroba Menor — 2*7652 British Im- perial GallonB, or 12*564 Litres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Old Spaniih value. Syetettuktie name. 4 Oohavillos < 4 Radones < 2 QuartilloB 2 Medios 12 Almuerzas ) (Celemines) j 12 Fanegas 1 Raoion 1 Quartillo 1 Medio 1 Almude 1 Fanega 1 Cahiz English value. Bushels. •00785 •031409 •062819 •126638 Metric value. Litres. •2889 ri558 2-3116 4*6233 1-507664 - 55-480 18-0919C8 - 665*76 170 HXAIITBSS. WEIGHTS. Old Spanith value . Bj/Btematie name, EnglUh value. Metric veUue, 12 OranoB - 1 Tomin - •02113 - OnuniM*. 2-89656 8 Tomines a> 1 Adarme ■■ •06840 » 7-18968 2 Adarmefl f 1 Ochavo, or ) "* 1 Drachma j •12680 - lU. At. 14-87987 8 Ochavofl — 1 Onza -• •06840 - 28-76875 8 Ouzas -• 1 Marco -• •60721 « 280-07 2 Marcos 100 Libras ( 1 Libra ■■ t (Castiliaiia) » 1 Quintal . « 1-01442 « - 101-442 - 460-14 KilofrnuDtDM. 46014 10 Quintals ■■ 1 Tonelada -1014-42 - 46014 Besides the ordinary Quintal of 100 Libras there was the Quintal Marco of 160 Libras (the Oarga of Peru), equal to 152-168 lbs. av. Englinh, or 690'21 Kilogrammes. In Ships' Freight the Tonelada equal to 20 Quintals. In Apothecaries' Weights the Onza of the above table was divided into 8 Drachms, eaah Drachm into 8 Scruples, each Scruple into 2 Obolos, and each Obolo into 8 Caracteres. The chief unit in Gold and Silver Weights was the Marco of the above table. For Gold Weights it was divided into 60 Gastellanos, each of 8 Tomineb. For Silver Weights it was divided as in tfio table. The fineness of Gold was expressed by dividing the unitH of weight into 24 Carats, each of 4 Granos ; and the fineness of Silver by dividing it into 12 Dineros, each of 24 Granos. The Diamond Onza of 140 Carats contained only 560 Granos, GIBBALTAB. The Weights and Measures are chiefly those of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the following Old Spanish Weights and Measures, viz. : — ^the Pipe ■■ 105 Impennl Gallons ; the Arroba (liquid measure) « 2*77 Imperial Gallons ; the Arroha (weight) » 26 lbs. Avoirdupois ; the Quintal «»f 100 lbs. «- lOlJ lbs. Avoirdupois ; 6 Fanegat of Grain «■ 7| Im- perial Bushels. (See Spain, p. 167). POBTiraAX. — HOLLARS. 171 POBTUGAL. The Metric Bystem of Weights and Measares is now used in Portugal. This system, which is exactly the same as that of France (see France), was introduced gradually, and the change was effected in a remarkably short period. In 1852 the Govem- ment decreed that the Weights and Measures should be re-or- ganized upon the metric basis, and a period of ten years was fixed for its introduction and adoption. Metric metwirei of length came into use in Portugal in January, 181)0; Metric iteighU in July, 1861 ; Metric surface measures in July, 1862 ; and Metric measures of capacity in January, 1868. HOLLAND. In 1820 Holland adopted the Metric system ; and tho Weights and Measures are the same as those of France, but have differ- ent names, as will be seen by the following tables : — MEASURES OF LENGTH. Jhiieh «aKM. Systematic name. Xetrie valm. 1 Streep 10 Strepen « 1 Duim 10 Puimen >- 1 Palm 10 Palmen 10 EUen 100 Roeden Dutoh value. « lEl « 1 Roede - 1 Mijle English value, Inoheii. •03937 - IMillimfitTe •8987079 - lOentimfttre 8-937079 - lD6oim6tre 80*87079 « IMdtre YardH. 10*986808 a 1 D6oamdtre (1003-6082 or) i nearly 5 fur- I- ■■ 1 KUomdtre ( longs MEASURES OF SURFACE. By»tematle name* 1 Vierkante ) Streep t " 100 Vierkante ) . ( 1 Vierkante \ Streepen / ' Duim J " 100 Vierkante ) ^ f 1 Vierkante j Didmen ) t Palm J " 100 Vierkante i f 1 Vierkante > Palmen f " t El i 100 Vierkante ) _ j 1 Vierkante i English value. Metric value, Bouare I nchei. Sq. Millimetre. •001550069- 1 Sq.OenMmetrp •1550059 - 1 Sq. Deotmi'tro 16-500591 » 1 Bq. Tardt. Centiare ur Sq. Iiilt>lk'« ■q. Yards. Ceimare ur Bq. . ri960332 - 1 Are or Bq. Deoaraclre EUen f-{*B^dr"}-ll»'«08821 - 1 1 Vierkante \ 100 Vierkante i . j 1 Vierkar Roeden ) " t Bunder 100 Vierkante) . f 1 Vierkante) «a7.1U2J9 Bunderg J"t Mijle |-a4711«99 Bq. Aorei. Hectare. 2'471U299 - 1 MjnHlart or Sq. Kilometr* 172 MEASTTBE8. CUBIC MEA8X7BE. Dutch value. SyttenuUie name. tlnfflUh vdhte. Metric value. Cubic Feet. Millistexe. 1 Enbieke Siareep - •035ai7628» 1 lOOOKubickej Streepen 1000 Enbicke Duimen ' 1 000 Enbicke ^ <Btere or Oabie Mmen } "^ ^ ^^® KuWcke El=.36-317628 « Centibttre. 1 Kabioke Dnim » -35317628 » 1 Decivtere. 1 Enbicke Palm «» d'5317628 » 1 In measuring the tonnage of Ships, 1| Eiibicke Ellen « l Scheepston, and 2 Scheepstonnen » 1 Scbeepslast. The Scheepston is equal to 62*9765 Cubic Feet, and the Scbeeps- last to 105*951 Cubic Feet English. The Wisse is nsed in measuring Firewood. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. Dutch value. Systematic name. English value. Metric value. Pints. 1 Vingerhoed = -0176077 = 1 Centilitre 10 Tmgeriioeden- 1 Maatje « -176077 =1 Decilitre lOMaatjes == 1 Kan = 1-760773 =1 Litre 100 Eannen » 1 Vat or Ton » 22*009667 =1 Hectolitre MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Dutch value. Systematic name. English value. Metric value. Imperial Pints. 1 Maatje -= -176077 « 1 Decilitre 10 Maatjcs » 1 Kop - 1-760773 = 1 Litre Imperial Gallons. 10 Eoppen » 1 Schepel « 2*200967 » 1 Decalitre Imperial Bnshels. 10 Schepels « 1 Mudor Zak - 2*751208 « l Hectolitre Impeilal Qnarters. 30 Mudden - 1 Last - 10*31703 » 30 HectoUtre A Market Schepel contains 2^ Schepel, or 25 Eoppen, and is equal to 5*5024175 Imperial Gallons English. • WEIGHTS. (C0MHEROIAI4). Dutch value. Systematic name. English value. Metric wiht9, GnunsTroy. 1 Eorrel - 1*5432349 » 1 Decigramme 10 Eorrel - 1 Wigtje « 15*432349 « 1 Gramme 10 Wigtje ^ 1 Lood <- 164*32349 - 1 Decagramme lbs. AT. 10 Looden — 1 Onze «■ -220466 •- 1 Hectogramme 10 Onzen » 1 Pond » 2'20466 - 1 Eilogramme BELaiUlC. — ^PENMABK. 173 The Weights used in weighing Gold and Silver are the same as those just given; the Eorrel is however subdivided into tenths, hundredths, and thoukandth parts, MEDICINAL WEIGHTS. Dutch value. SytUmatie nawte, 1 Grein «= EngJUK vaXm. MstHc valus, Troy Oniiui. Onunmaa. 1-00471 - -066104 20 Greinen «1 Sompel ■» 20-094204 « 1-S0208 3 Scrupels «1 Drachma » 60*28262 - 8*90625 8 Draohmen ==1 0ns » 482*2609 - 81-25 12 Onsen 1 Pond (5787*1308 or) ^-- '"I -82674761b.] "875 The Medical Pond is exactly fths of the Commercial Pond. BELGIUM. WEIGHTS AND MEASUB S. The system of Weights and Measures is the Metric. It is exactly tiie same as that of France, snhstitnting the name Livre for Kilogramme, Litron for Litre, aod AuTie for Mdtre. In some of the Provinces local usages are occasionally met with, hut for aU regular legal transactions the Decimal system is employed. DENMABK. DanUh value. 12 Linier 12 Tommer 2Fod 3 Alen (or 6Fod 2 Favn (or 12 Fod) 24000 Fod, or] 2000Boder f MEASURES OF LENGTH. Systematic name. 1 Linie = j- 1 Tomme IFod 1 Alen 1 Favn 1 Bode 1 Danish^ Mile or Mil EnglUh valtte. Inches. •8681 1-02972 Feet. 1-02972 2*05944 Metric value. Metres. « -021795 - -261644 « -31386 « -627707 6*17833 = 1-883121 12*36666 Yards. 8237-77349 or Miles. 4*68065 = 3*766242 Kilometres. . = 7-632484 174 HEASUBES. One Danish Sea Mile is equal to 28642 Danish Fod; one GeograpMoal Mile (15 to a degree) is eqnal to 2d609'2 Fod. In Nautical language 600 Fod, or 100 Favn are called 1 ** Kalbelliengde." Surveyors divide the Fod, according to the Dedmal system, into 10 Tommer ; each Tomme into 10 Linier ; and 1 Bode into 10 Fod. In Holstein and in Sleswick, Ham- burg Measures are mostly used; 23 feet Hamburg Measure being equal to 21 feet Danish. MEASUBES OF SUBFA€E. DanUh value, BfsUmaUe name, EnfflUh value. Metric value. Square Voot. Sfpunlfetrw. 144 Sq. Lime - 1 Sq. Tomme » '08836 » -0006840 144 Sq. Tommer - 1 Sq. Fod » 1-060323 - -0985018 Square Yard*. 144 Sq. Fod » 1 Sq. Bode « 16*965172 ^ 14*18469444 The **T5nde Land" (used in field measurement) of 56000 Square Fod, or 14000 Square Alen = 6597'5670656 English Square Yards, or 1-36813 English Acre, or 4816'27006 Square Metres, or 48*1627006 Ares ; and 11 T&nder land are equal to about 15 English Acres. CUBIC MEASUBES. DamUh viUue. Byitematie name, BnglUhvahu, Metric vaUue, Cubic Fool Cubic Metrsu 1728 Cubic Linier «1 Cubic Tomme- -000631 --00001789 1728 Cubic Tommer -1 Cubic Fod « 1-091886 » -03091479 In Firewood measurement the Favn contains 72 Danish Cubic Fod, It is 6 Fod x 6 Fod x 2 Fod, and is equal to 78*61219 English Cubic Feet, or 2*22586538 Cubic Metres. In Forest measurement the Favn is 6} Fod by 6} Fod by 2 Fod. It con- tains 84^ Danish Cubic Fod, and is equal to 82*2599 English Cubic Feet, or 2*6123 Cubic Metres. BELGIUIC. — BBITMABK. 175 MEA8UBES OP CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Danith value. SyetemaHo lume, lP8Bgle SnglUh value: Imperial Pinti. » -424785 • Metric value, Litrea. •24125 IFlaske SPeegle 8S . (only for . liquids) 1*274855 • -72375 4 PsBgle « IPot - 1-699146 -* •966 2 Potter « 1 Eande » 3-89828 - 1-98 4 Eander or 8 Potter 4 • ^a A ' 1 Vierter (only for I Spirits) J Imperial Gtellona. .» 1-699146 «- 7-72 38 Potter, or 4| Viertel SB r 1 Anker ] (only for , Liquids) ^ « 8-070945 = 86-67 186 Potter ^ 1 Tonde 'lOzehoved' - 28-88548 - 181-24 6 Ankeme 8S • (for Wine • » 48-42567 » i 220*02 , and Spirits) ^ 4 Oxehoyeder MEASU] m^ IFad OF CAPACr -198-70268 « FY FOR DRY GC 880*08 >ODS. Danish value. Sy stematie name, IPot Snglieh value, Impuial Gallona. - -21289 » Metric value. Litres. -965 18 Potter » 1 Skeppe Imperial Bushels. « -47788 = 17*370 2 Rkepper « ; L Fjerdingkar « -955769 » 34*740 4 Fjerdingka] L T6nde - 8-823079 - 138-960 12 Tonder e» : 1 L«B8t « 45*876948 » 1867-52 The unit of measures of capacity, both for liquids and solids, is the Pot, which is equal to 54 Cuhic Tommer (inches), or -^ of 1 Cubic Fod. The following Measures for Wine and Spirits are sometimeB (but not frequently) used : — Dcmish vaiue. 160 Potter 480 Potter 1200 Potter SyatcTnatic uame, English value. Metric value. Imperial Gallons. Litres. r lAhme « 33*98288 » 164*4 » IPibe » 101*94864 » 463*2 » IStykfad » 2548*716 « 1158 The ordinary large Measure for Dry and Liquid Goods is a Tonde ; but this varies in size according to iiie proods ; it is sometimes divided into 8 Skjepper, or 32 Fjerdingkar, &c. Of 176 HEASUBE8. course the size of the Skjeppe varieB according to the size of the T5nde, of which it is a snodiyisu^. 12 Tonder (Com, Salt, Goals,) are one LaBst. The Commerce Liest is the Standard Measure for Ships, and is equal to 2*52 Tone lE^nglish. Beer, and also some Dry Goods, are measnred hy the Oltdnde of 136 Potter, and divided into 4 Fjerdingkar ; one Fjerding equals 2 Otting Kar, each Otting equals 17 Potter. Com, and many other solids, are measured by the Eomtdnde of 144 Potter. The Koratonde is divided into 8 Skjepper, or 82 Fjerdingkar, or 64 Ottingkar. Salt, Coal, Charcoal, and Bark are measured by the Salt- tonde of 176 Potter. The Salt-tonde is divided as the Eom- tonde. The Tar-tonde is equal to 120 Potter. WKIGHTS. Danlih value. Syatematte name. EnglUh vahte. Troy Qrain«. 1 Ort - 7-71631 - Metric value. Qnmmm. •06 lOOrt - 1 Kvint - 77-1631 - 6 100 Evinten IDS. av. » 1 Pund » 1*10233 • 600 100 Pnnd « 1 Centner — 110-233 o • 50000 or [ 50 40 Centner - 1 LflDst -4409-32 - 2000 52 Centner - 1 Skiplfi)st B 5732-116 - 2600 This division of the pound, according to the Decimal system, has been in force since Ist July, 1861. Until then the Pund was divided into 32 Lod, each of 4 Kvintin, each of 4 Ort, and these weights are still in temporary use. A "Lispund" is 16 Pund; a **Skippund" is 320 Pund. Besides these Commercial Weights, there is a different weight for Silver and Gold, and a third used only for drags. WEIGHTS FOR SILVER AND GOLD. DoMeh value. SystetnaUe name. 4 Ort - 1 Evint „ EngUnh value. Troy OralrtN. 58-28125 Metric value. Grmtnmeit. 3-676 4Evintin - 1 Lod S3 221-125 a 14-704 16 Lod, or I t HT 1 24Earat ) - ^ ^^'^ » IbH. Ar. •65116 » 286-264 2 Marks « 1 Pund B 110233 o 470-688 3 Green » 1 Gran = 40-1876 » 2-4609 4 Gran «> 1 Earat SS. 160-76 » 9-8039 SLESWICK-HOLSTXIN. — 8WEDSK. 177 The Danish Sily^r Pimd, or Soitypund, is -j^^ less than the ordinary Pond, and is equal to 977t>^V ^^ich *'As." The Solvpund may, acording to the ahove table, he diyided in two ways, yiz. : — either into 32 Lod = 128 Eyinten = 612 Ort ; or into 48 Karat (eaoh eqnal to 1^ Lod) == 192 Graii = 576 G-reen. APOTHECABIES' WEIGHT. Danish value, Syttematie name, English value. Metric vchke, Troy Grains. Qnunmfla. 20 Gran = 1 Skrupel = 2-797265 = 1 241808 8 Skrupel = 1 Draehme = 65-»45312 = 8-725626 6 Drachmer = 1 Unze = 335-671875 = 22-36376 f 5370I or \ 16 Unzer = 1 Pund = | i^^ »J \ = 367'66 The Medical Pund is equal to 357*66 French Grammes, and therefore nearly | of an ordinary Danish Pund. Iti Holstein, and in Lauenhurg, and partly in Sleswick, different German Weights are still in use, though the legal unit of Weight is the ordinary Danish Pund. SLESWICK-nOLSTEIN.* The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Den- mark. No change haying heen made since Sleswick-Holstein was seyered from the Damsh CSrown, in Octoher, 1864. 8WEDEK. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Btoedish vaXue, Systematic name. English value. Metric value. Inchei. Metre*. ILinie = '116893 = -002969 lOLinier =1 Turn — M6893 = -029690 10 Tumer =1 Fot = 11-68923 = -296901 feet. 10 Fot =lStang»= 9741083 = 2*96901 Tarda. 10 SiaDger=l Ref = 32*470276 » 29*6901 fUe89-299360or) (10688*436 or 360fief =:lMeile =] milm. l = \ KfUmutrm. I e-64164 ) I 10*688436 * The legal denominstioiifl of money of account, while the l>aehiei of Sleswiek and Holstein formed a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, wen ihe aame as those of Denmark (see p. 81) ; bat the coins in eirenJatieii were chiefly those of Hambnrg and I>abee. No change has as yet been ma d^ in the cnrrency, or money of accoont. since uie cessioii of 4ie Duchies to Pmssia and Anstrla, «nder the Treaty of Yienna, of 80th October, 1864. 9488*87045 or ) ( 881*50203 or Area. 8*815023 178 MEJLSTTBEl. The Aln of 2 Fot = -6494 of an English Yard, or -5938 Mdtre, and the Faden of 6 Fot = 6*8446 English Feet, or 1-484505 M^tre. The Standard Swedish Fot may be found from the following rnle : — a pendulum in yacuo beating seconds of mean solar time at Stockholm at the sea level when the thermometer is at 15^ Celsius, measures 3*35064 Swedish Fot. MEASUEES OF SUBFACE. SwedUh vaZue. Sygtematie name, English value. Metric value. 100 Sar. ) Square Inches. Square Metres. Liniep } =1 Sq. Tum = 1-36639 =- -000881 ^^^g;}«lSq.Fot - 136*63973 = -088150 Square F«et. ^^^^'- }=lSq.Stang« 94*888704 = 8*81502 StangerJ ^ ( .21762 j | The Square Aln of 4 Square Fot = 3*79554 English Square Feet, or -352600815 Square M^tre. The Tunnland of 56000 Square Foot, or 14000 Square Aln, or 6 '6 Square Bef => 6904*186057 English Square Yards, or 1-21987 English Acre, or 49*364114 Ares. CUBIC MEASUEES. Swedish vahie. fiystemntie name. Enqlieh value. Metric vaUte. Cubic Feet. Cubic Metres. 1000 Cubic Tumer - 1 Cubic Fot «» -9243108 « -02617188 8 Cubic Fot = 1 Cubic Aln « 7*3944864 - -20937504 MEABUEES OF CAPACITY FOE DBY GOODS AND LIQUIDS. Swedish value. Systematic name, English value. Metric value. Imperial Pints. Litres. 1000 Cubic Linier =^1 Cubic Tum = -0460*=. -02617 100 Cubic Tumer -=1 Kanna = 4*6083= 2*617188 1000 Cubic Tumer ) , ^ , • -r, x ^vi^„^^ «« ,^^oo orlOKanna |-1 Cubic Fot - 4*7604 « 26-17188 8 Cubic Fot «1 Cubic Ahi =.46-0832 -209*3750 * These English values hare been calculated at the rate of 277-274 English Cubic Inches to the British Imperial Gallon, the equivalent of the Swedish Cubic Fot being taken as 1597-2228488789 English Cnbic Inches. SLESWICE-HOLSTBOr. — STTSBEir. 179 WEIGHTS. SwedUh value, Sifstemaiie name, EnglUh value, Metrie v<Uue, Qraias Troy. Onunmct. 1 Korn = -6559 =» 042683 100 Korn -=1 Ort — 65-59 =- 4-253395 Ibd. ar. 100 Ort =«lBkapund=» -9877 = 425-3395 100 Skalpund =1 Centner = 93-77289 = 4a^396 100 Centner --INy-last «■ 9377*289 OT] « 4253*895 Cwt. 83-72321; Medical men and Apothecaries use indifferently both the Legal system of Weights, jnst given, apd the old Pharmaoen- ticsd Weights of the Grain, the Scruple, and.the Ounce. In the country the new Weights are most generally used in writing Prescriptions and compounding Drugs. The Weights and Measures given above are the present Legal ones, but the old, or common system superseded by them is still occasionally used, and is as follows : — Length. — Fot of 12 Tumer, of 12 Linier = 11-68923 English Inches, or -296901 Mdtre ; tiie Aln of 2 Fot, and the Faden of 6 Fot. Surface, — The Tunnland of 32 Kappland, or 14000 Square Aln = 1-21987 English Acre, or 49*364114 Ares. Cubic Measures. — The Cubic Faden, Aln, Fot, and Linie. Capacity (a) Diy Goods. — The Eanna was the fundamental unit both for Dry Goods and Liquids. It was equal to -57603 British Imperial Gallon or 2 '617189 Litres. The Tunna was a measure whose cubic con- tents varied with different sorts of goods. In Fruit it was 56, in Salt or Lime, it was 59i, in Grain (heaped measure) it was 63, in Malt it was 66^, and in Fresh Herrings it was 80 Eumas. There was also a Tunna of 48 Kaunas. The Tunna was divided into 2 Spann, each of 2 Half-Spann, each of 2 Yiertel, each of 4 Kappas. The Kanna in Dry Measure was divided into 2 Stoop, each of 4 Quartiers, each of 4 Ort. The Tunna of 56 Kannas = 4-03221 British Imperial Bushels, or 146-563 Litres. The Tunna of 63 Kannas = 4-63624 British Imperial Bushels, or 164-8829 Litres. A Last of Coal was 12 Tonnas, each of 63 Kannas. (b) Liquids. — The Kanna, each of 2 Stoops, each of 2 Quartiers, each of 4 Jungfrau « -57608 British Imperial Gallon, or 2*617189 Litres. The Beer Tunna contains 48 Kannas. Weights. — Before the adop- tion of the new system there were 5 different sorts of Weights in use in Sweden, namely : — 1. Commercial Weight. 2. Iron or Freight Weight. 3. Mark Weight used by Miners. 4. Mark Weight used in country towns. 5. Apothecaries* Weight. The Pund of 32 Lood, each of 4 Quentchen. The Lispund of 20 Pund, and the Skeppund of 20 Lispund. The Skeppund, Commercial Weight «* 400 Pund Commercial Weight, 180 ICSASITBXS. bat the Skeppnnd, Freight Weighty ot 20 Lispiind, eftch of 20 Fund, is equal to odIj 820 Pnnd Commercial Weight. A Cent- ner is 120 Pnnd Commercial Weight. A Pnnd, Commercial Weight - '9877 lb. ay. English, or 426'8696 Ghrammes. A Pnnd, Freight Weight » '76016 lb. ar. English, or 840 '272 Grammes. A Pond, Miners* Mark Weight • '8285 lb. av. Eng^h, or 875*826 Grammes. A Pnnd, Country Towns* Mark Weight • '7891 lb. »▼. Engli ^:i, or 867'966. A Pund, Apothecaries' Weight » '7858 lb. ay. English, or 866'4H7 Grammes. The Old Apothecaries* Weights were as follows :— SwedUh value, SyttematUs name, SnglUh value, trof Qnitu. 20 Grains « 1 Scrapie «> 19'1 ■> 8 Scrnples — 1 Drachma — 57*8 ■■ 8 Drachmas » 1 Untz - 468*4 « Metric value, Orammcs. 1-28429 8-71288 29*70808 12 Untzer • 1 Skalpond - 5601 - 856*487 irOBWAY. * The Weights and Measares are the same as those of Demnsrk, bnt the introduction of a Decimal system is contemplated. SWITZEBLAlfD. In Weights and Measares a mixed system, partly Decimal and partly Duodecimal, prevails in Switzerland. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Bwite vahu. ByetemaHe name. SnglUh value. Metric value. Incbe*. M«(rM. 1 Striche ■■ '01181 - -0008 10 Striohe » 1 Linie ■B •11811 » '008 10 Tiinien *- IZoU am 1*181128 - '08 lOZoll - 1 Fuss - ll'8112t7 Tsrdi. - '8 SFuss « lElle ■■ •6661789 - '6 6 Fuss » IKlafter a 1*9685895 -1-8 10 Fuss « IRuthe « 8*280899 -8 1 Schweizer- r 5249*48866 KllomctrM. 1600 Ruthen m m stunde or Lien * SS ' Mile*. ^ or 2*98268 -4*8 irOBWAT.— IWITZSBLAXD. 181 TBe Geomphioftl Mile in eqiiftl to 94600 Fasi. An English Yard — 8*0i8 Fasi ; an BngUih Foot •• 1*016 Fnss ; and an BngllBh Inoh •* 8*46 Linien. The Sdhweiaerttande — 4800 MMree. The denomination! Ruthtnt Fu9t^ ZoU, Linien^ and Strichet are denoted by the marks, thus :-^o, 8', 8", 4'", 0"'' -- 6 Rnthen, 8 Fnsi, 8 ZoU, 4 Linien, 7 Striohe. The EUe is also oalled Braohe, or Half-Staab, and is nsod in moasnring Bib- bone, fto. A Staab is 2 Ellen or 4 Fnss, and is nsed in mea- snriiig Broad Cloth, and linen, ^c. MEASURES OP SURFACE. £fw4«i valtt#. SytUmatie name, SnglUhvaUt^, MeMovakM, Sa. V#«t. Sq. MttoVH. lOOSq. ;?oU »lSq. Fnss • *9687BC9« '09 86 Sq. Fobs -ISq.Elafter- 84*870828 - 8*24 Baxukn YiirdN. lOOBq. FasB -1 Sq. Rathe - 10*7642U82- 8 400 Sq. Rnthen or) -• v^ At^^m mtt^tto o^"* 40000 Bq. Fuss |-lJn«l»rt -4805*71928 - 86 6400 Jneharten -l Bq. Stixnde- 6688*52 « 280400 , In Meadow Land a Jnohart ia 850, and in Woodland it is 450 Bqnare Rnthen. CUBIC MEASURES. Bieitt voliM. SytUmatie iwhim. BnglUh mhtf, Mrtrie valu^* Ottbio F^t. OubloMolmi. 1000 Cnbio ZoU « ICubioFnss « '9585 • '027 tlOCnbioFnss - 1 Cubic Elafter -206*6662 - 6-682 1000 Cnbio Fust - 1 Cubio Ruthe - 868-5476 - 27 The KlafUf used in the measurement of Firewood is always in area a Bquare Elafter, or 86 Square Fuss, but its depth yaries in different countries. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 5«fiM«alMtf. 9y%i«maH6 %am6, JSnqlUh fiaUt^, MttHofKiUf, 1 Iml « -041208 - 1-5 10MjM.^(Viertel|. j^^^ = 4-ia(|8 -180 182 UEAJBWEM. The MSaas (Viartel Sdrtai) is the unit of MdMnres of Oftpfl- city for Dry GoodB. It contains oxaotlj 80 0)0. distilled water at 89io F. (8^0 B6amnnr) or ^ of a CnUo Foss. In trade the Donble-Maass or Donhle-Viertel is used, and the Maass (Viertel Serter) is diiided fraotionallj into the Vier- ling or 4 Maass (Viertel Serter) and the Maassleing, -fg Maasa nriertel Serter). The Maaes (Viertel Serter) and the Ifalter naye the form of hollow cylinders ; when need as testing mea- sures, their depth is eqnal to half the diameter. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. SwU$ Value. SyitematU name. SngUehwOue, Uetrie wUme, 2 Halbschoppen *> , - , «^« ^^r (AchtelmSss) > " ^ Schoppen - 2-6412 - -875 2Sohoppen(Vier-') ^„« ^V^JJcq- ^.t telmaasB) j " ^ Halbmaaes - 1-82068 - -75 2 Halbmass - 1 Maass ■• 2*64116 - 1*5 100 Maass m 1 Sanm - d3'015 -ISO The Maass contains exactly 8 lbs. of distilled water at 891 ^ F. (8(0 B.) or y^ of a Cubic Fuss. The Sanm is subdiTided info 4 parts, each of which is called an Eimer. The Maass and ita diyisions and multiples are measures in the form of hollow cylinders, the depth of which is double the diameter. WEIGHTS. SwUi vahie* SyitemaHe name, SngUeh vaU/ne, MeMevaXue, IlM. ▲▼. anmmM. 4 QuntU » 1 Loth - -084447- 15*625 2 Loth 1 lUnze » '068896- 81*25 16 Unzen - 1 Pfund - 1*10288 - 500 100 Pfund - 1 Centner - 110*283 - 60000 or 50 A Cwt. English is nearly equal to 102 Swiss Pfund. The Pfund is diyi&d fractionally into Halvei, Quartertf aadEighthgt named, Half-pfiind, Viertel^fimd, and Achtelrpfmd. The Pfund is also divided according to the Metric system^ into 500 Grammes, or 5000 Deci^ammes, or 60,000 Centi- grammes, or 5,000,000 Milligrammes, as follows :^ BicUe value* Syttemaiie name, BngUeh wOme. 1 Milligramme « '0164i 10 Milligrammes — 1 Centigramme ■■ '15488 10 Centigrammes ■■ 1 Decigramme » 1*5488 10 Decigrammee - 1 Gramme - 15*48262 BfcAT. 600 Onunmei « 1 Ffond - ri02a rri.LT. 183 APOTHECABIEB' WEIGHTS. AviMVOilM. 8 SoorapleB 4I>raohnia 2 Loth 12 Unzen SjfiUmoHe name, > 1 Scrapie — > 1 Draohm ■ > ILoth ■ 1 Unze ■ - IPfund - BnglUh value, noy OnOns. 20*09456 60*28867 241*18468 482-26987 5787*28260 Metrie wUme, Ghrtmmw. 1*80208 a'90625 16*626 31*26 375 The Apothecaries* Pftmd is | of the common Pfond. ITALY. The Weights and Measnres of the Kingdom of Italy are the same as those of France, and are as follows : — MEASURES OF LENGTH. IlaUa»«aliM« lOMillimetri 10 Gentimetri lODeoimetri lOMetri 10 Decametri lOEttometri 10 Chilometri Syetematic name, 1 Millimetro * ■■1 Oentimetro ■ ■■IDedmetro « al Metro • ■•1 Decametre - ■■lEttometro ■ nlOhilometro • —IMiriametro' EnglUh value, Inoh. •08987079 *8987079 3*937079 38*87079 Tardi. 10*98688 108*3688 1093*688 Miles. 6*2138 Metrie value, "■1 Millimetre ■■ 1 Centimetre ->1 Decimetre -IMdtre ■■ 1 Decametre ■i 1 Hectometre ->1 Kilometre -■IMyriametre LAND MEASURES. IMkM vakte, lOOCentiaras lOOAras Syetematic 1 Centiara"- >lAra 'lEllara - EngUeh value, Sovure Yards. 1*1960882- 119*6088 - f U960-882 or ] ▲ores. Sq. Yds. r * 2 2280*88] Uetrie value, 1 Centiare or Sqnare M^tre lAre 1 Hectare 184 X1A817BB8. Italian vokM. •Ar of a Stero 10 Dedsieii 10 Bteri CUBIC MEASUBES. 8iiti$maHe name, SnglUh value. Cubic Fe«t. IDedBiero - 8*581628 1 Biero - 86*81628 1 Deoaatero - 868*1628 MetrU 9altt$, 1 Deoistera 1 Store 1 Deoastere MEASUBES OP CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. Sifttematie name, »1 MilliUtro < » 1 Centilitro > ItalUm vaJue. 1000th oi a Cable Decimetro lOMillilitri 10 Centmtri 10 Dedlitri lOLitri 10 DecaUtri laEttolitri ) SnglUh value, Hetrie vaUte, Imperial Plnti. •00176 -IMllliliire » 1 Dedlitro ■■ -ILitro ■■ 1 Decalltro ■■ - 1 EttoUtro « -IChiloUtro « •017607' •17607 ' 1*7607 ' 2*20096 ' 22*0096 < Qtuurton. 8*48901 1 Centilitre 1 Decilitre 1 Litre 1 Decalitre 1 HeooUtre lEiloUtre * WEIGHTS. ItaUan value, lOOOthofaGrammaal MiUigramoia 10 Milligramme » 1 Centigramma 10 Centigramme ■• 1 Declgramma 10 Dedgranmie "-l Gramma ■■ 1 Decagramma el Ettogramma ->1 ChJlogramma wl Miriagramma 10 Gramme 10 Decagramme 10 Ettogramme 10 Chilogramme SyeiemaUc name, Englith value, MePrie value. ChninjTroy. HlUlgnuiune. •01548 - 1 Oenilgntame. -i •1548262- 1 Dsoisnunme. - 1*548262 » 1 Omnme. - 16*48262 - 1 Deoaflrzaaune. « 164*8262 - 1 Um. «▼. Heetoffnynma. 10 Miriagramme -^^fe^ 1 - I 10 Quintal Metrid 220466 « KUogmnme. 2*20466 -> 1 Kyrigraoiaic. 220466 » 1 Cwt. Qalntel Metrfqnt. 1*97 - 1 Tonneaa Matoiqu*. 19*7 Metrico 1 Tonndata j de mare / " PreTiouB to the year 1859, when most of the Italian Stales were united to fonn the " Kingdom of Italy,'* each State had its own Weights and MeasureB. The legal Weights and Mea- sures of the Kingdom of Italy, as above given, are thoee of Sardinia (Piedmont and Savoy). As sufficient time has not yet elapsed for the general adoption of one system, the Weights and Measures of '* The Two Sidlies/' " Tuscany," and " horn- hardy," may still be found useful for reference. STATES 07 T«B CHITBCK— (BOMS). 185 « STATES OF THE CHUBCH-CBOME). MEASX7BES OF LENGTH— (iTiMssiLBT). SowumwOm. ByitemaUe name, SfiglUh value, Meiriemlue, InchM. Hetra. 1 Pie " 11-72004 -> -2976826 6 Pie des - 1 Passo - 58-60620 - 1*488418 Yards. KUometrei. 1000 PaBSOB - 1 BCgUo - 1627*788S« - 1-488418 ^ The Caxma d'ara dinded into 9 Palmi = 44*29218 English Inches, or 1*125 Metres. The Bracoio d*an = 29*62809 English Indhes, or '75 Mdtre. The Pahno d'ara — 4*921847 English Inches, or '125 Mdtre. MEASURES OF LENGTH— (^bbc^^^- Boma»f9dku, SyetewuMe name, SnglUhvdhte. Metric wdue, Inofa««. Metrei. 1 Parto - 3-268816 - •088026 8 Partis - 1 Palmo - 9*806445 - -249078 8 Pahni - 1 Canna - 2*17921 - 1*99263 The Mercantile Bracoio — 26*8784298 English Inches, or •670 Mdtre. The Braocio for Cloth and Linen » 26*00045 English Inches, or -686 Mdtre. MSABUBEB OF LENGTH*— (Abobitxctb*). BoMOM vdUte* Sjfitematie name. 1 Dedmo 2 Decimi * 1 Minato 5 Minati » 1 Onde 12 Onde » 1 Palmo 16 Onde or 1| Palmi» 1 Piede SPahni -> IPasso Ysrdf. 5f Pahni - 1 Stajnalo - 1*40491 « 1*284631 10 Pahni or 7i Piedes » 1 Canna - 2-44338-2*28414 10 Stajoali - 1 Catena - 14*04914 -12*84631 Englishvalme, InofaM. - •0738 - Metrie vahie, MetrM. •00186 - -146599- •008728 - -732998- •0186178 - 8*795985- •228414 - 11-72798 - •297886 - 26*887965- •670242 * About 7 ftndtwO'flfths Furlongs, or *92B Kile English. 186 HBASimBS. MEA8UBES OF 8TJBFAGE. Sq value, ^etematie name, 1 Sqr. Catena 1 Sooxzo 1 Qnarta 1 Babbio BngUeh value, MetHe wUiuei Sanara Tdi. Bqioan Xatm. .197-37833 -» 1650276 -1381*648 -IL65'1087 Aero. Aw* » 1«141856» 46-207750 a 4-567424 » 184*881 |C 7 Bqr. Catenas ' 4 Soorzi 4 Qnartas The Pezza is also used in Square Measnres. It is the -fth part of a Rubbio, and therefore 7 Pezzas are equal to 1 Babbio. MEASUBES OP CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. Effman vaUte, Syttematie name. 4 Detiimos « 1 Starello 2 Starelli » 1 Qnaterello 2 Qoaterelli ■- 1 Quarto 2 Quartl » 1 Bubjatelle 2 BubjateUi - 1 Babbio Engliih vahie. Imperial Bushels. •6068 =- 10126 « 2-0252 - 4-0504 - 8*1008 or) Quarten. ^ 10126 Metrie value, Utxm. 18-40875 36*8075 78-615 147-23 294-46 or HaetoUtNs. i. 2-9446 The Quarto is also divided into 5^ Scorzi, each of 4 Qnartaod, or into 4 Starelli, each of Ig Soorzi, each of 4 Quartuooi. The Scorzo is equal to '3682 British Imperial Boshel or 18-3845 Litres. The Quartooeo is equal to -09206 British Imperial Bushel <» 8*3461863 Litres. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. Soman value, SyttemaiUe name, 4 Quartued ^ 1 Foglietta » 4 Fogliette ■- 1 Bocoale ■- 32 Booaali « 1 Barile » Sngliah value, Impeifal Plnta. •6025495 a Hetrie value, Litrat. 8*64686 8-210198 - Imperial Gallons. 12*8407921- 16 Barm - IBotte 206-4526786- 14-585^ 68*3416 988-4656 or Hactolttn. 8-S84656 The Barile of Oil contains 28 Boooali, and is equal to 12*651289 British Imperial Gallons, or 67-4806 litrofl. . PAPAL BSAXfi— (BOLOaVA). 187 The Soma of Oil of 80 Boooali, or 2f BuOe, is equal to 3814654 British Imperial GaUona, or 164*23 Litrea. The Soma is also dirided in 2 PeUi (or Maatelli), eaoh of 10 CngnatelH. WEIGHTS. BMianiKiliMf 24Giani 24Dexiari 12 0noie 10 Libhri 100 Libbri BjftUmatiefume* 1 Grano 1 Denaro 1 Oncia 1 libbra BnglUh value, TroyGnOns. •758 = Xetrie vahu^ QrammM. •049067 - 18-2 - 1177626 »4d62 - 28-268 Um.At. - •74771=389166 EllognmmM. - 7-4771 - 3-89166 33*9156 389-156 a 1 Deoino ■■ r 1 Centinajo or » „. „_- "lOantaroHoooloi" 74-771 10 Centinaii-(JS&lo}- 747-71 The Ancient Libbra is eqnal to *7094 lb. The Apothecaries' Libbra is of the same weight as the Go mmercial Libbra. The Apothecaries* Libbra is divided into 12 Ondei the Onoia into 8 Scmpleg, and the Scrapie into 24 Grani. The Weights used for Gold and Silver are the Metric Gramma weights, the same as those of France, namdj : — Milligramme, Centigramme, Decigramme, Gramme, Decagramme, Heeto- ^amme, KUogramme. (See France). PAPAL STATES-(BbLOaNA). MEASUBSS OF LENGTH. Solcgnete volu4 . SyitemaHe name* 1 Linie b SnglUh value. UeMe vahte. Inches. Xete«. •1039 « -002688 12 Linien - 1 ZoU 1.2468 » -032 12 ZoU - 1 H6 14-9609 « -384 6 FiedoB 10 Pi6 ■- 1 Passo ■> - 1 Pertioa » 74-8045 ^ 1-92 Yards. 4-155805 « 3-86 The Bracdo for Cloth is equal to 25* 198 English Inches, or •64 Mdtre. The Braccio for SUk measurement is equal to 28*47 Englisb Inches, or *594 M^tre. 188 WUMWaB. HEASUBES OF BUBFACE. lBq.Pie 17-2707152 SngUthvaiue, So. Yards. •1727072 ^•UlSq.Pertioa MeiHe fMlue, Ba. VetiM. •148225 14-8225 140 Bq. Pertics • b1 Tomatoza -i 2417*900128 or I p075-15 or Aofe. 1^1 ArtB, •49956 j [ 20-7515 EnglUh vdLiu, Imperial Boshela. •067615 = The Biolca ib eqnftl to '6997 of an English Acre. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBT GOODS. BoUtgntu vdlMt, B^tUmoHe name, 1 Qnartidno 4 Qnartacini - 1 Qnartarolo - '27046 « 4 QnartaroU - 1 Btajo - 1-08184 = 2 Staji « 1 Corba » 2*16368 « MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. Bolognete vqXm», SifttemaUe name, EnoUth value, UetriewOme. Imperial Gallocis. Lttra. 1 FogUette « -0720824 « -3274625 IfeCrfe «al«e. Litres. 2-45766 9-830625 89-3225 78-645 4 Foglietti - 15 BoocaU < 4 QoartaroU • - 1 Boccalo - -2883295 - 1 Qnartarolo » 4*3249425 o 1 Corba = 17-29977 WEIGHTS. -a . 1-30985 = 19-64776 - 78-591 Bolognue mIm. 4GTani « lOCftrato - 16 FArllni « BfttUm^Me mme, SnglUh vahn. Trov Grains. 1 Grano - -727106 « 1 Carato -> 2*908427 - IFf^rlino » 29*08427 « 1 Unze « 465-3484 - MeiriewUue. Qrammes. •047115 -1884635 1-884635 80-15416 12Unzen - 25 libbri -> 1M« a?* ILlbbra - -79774 - IPeso - 19*9435 » 861*85 904625 THE TWO SICILIES -a* NAPLES). The Neapolitan system of Weights and Measnres (introdnoed 22nd April, 1840), like the Metric system, was founded npon a basis ftuniflhed by Nature. THX TWO 8XCZLIK8— (l. ITAPLSS). 188 The Qnadnnt of the Earth's Meridian was divided inte 9 equal parts called Degrea^ and eaoh Degree into 60 equal parts called MinnteB. One of these Minutes was the Neapolitan Miglio or Mile. The ThouMandth part of the Miglio was the Fasio^ and the Bwenth part of the Passo was the PaAno. The Palme was the nnit of Measures of Length. MEASURES OF LENGTH. IfMpoUkm value. SyUmatU ICentesimo-* 10 Gentesimos » 1 Deoimo ■■ , 10 Decimos »1 Palmo ■■ 7 Palmo — 1 Passo ■■ lOPalmo elCanna ■■ 1000 Passo - 1 MigHo » Li ' ordinary Gommeroial transactions 'the Pahno was subdi- vided into 12 Oncie, the Onoia into 5 Minnti, and the Minnto into 2 Panti. The Onda is eqnal to *86796 English Lich, or -0220458 Mdtre ; the Minnto is equal to -173592 English Inch, or -004409166 Metre ; and the Punto is equal to -086796 English Inch, or -00220458S Mdtre. Engliah vaXme, InohM. *1041552« •0026455 1-041552 - VMt. •86796 - •026455 •26445 6-07572 -> 1-85185 8-6796 Yardt. 2026*24 or ■■ 2-6455 ri85-85 or Mile. 1-15070^ ■ ^ . KilomatMt. 1-85185 MEASURES OF SURFACE. IttmpoUtanvaXvs, SytUmaUo name, 100 Sq. Palmi - 1 Sq. Canna 10 Sq. Canne» 1 Sq. Dedme MK) Sq. Cannes 1 Moggio EnglUh oaItt«. Jlifetrie vahUt Square Tsrde. Square H etiw. 8'37060624a 699867 83-7060624 - 69*9867 837*060624 » 68 8 -867 CUBIC MEASURES. The unit of Cubic Measures was the Cubio Canna of 1000 Cubic Palmi. It was equal to 863'88162 Cubio Feet English. The Cubio Pahno is equal to 1128*917448 Cubio Inches English. The Culnc Canna used in the measurement of Firewood con- tained only 256 Cubic Palmi, and was equal to 167*89868 English Cubic Feet, or 4*789885 Cubio Metres. 190 lOBASUBES. MEASUBEB OF GAPACIT7 FOB DBT GOODS. Neapolitan value: 2 Qnarti 2 Mezzetti 36 Tomoli Bytiematie name, 1 Quarto 1 Mezzetto 1 Tomolo 1 Cairo BnglUh vaiue. Impurlal BaaheL •38204 = •76408 = 1-52816 » Imperial Qaarten. 6-87672 = Metfievalue^ ZilNB. 13-88625 27-7726 65-5451 HectolitTM. 19-9962 The Tomolo is also Bnbdhrided into 8 Stapelli, and each Stapello into 8 Misore. The Stapello is equal to 1*52816 Imperial (Gallons, or 6'9431 Litres ; and the Misare is equal to 2-087546 Imperial Quarts, or 2*3143 Litres. MEASURES OF CAFAOITY FOB LIQUIDS, (a) Wine Asn> Spibits, &c, Neapolitan vaUu, Syetematie name. 60 Garaffe » 1 Barile 12 BariU -> 1 Botte « 115*22136 » 523*500 2 Botte » 1 Cano « 230*44272 « 1047000 English value. Imperial Gallans. 9*60178 « Metric value- Litres. 43*625 6 Misorette 4 Quarti 16 Stajos (&) Oil. 1 Misnretta « 1 Quarto » 1 Stajo -> 1 Salma ■> Impotel GWllonf. •09261 -> Litres. •42076 •55566 » 2*5246 2*222625 « 10*0984 36-562 « 161-574 WEIGHTS. (a) Gold, Silteb, Ain> Mbdicine Weights. Uah value. NeapoUtcm wUue^ By etemaiie name, 1 Grano ■■ lOGrani - 1 Obolo i- 20Granior) ^ (1 Scropolo \ 2 Oholi j ■■ lorTrappesoj " 8 Soropolo ■■ 1 Dramme ■> 10 Dramme ■■ 1 Onoia ■- ISOnde - 1 Lihbra lOOLihbre -{^^^ j- SngUs iToy Oralns. •68752 6-87521 13-75042 41.251264 412*51264 MetrUi value. Orammee. •044549 •44549 •89099 2-67299 26-7299 Iba. ar. •70716453 « 320*759 70*7164536 - 32*0759 n. SIOILT. 191 (5) COMMEBCIAL WEIGHTS. 1 Trappeso « 100 Trapped 10 DecimeB TroyOnina, 13-7504i Ibe. ar. -19648 1 Dedme ■- 1 Bottolo » 1*9643 1 Oantaro •891 881 881 Eilognuam«s. 89*100 100 Rottoli = { Q^^ } - 19e-430 (c) ASSATEBS* WSIOHTS. Assayers nsed to express the fineness of Gold and Silver aometimes in thousandth parts, as in France, also sometimefl 1^ dividing the onnoe of Gold into 24 Oarats, and the Carat into 100 parts, and the onnoe of Silyer into 12 Denaii, eaoh of 100 parts. H- SICILY. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Sicilian vaJAU, 12 Tiinien « Syitematie name, Engliih viOae. Indies lOnde - -846767 - Msirie value. •0215 12 Onde « Palmo » 10*161207 « •25809 2 Palmo = 4Pasetti « 1 Pasetto » 20-822414 - Taids, ICaima « 2-25864 » •51618 2*06472 4Ganna — 1 Catena - 8*08218 - 8*25888 4 Catena » ICorda « 86*128736 -> 88-03552;; 45 Corde « 1 Miglio » • 1625*79812or] ( Mile. ' ■■ • •92374 J 1486*5984or Kilometres. 1-48659 MEASUKES OF SURFACE. SieUian value, 1 Sqr. Canna Syatematie name. Engli$h vaUte, Square Yaids. = 1 Qnartiglo - 5098746 = Metrie vahte. Square Metres. 4*268069 4 Qoartigli » 1 Quarto » 20-394978 - 17*052274 4Qnarti B 1 Cariozzo » 81*579914 » 68-209098 4 Carrozzi » 1 Mondello » 826*319657 - 272-886395 4 MondeUi 4 Tnmoli » 1 Tunolo - 1806*278628 - » IBisacco(a)- 102709 « 1091-845581 Ares. B N 48-653823 4Bi8acGos B 1 Sahna il>) - 4*10885 » 174-615293 (a) ifl equal to 52ai'114512 Engli sh Sqiiare Tarde; (b) is eqaal^io aoeMtfSOGlEngUahSqiuaelnas. . 192 ^ XEAJBinues. HEASUBES OF CAPACITT FOB DBY GOODS. BieiUtm valus. 4 Ouozzi 4 M andeUi 4 Tnmoli 4 Bisaod ByiUwuMe name* 1 Carozzo 1 MondeUo 1 Tvmolo 1 Bisaooo 1 Salma XnglUh value, Xapeiial Bnshal*. -029314 . •117256 - •469026 « 1-876105 . 7*504422 . Metric valued 107456 4-29825 17-198 68-772 276-088 The Salma given in the table is the ordinary Salma ;'th6 Babna Qtossa ia equal to 9*47 Britiah Imperial Boe^ielB. HEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. BMtUmvalus, SOQnartoodii 4CaroffiH BgitewtaUe name, 1 Qnartaoco«» "}-ilQiuirtar6 = EngUeh value, JmoadalQeBooB. -1892 - 8-783461 - HeiHe value. LltK*. •85965 17^193 SQnartari 4BariU .iBarUe « alTonna » 7-566922 - 80-267688 » 84-38a 187-544 8Barm 60-585376 - 276-088 4Sa]ma8 -IBotte 242-141504 - UOO-352 WEIGHTS. BieiUan value. BifitemaUe name, 1 Onoie EngUeh value, - -0583 - Metric value, Kilognnimei. •026447 12 Oncie a 1 Libbro •6996 » -817368 30 Oncie - 1 Bottolo - 1-7492 - •79342 lOOBottoH ■■ 1 Cantaro = 174-92 « 79*342 The Last is 25 Cantaros. The Bottolo and Cantaro of thi» table are tibie Bottolo and Cantaro Sottile. The Bottolo Grosso has 33 Onde, and is eqaal to 1-923^ lbs. ay. English, or -87276 Kilogrammes. The Cantaro Grosso is equal to 192-3 0)8. ay. Engiishi or S7'376 Kilogrammes. In Messina Oil is sold by the Oai&so, eqnal to 2*602042 British Imperial Gallons, or 11*82 Litres, and is reckoned hj- ir^t at 12i BottoU Grossi, or 24*037 lbs. ay. English. la Palermo, Oil is sold by the Cantaro Grosso, TUBOANT. 193 TUSCANY. Tu9can value, SytUmatic nams, 1 Panto - 12 PnntoB «■ 1 Deuaro ,, 12 Denari „ 1 Soldo 10 Soldi »» Palmo »» »i 20 Soldi or ^ r 1 Braooio ) 2Palmi ) " ldoPannoJ"»» 2 Braooias „ 1 Pasotto „ \ /I Oanua (Com Sngliik value. Lino. •124076 - 1*48B92 InohcH, 1*148BU2 11-48892 Feet. 1*91482 4 Braooias de Panuo 6 Braooias de Pauno 28381 Brao-) oias de Panuo tt n ^ meroial) ^ 1 Canna (Survey- ors*) n IMigHo II If 8*82964 7-66928 9*5741 11 It ti >« II 11 »i Metric value. Metre*. •000202 •002431 ' -029181 -291815 •58865 1-16730 2*33460 2*918*25 4 Miglia \ It 1 Post Miglio ti ti Tarda, 1808-448 or f MllOM. •t.^ 1663*675 1-0275 , k 6614-700 or 4*11 KUomotrcii. 6*0147 The Braooio de Panno is also snbdiyided into 12 Crazie, and the Soldo into B Quatriui of 4 Denari. The Orazio Ib 5 Quat. rini or 20 Denari, and is equal to 2'48153 English InohoB. The Braooio, used by Architeots and Surveyors, is a little shorter than the Braooio de Panno. It is equal to 1-8 English Foot. MEASURES OF SURFACE. Tutnem value, Byttefnatic nams. 100 Sqr. Braooias 100 Ta- VOlOB 1 Sqr. Braooio -- EnglUh value. Square Yards. •4073928 » Metrte value, Sqimru Mutros. -34064li 1 Tavolo „ 40*7892848 „ 84*0646 (4078*92848 or) ^8406*46 or It 1 Qudrato „ Acre. •84178 i» Arcn, 84-0046 100 Quadrates are equal to 84*178 English Aores. s 194 MEABIJBE8. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB DRY GOODS. Tu$ean value. Systematie name 1 Bassolo • Bnglieh value. Imperial Pints. •3352 « Metric wOue, Utres. •190344 2 Bassoli »1 Qnartncoo tf •6704 -380689 2 Qnartacci „ 1 Mazetta It 1-3408 •761379 2 Mezette ,, 1 Mettadellii ^1 2-6816 1-522679 4 Metadelle or ) ^ n ^ 8 Mezette > »» ^ Q'**^ 2 Quarti „ 1 Mina »» 10-7264 Imperial Biuhela. •33620 6090715 12181431 2 Mine „ 1 Stajo f» •67040 24-362862 3 Staja „1 Sacco »» 2-01120 73-088586 8Sacci „ 1 Moggio »i " 16-08960 or Imp. Quarters. ^ 201120 ' f» 584-708688 MEASURES OF CAPACITY F( m LIQUIDS— (WiwE, Ac). Tiuean value. SyttematUs name. 1 Qnartacco BnglUh value. Imperial Pints. •50164 » Metric vahte. Litm. •2849 2 Qnartncci SB 1 Mezzetta fi 100328 „ •5698 2 Mezzette 2 Boccali „ 1 Boccale ,, 1 Fiasco »» »t 2-00656 „ Imperial Gallons. •50164 „ 1-1396 2-2792 20Fia8ci „ 1 Baiile >» 10-03289 „ 46-584 9}Barile „ 1 Pipa f» 86-9846 „ 440-389 WEIGH TS. Tuscan value. Syaiematiename. 1 Grano EnglUh value. Troy Grains. •75804- Metric value, Grammesw •0491235 24arani » 1 Denaro »t 18*193 „ 1-178965 3 Denari „ 1 Dranuna » 64-681 „ 3*536896 8 Dramme „ 1 Oncia » 436*54 ,, 28*295166 12 Once 100 Tnbbre „ 1 libbra „ 1 Cantaro IM. AT. •74855 „ 339-542 Kiloflrrammfls. 74-855 „ 33-954 10 CantaroB », 1 Migliajo »» 748-55 „ 339-54 In ronnd nnmbers the Tuscan Libbra is nearly 12 oz. ay. It is nearly 11 oz. Troy. LOMBABDY. — AABBIKIA (ISLAND OP). 195 The Medicinal Wtighta are, the Libbra of 12 Onoe ; the Onoia of 8 Dramme ; the Dramma of 8 Sornpoli ; the Scrupolo of 24 Grani ; and the Grano. Thus, the Medicinal Libbra oontains 6912 Tusoan Grani. The Libbra of Lnooa is only a few grains heayier than the Tusean Libbra. LOMBABDY. Length, — The Metro or Bracdo of 10 Palmi, each of 10 Diti, eaoh of 10 Atomi « d8'87079 English Inohes or 1 M#tre. The MigUo of 1000 Metri - 1093*68 EngHeh Yards or 1 Kilometre. Surface, — The Tomatura of 100 Square Palmi *■ 119*6033 English Square Yards. It is the Italian Ara or the French Are.- Capacity.— The Pinta of 10 Coppi » 17608 British Imperial IHnt. It is the Italian Litro or the French Litre. The Mina of 10 Pint! is the Italian Deoalitro or French Decalitre, and the Soma of 10 Mine is the Italian Hectolitro or French Hectolitre. The Mina -> 2*2096, and the Soma 22*096 British Imperial Gallons. r«t(//ite.— Libbra Metrioa of 10 Oncie. each of 10 Grossi, each of 10 Denari, each of 10 Grani, is the Italian Ghilogramma or the French Kilogramme, and B 2*20466 lbs. ay. English. The Bubbo of 10, and the Qnintale of 100 LibbrL SABDINIA- (ISLAND OF). MEASURES OF LENGTH. 8ardini€n value, SyttemaUe name, Et%fflUh %falue. Metric value^. Inches. Motres. 1 Palmo - 10*38483 i« -26*25 Tarda. 8 Pahni « 1 Canna „ 2*296029 „ 2*1 12 Palmi „ 1 Trabncco „ 3*444944 „ 3*15 The Surface Measures are the Squares of the Measures of Length. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Sardinimn value, Systematie name^ SnylUh value, Mctrie value. Imperial OallonB. LitiVH. 1 Quarte - 6*411626 » 24'.>876 2 Quarte - 1 StareUo „ 10*823253 „ 49175 196 HEA8UBB0. MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. (Wins, Bbakdt, &c.) Sardinian value, Syttematic name, 1 Metzze 2Metzze - 1 Pinte „ 1-77014 „ 1-00532 6 Pinte „ 1 Quartiere ,, 8*8507 ,, 5'0266 Englith value. Metric value. Imperial Pinte. Litre*. -88507 - -60266 The Qnartana of 12 Qnartncd - 7'S95248 Imperial Pinta En^sh, or 4*2 Litres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS— (On.) . Sardinian value, 2 Mistiri 12 Quartncci 4 Quartane 2 Giaxri Byttematie name, 1 Mienro 1 Qnartncco 1 Qnartana 1 Giarro IBarile Englieh value. Metric value. Imperial ^Jallana. Litres, - -08861 - -176 f* tf •07708 *924405 3-69762 7-39524 •350 4*2 16-8 3d'6 WEIGHTS. Sardinian value. Syttematic name. 2 Bediceni 2 Ottavi 4 Quarti 12 Once 100 Libbro English vaiue, Troy Grainii. 1 Sediceno » 32*61456 Metric value, Oram me*. 2*1184 n »f it 1 Ottavo 1 Quarto 1 Oncia 1 Libbra 1 Cantaro H 66*2291 „ 130*4582 4*2268 8'4686 IbH. ar. ^0746475 „ 38-8141 -89467 „ 405-77 Kllotrrainmeii. 89*457 „ 40-577 MALTA. Maltese value, 12 Once 8Palmi MEASURES OF LENGTH. Syttematic nam£, IPiede 1 Oncia a 1 Palmo 1 Canna f» English value, Inchei. '856314 10*275776 Tardii. 2*2885 If Metric value. Metres. - -28368 •02175 •261 f> i» i» ft 2-088 MALTA. 197 The following approximate eqniyaleiits are generally assivned in Oommerda] dealings. 1 Palmo -i lOi English Inches - -33865 French Mdtre. 1 Tratto - 24 English Inches « '609576 French Metre. 1 Measnre -i 42 English Inches » 1-066758 French MMre. 1 Canna » 84 English Inches » 2'133516 French M^tre. 7 Canne - 48 English Feet -i 14*630112 French Mdtre. 120 Palmi - 103 English Feet a 81*393782 French Mdtre. In round nnmhers 3i Palmi are reckoned equal to 1 EngUsh Yard ; or 2^ English Yards are equal to 1 Canna. MEASUBES OF SURFACE. Malteie value, Syatematie nam«» English valn§* Mttrie valur, SquAre Feet. Square Metroft. 1 Sq.Poltice « • 00609218 - -000473 144 Sq. Poltice - 1 Sq. Palmo „ -73827488 „ *068121 64 Sq. Pahni „ 1 Sq. Canna „ 46*929589 „ 4*859744 Square Yards. ^ Sq. Canne „ 1 Misura „ 26*0291142 „ 20*926771 10 Misuras „ 1 Mondello „ 260*291142 ,, 209*26771 Ares. 6Mondelli nlTumulo „ 1601*746852 ,, 12*5560626 Acres. Heotares. 16TumuU ,,lSalma „ 4*964 ,, 2*008970016 548 Square Palmi are usually reckoned equal to 400 English Square Feet, and 16 Salmi or 256 Tumuli to 71 English Acres. CUBIC MEASUBES. The following approximate equivalents are generally assumed in Commercial dealings : — 1 Cuhic Tratto = 8 English Cuhic Feet. 144 Cuhic Palmi « 96 English Cuhic Feet. 1 Cuhic Canna = 843 English Cuhic Feet. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. IfaltMe value, SyeUmatUi nam«, EnglUh value. Metric vahi«. Imperial BuNhels. l.itrw. 1 Mondello » *082679 « 80002 Mondelli « 1 Tummolo „ -496077 „ 18*031'25 16TmnmoU „ 1 Salma (*< Struck") „ 7 937237 „ 288*5 198 HEASUBES. The "heaped" Sabna, which is used in meaBixring Beans, Herhs, Lentils, Indian Com, Linseed, Hempseed, Canary Seed, Bait, and Charcoal, is about 16 percent, greater than the Salma of '* stmck" measure. It is, therefore, eqnal to ahont 384*66 Litres, or 0-20719492 English Imperial Bnshels. The following approximate equivalents are generally assumed in all Conmieroal dealings : — 100 Tnmmoli (heT^d) }'" 57 British Impl. Bushels J »» 197 y, ff Quarters 400 Tummoli (struck) 36 Salmi } (heaped) J " 203 Salmi ) (struck) J " 40 200 »y 11 >» >» It If French Litre*. 254*435272 Hectolitreii. 7160*525512 116*313267 58r56633» MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS.* Maltese value, 4 Gills 2 Pints 4 Quarts 11 ft 8y$tematie name, 1 Pint 1 Quart 1 Gallon 11 » BnglUh vetlue. Imperial Pint. •833111 . ImpeiHal Oallon. •208277 •833111 1$ 11 Metric value. Litres. •473125 •94625 8*785 The Maltese Wine Barrel is equal to 9*35 British Imperial Gallons, or 42*027 Litres. In Oil measure the unit is the CaficOi equal to 4| English Imperial Gallons, or 10*87773 Litres. A Barrile of Oil of 2 Cafici is equal to 8| English Imperial Gallons, or 39*755461 Litres. 6 Wine Gallons are equal to 5 English Imperial Gallons = 22*717435 French Litres. 1 Cafico of Oil is equal to 4| English Imperial Gallons ■» 20*445691 French Litres. 130 Barrile of Wine are equal to 1216 English Imperial Gallons = 6624*880192 French Litres. * These are the Old British Wine Measures that were superseded by the British TmpenAH Measures. The Oallon contained 231 Cubic Inches. Of Buch Oallons. 10 made an Anker; 18a Bundlet; 42 a Tierce; 68 a Hogshead; 84 a Puncheon; 126 aFIpe or Butt; and 252 a Tan« XTJjfcA m»^» 199 WEIGHTS. Malte$« value, ISGrani 2 Grapesi 16 Parti 12 Onoe 2^ Libbra 100 RotoU 114 BotoU n n Syttematie name. 1 Grano* 1 Orapeso* IParto* 1 Oxicia* 1 Libbra* t Botolof 1 Cantarof 1 Quintal Engiish tulud. Troy Qralng. •7069 12-7239 26-4479 407-16 n 4886 Iba. Av. 1-746 174i 100 Metric value, Orommei. '045805 •82449 1-64898 268888 316606 701-515 Ktlotrrammes, 79-1515 03-2326 The following approximate equivalents are generally assumed in Commercial dealings : — French GrammeB. 14 English ounces av. « 15 Maltese Onoie BS 306-89887 28 II n IRotolo 701-515 JkiloiCTainnMS. 7 lbs. II II 4BotoH 3-175147 112 ti »i II 64 BotoU - 60-802416 175 II II II 1 Cantaro 79-37868 199 ti >} II 1 Quintal 00-264907 5 Tons ti 64Cantari 6080-241602 The Botolo and half-Botolo are the Weights used in aU small dealings. TUEKEY. MEASUBES OF LENGTH. TurJHeh value, Syetematie name, 1 Ker&t 24 Kerdts = 1 Pike or Drfi 1 Berri Snglieh value. Inches. - u ,.27 II Metric vahte Metrcfi. - -0285744 „ -6857876 Miles. Kilometrm. 1-038636,, 1-671492 8 Berri „ 1 Agatsoh or Forsang „ 3-11591 ,,6*01447 * Weights for Gold, Silver, and Preoioiu Stones. •f Oommeroial Weights. 200 MXABITBX8. There are in common nee three kinds of Pike, viz, the Drft, given in the table, and equal to | of an English Yard ; the greater Pike called the Haiebi or Jrchim (used by Surveyors) -» 27*9 English Inches, or -7086472 Mdtre ; and the little Pike or Enda»»S = 26'68816 English Inches, or -6528 Mdtre. The Beed used by Land Surveyors is 6} Halebis. The Haiebi is used for Silk and Woollen goods, and the Endass^ for Cotton goods and Carpets. There are also the Shibher or Span, and the Fitneh or span of the thumb and ^f orefinger, and the Eud- dun or pace. In several parfe of the Ottoman Empire, Itinerary distances are estimated by the time taken to walk them. Thus there is the *' hour " which varies from 2f to 4 miles. But this mode of reck- oning distances is not peculiar to Turkey or the East. It is very usual to speak of a place as being so many minutes or hours distant. MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. Turklih value* Systematie name* EnglUh value. Metric value. Square Fe«t. Square Metre*. 256 Sqr. Eer&ts - 1 Sqr. Pike - 6'405625 - -50218085 Square Yard*. BOk Sqr. Pikes „ 1 Sqr. Beed,, 18*168905 „ 15*19072088 The general Measure for Land is the Feddcm^ an indefinite measure signifying as much as a yoke of oxen can plough in one day. On the large plains a Feddan is used to express as much land as 4 yoke of oxen can plough in one day. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. Twkiih value. SyttcmaHe name. EnglUh value. Metric value. 900 Dirhems ( 12 Okiejehs ") - 1 Bottol Imperial Gallon. Litres. - -8528145 - 1-60318 6i Bottols „ ISa Imperial Bnahelf . „ -24256 „ 8*8176 2Sa „ 1 Jubbeh „ -48512 „ 17*685 2 Jubbehs „ 1 Killow „ -97024 „ 85*27 4 Killows „ IFortin „ 8*88096 „ 141*08 100 Killows are equal to 12*128 British Imperial Quarters, or 85*266 Hectolitres. The Eillow is the chief measure for Grain, the lower measures being definite weights rather than measures. By the law of 17th November, 1841, the Killow of Constantinople was made the only legal Killow of the whole Empire, and the Killow of Smyrna and that of Salonica were aboUshed. 2 Killows of Smyrna, or 1 of Salonica were equal to 8 of Constantinople nearly. TUBKET. 201 MEASURES OF 0APA0XT7 FOR LIQUIDS. 2VrM«h wUue* 8f/MUmaUe naiM. 1 Okiejeli BnglUh value, Metrie rdlM. Imp«riRl }MnU. Litre*. - -20045 - -1190 5| OkiejeliB 12 Oldejehs 8 0ke - lOka ,, 1 Rottol 1, 1 Almad „ 1-151976 „ „ 2-5134 Iinp«*riid (Millions. „ 1-161976 „ •6645 1-4280 5*284 100 Rottols „ 1 Gautar „ 31-417 142-80 The Liqaid MeasuroB, like the Measuros of Dry Capacity, take their names from Weights ; they are iu fact vesHolH which contain definite weights of water at a f^vcn temperature. ThuSt for instance, the Oka is a measnro holding an Oka- weight of pure water at a fixed temperature. It is used as a Measure of Capacity for all kinds of liquids throughout the empire. For Oil the Tarr^ is in some places 16, and others 28 Oko. WEIGHTS. TufkUh value* Syttematio name, SngUih value, Mftric value. lb. Av. Oratninw. 1 Dirhcm - •0070854 - 3'21»86 lOODirhems - 1 Okiejoh „ -708643 „ 321-386 Kllofframmet. 4 Okiejehs „ 1 Oke „ 2*83418 „ 128664 lOO^Rottls j - 1 ^'«^*« - 124-70392 „ 66-66878 The Rottolo is equal to 1-247039 tb. av. English, or 666-6878 Grammes. WEIGHTS FOR GOLD, SILVER, AND PRECIOUS STONES. The unit of these Weights is tlie Chequee or Chekoy, which is the fourth-part of an Oka, and is equal to about 4060 Troy Grains, or 11-816 oz. ay. The Chequee or Chekey is divided into 100 Dirhems, each of 16 Karas, and each Kara of 4 Grains, as follows : — Twrkiih value, Bysti^matie name, Englinh value. Metrie value, TroyOraln*. OrRmmM. 1 Grain = '7707- •04904 4 Grains -1 Kara „ 8'0828 „ •19976 le.Karas „lDirhem „ 49*825 „ 8-1962 100 Dirhems „ 1 Chequee or Chekey „ 4982-6 „ 819-62 202 HEASUSS8. CANDIA. In the Island of Candia, which f oimB a Pashalic of Turkey, the denominations of Weights and Measures are nearly the same as in Turkey, with some slight local difference in value. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Pike or Drfi is equal to 25^ English Inches, or '70833 Mdtres. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Dennum is equal to ahout 40 Square Yards, or 33*448^ Square Metres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Mistach for Oil is equal to ahout 8 British Imperial Gallons, or about 13*681 Litres. The Mistach for Wine yaries from 8 to 5 Gallons, or from 13*681 to 22*717 Litres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Carza is equal to about 4*19 British Imperial Bushels, or 162*297684 Litres. WEIGHTS. The Oka is equal to about 2} lbs. ay., or 801*69 Grammes. The Cantar of 44 Okes is equal to about 126 lbs. ay. English, or 36*27486 Kilogrammes. GBEECE. ROYAL* MEASURES OF LENGTH. Qreek valtu. Syitematie name. BnglUh valite. Metric vahu, -.-J^.^th of the "i Inches. PecheuT 3 ^ ^ Gramme - -03937079=1 Millimetre 10 Gramma „ 1 Daktjlas „ -8987079 „ 1 Centimetre 10 Daktjlor „ 1 Palame „ 3*937079 „ 1 D6cimdtre lOPalamai „ 1 Pecheus ,,30*37079 „ 1 Mdtre. * These Weights and Measures are called " Royal" to distingiilsh them from those of Constantinople, which were formerly nsed in G^reece. The " Royal Weights and Measnres " were introduced in accordance with an ordinance dated *26th October, 1886. Tablets showing the difference be- ween the new and old systems were pat np at all workshops and paUio irkets during the year following the introduction of the new system. GBSSCX. 208 ROYAL MEASURES OF DISTANCE. QrMli value, Sifitematie nain», English valtte, Metrte vahu, Tardi. lOOOPeoheis = 1 Stadion = 1098*633 = 1 Eilomdtro Mll«t. 10 stadia „ 1 SkoiniB „ 6*2138 „ 1 Myriam6tre R07AL MEASURES OF SURFACE. Qre$k value, SyetmaoHe name. SnglUh value. Metric vahte, S^vuure Yard*. 1 Sq. Pe6h6n8= 1196033321-1 Sq. Mdtre 100 Sq. Peoheis =1 Stremma „ 119*603321 ,, 1 Are ROYAL MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS AND LIQUIDS. Oreek value, SyetemaHe name, Sngliah value. Metric value, ■ A_ th of a Cnbio ) imperial Plnti. ^^e* 8 J =1 ^^8 = -00176077 =1 MiUilitre 10 Kyboi „ 1 Mystron „ -01760773 „ 1 Centilitre ' 10 Mystra „ 1 Eotyle „ -176077339 „ 1 D6oilitie lOEotylai ,, 1 Litra „ 1760773395 ,, 1 Litre Imperial Oallona. lOOLitrai ,, 1 Eoilon ,,22-00966744 „lHectoUtre The Koilon is a measure whose capacity is that of a hollew cube described on the Palame, or ^th of the Peoheos. WEIGHTS. I.— Gold, Silybb, and Precious Stonbs. Oreek value, Byetematie name, . Snglieh value, Mrtric value, tit>y UraiuB. 1 EokkoB -i -154823488=1 Contigzamme 10 Eokkoi = 1 OboloB „ 1*54323488 „ 1 Decignunme 10 Oboloi „ 1 Draohmtf „ 16*4323488 „ 1 Gramme II. — COMMEBCIAL. Gfra«fe value, Syttematic name, ^^^^ v<ilue. Metric voHm. 1500 Draohmai = 1 MnA — 8*80699 = 1} Kilogramme 204 SOASTTBBS. III. — ^Weights for Great Bulks. Greek value* 8y$tematic name, EnglUh value. Metrie vahte. IbB. av. 100 Mn&i ^ 1 Tolanton = 380*699 = U Quintal Cwt 10 Tolanta „ 1 Tonos „ 29'52669 „ U Tonneanx The nnit of weight is the Drachm6. It is equiil to the Bpedfio weight of the Kyhos, that is to the weight of a Eyhos (-nAn;^^ part of a Litra) of pore water. APOTHECABIES' WEIGHTS. Ajiotheearles value, Systerndtic name. Royal Weight, EnglUh value. Royal I>racbmal. Troy Orains. 1 Kokkos = '0626 — -9645218 20 Kokkoi = 1 Sitarion „ 1-26 „ 19*290436 8 Sitaria „ 1 Drachm6 „ 3*76 „ 67*871308 8 Drachmai „ 1 Ouggia „ 30 t, 462*970464 12 0uggiai ,, 1 Litra „ 360 ,,6666*646668 The difference between the Weights and Heasnres given ia the above tables, and those of Constantinople; which were in use in Greece until October, 1836, is as follows : — I.— LENGTH. The Royal Pecheus Ib equal to 1*6432 of the little Pechens of; Constantinople. The little Pecheus of Constantinople is equal to *64d of the Royal Pecheus, and the great Pecheus of Constantinople is equal to *669 of the Royal Pecheus. Tiie old Pecheus used by Surveyors, Builders, and Carpen- ters, is equal to '76 of the Royal Pecheus. One Standard Measure exists throughout the whole of the kingdom ; this consists of a rod of steel or brass, upon which is shown the length of the Royal Pecheus. n.— SURFACE. The Royal Square Pechens is equal to 2*381 Square Pdcheis (Pikes) of Constantinople. The Royal Stremma is equal to 238*1 Square Pecheifl ol Constantinople, or to '787 of the old Peloponnesian Stremma, or to 1778 of the old Square Pecheis used by Surveyors and Builders, each of such old Square Pecheis (Surveyors) being equal to *6626 of the Royal Square Pechens. The old Peloponnesian Stremma of 8026 Square Peclieis Is equal to 1*27 of the Royal Stremma. TUB lOXIAN IfiLAKB). 205 III.— CAPACITY. The Royal* Litnt is eqaal to OSOl > o! the old KoiUn. Tlie old Eoilon id equal to 33*10 Litra. IV.— WEIGHTS. The Royal Maa is eqnal to i'1719 of an Oka, (whioh is eqnal to 4682 old Dramia). The Oka is eqaal to -8533 of the Mnu. THE IONIAN ISLANDS. (CORFU. SANTA MAURA, CEPHALONIA, ZANTE. CERIGO. ITHACA, AND PAXO.) As the louian Islands now (1867) form a part of the Kingdom of Greece, it is probable that the Greek system of Weights and Measures (see Greece) will soon become the only legal one. While the islands were imder the protection of Great Britain (1815 to 1864) the British Weights and Measures (see pp. 106 —117), with Italian names, were those in use. The Pied6 was the Foot ; the Jarda was the Imperial Yard ; the Caniaco was the Pole ; the Stadio was the Furlong ; the Galloue was the Imperial Gallon ; the Chilo was the Bushel ; the Dicotilo was the Imperial Pint ; the Libra Qroisa was the tt>. Avoirdupois ; the Libra Sottile was the lb. Troy ; and the Tolonto was lOt) lbs. av.f MEASURES OF LENGTH. Ionian vaV.t^. Siistfmatic name* EngUihvaUt\ Mc trie value, Metros. IPiede -IFoot = -304794 a Piede - 1 Jarda „ 1 Yard „ -914383 SlJarda „ 1 C»miaco „(^^f^f^®')„ 602911 40 Carnaco „ 1 Stadio „ 1 Cham. „ 201*16436 Kilontotrcs. 8 Stodla „ 1 Miglio „ 1 MUe „ 1-610931492 * Litra is equal to J of an Oka, and 1| Litrai is eqnal to 1 Oka. f Previous to the period of British protection the If easures wore thd y^anto Cloth Braccio of :il7'18 Inches, and Silk Braccio equal to 25-87 Inches : the Zanto Barile eaoal 14 68 British Imperial Gallons ; the Corfa Biurile equal to 15 British Imperial Gallons ; the Corfu Mog^io, (Grain measurement) of 8 Misuro eanal to 4-68 British Imperial Bushels; the Moflgio, (Land Measure) of 8 Misure or 24 Zappade equal to 2 Acres 1 Rood JM Perches English ; the Qtiintal of 44 Okes equal to 12515 lbs. Avoirdu- pois ; and 10 Okes equal to 28 lbs. av. T 206 M£i.8UB£S. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. Ionian vakM* By»tematie name, EnglUh value. MeMe value* Lltrw. IDicotilo = 1 Imperial Pint = -66793 8 Dicotili = 1 Gallone „ 1 „ GaUon „ 4*543487 8 Galloni „ 1 Chilo „ 1 „ Bushel „ 36*347896 2 CMOS », IBarile „ 2 „ Bushels „ 72*695792 WEIGHTS. Ionian value* Stjatematle name. Englieh value. Metric value. lb«. av. Grammes. 1 Libbra Grossa = 1 = 453*6925 lOO.Iibbre ={'^;tnr'' }" 100 » 41^925 10 Centinajo „ 1 MigUo „ 1000 ,, 463-6925 CHINA. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Chinese value. Systematic name, English value. Metric value.> Inches. Metres. IFun* = *141 « 'OOSSSl 10 Fun ^ 1 Tsun „ 1*41 „ -035813 10 Tsun „ 1 Chih ,, 141 „ -35818a Feet. 10 Chih „ 1 ChAng „ llj „ » 3*58133 10 Ch^g „ 1 Yin „ 117i ' „ 36*8133 In the tariff settled by treaty between Great Britain and China, the Chih equal to 14^^^ English Inches (the Canton Customs' Chih) has been adopted as the legal standard. It ia the legal measure at all the Ports of trade ; its use is becomir.g more general, and it may be ultimately adopted as the universal standard of length. At present, howerer, the length of the Chih varies at different places and in different trades at the same place. Tradespeople use two Chih sticks, varying in length from ^th to -Ird of an inch, the longer for wholesale, and the shorter for retail transactions. Decimals are used to denote subdivisions of the Chih, and the Chang is the longest measure for articles. The length of the Chang, or any other multiple of the Chih* varies with the length of the Chih chosen as the unit. Thus^ the Chang of the treaty (above mentioned) is equal to 141 English Inches, or 3*58183 Metres. At Shanghai the Chang vanes from 125 to 129 Inches, or from -317495 to *827654 M^tre. In the North of China (Pekin, Tientsin, Sec), the Chihs in most general use are the Carpenters' and the Mercers' Chihs, * The length of a Millet Seed with the ends dressed off. CHIKiL* 207 equal respectiyely to 12*85 and 13*7 Eogliih InoheB, or to *818684, and 847978 Mdtre. The following table shows the length of the Chih in differ- ent dynasties : Dynuty. Hwangti* Date. Otalh. EnaliBh valne. laches. 1O0692 • Uetrlo ▼alae. Metre. •255499 •328065 B.C. 2697—1766 Chih Shang .. B.C. 1766—1122 Chih 12-8541 Chan B.C. 1122— 249 Chih 804739 •204400 • Han B.c.202-A.i>.221 Chih 1117717 •283894 Tang .. A.D. 618— 907 Long Chih 12-58415 •819681 Tang .. A.D. 618— 907 Short Chih 10-05924 -255500 Snng . . A.n. 960—1280 Chih 10-05924 •255600 Ming .. A.D. 1368—1644 Chain Chih 13-422 12-8754 -840912 Ming .. A.D. 1368—1644 Tong. Chih •827029 Ming .. A.D. 1368—1644 Kish. Chih 12-58415 •319631 TRing .. 1644 Present Official Chihf 12-58415 -319681 4«t3l5^i'l?®A*l^*" ft* grandson of Noah, and ascribe to him the invention of the Mariners Compass. + But the staadardB themselves are not uniform, for a standard Ch(h received at Shanghai in 1844, was only equal to 125288 inches. 208 KEA8UBE8. The Tariaiions in the length of the Chih at different places and in different trades will be seen from the following tabiM : — PEEIN. SnglUh value, Indies. Tailors' Chih in the Sonlh pact of the City . . 18 08 Chih Tised by Traders in Silk .. .. 13*46 Chih nsed by Tailors in the North part of the City, 18-42 Tailors' Chih, according to Da Halde . . 18'216 Chih of the TribunaJ of Mathematics . . 18*118 Land Snrveyors' Chih, liang-ti'Chih . . 12*875 Common Chih . . 12*68 Registrar of Lands Chih, 12*598 Architects', Traders', &c. Chih .. .. 12*585 Chih of the Palace, 12*468 Chih of Imperial Statis- tics .. .. 12*40 Chih of the Board of Public Works . . 12'34 Chih nsed in the Works of the Palace . . 12 17 Metric value, i» -344925 „ -341877 „ -340861 ,,.•235680 „ -333191 „ -327019 „ -322066 „ -319983 „ -319653 „ -316681 „ -314954 „ -313430 „ -309112 AMOY. Tailors', Painters', and Mercers' Chih .. 1208 to 12*24 =-306816 to -310890 Common Chih (or foot mle) .. .. 121 ,,-307334 Cnstom House Chih, for Junks .. .. 11-832 „ -300627 Carpenters' Chih in 1680, 11-832 „ -300627 Goldsmiths' Chih in 1680, 1126 „ -285998 Carvers' Chih . . 11-674 „ -296511 CHUTA. 209 CANTON. Metric value, Mctrft. Bngllth vlu9, Inchei. Tailors' Ghih, called jpai- Uien-chih .. 14685 - •372002 Meroen' Ohih, for whole- Bale piirohaBeB .. 14*66 to 14*724 „ '372850 to '378082 Meroere' Ghih, for re- tail sales.. .. 14*37 to 14*56 H '364001 to -860817 Merchants' Chihin 1751, hy Toreen . . 14*212 ^ „ -860978 Merchants' Ohih in 1751, byOsbeok 14*64 „ -871840 Architects' Ohih .. 12*7 n '322574 OHANG OHAXJ (near Amoy). Land Measure Chih, 14*085 - -856482 Velvet Weavers' Chih, or Ta Chih . . , . 13-75 „ •849243 Mercers' & GothDealers' Chih, or Chanff-tsai- Chih .. ia'24 ,,'310800 Tailors'Chih, otBia-Uai- Chih .. 12*10 ,,-807384 Stone Cutters' & Masons' Chih, or M-pdn-Chih, 11*793 „ '209686 Dyers' Chih .. 11-674 „ •296514 Jnnk Builders' Chih, 11*888 „ -289249 Retailer of Cloth & Silks' Chih .. ., 11 to 11-1 „ -279894 to -281934 CHIHMA (between Ohang Ghau and Amoy). Custom House Chih, 12*71 -'322828 OHINHAI (near Ningho). Tailors' & Traders' Chih, 18*7 - '847978 Artisans' Chih, or Fuh' Kieri'i'Chih .. 12'44 ,,-815970 fitone Cutters', or Ln- pan-Chih .. 10*9 „ •276864 210 MEASUBEB. PUH CHATJ. Enffltah value. Metric value. iBchea. Metrw. The Mo7ig King Chili, 16*85 -: '^79jB2 Tailoro* Chib, or Tsai- fung Chih . . 15 „ '380993 The King Chih 18-4 to IS? „ -340353 to -347973 The Eian Chih .. 1^*75 ,,-323844 Shoemakers* Chih, or Ewa-tien-Chih . . 1224 to 12*3 „ -310890 to -312420 Si]k Dealers' Chih . . 12 „ '304794 Cloth Dealers* Chih, or Kang-Kien-Chih 11-83 to 1193 „ -300476 to -303016 Stone Cutters' Chih, or Lu'pdn-Chih .. 11-79 to 11*83 „ -299460 to -300476 The Tien Chih .. 11-18 ,,-283966 The Tang-tien-Chih 10748 to 11-65 „ -272994 to -293364 ^ MACAO. Taaors'Chih .. 14-64 to 14-686 = -371849 to -372992 ^ Silk Mercers' Chih . . 14*66 „ -372369 Interior Customs' transit duty Chih .. 14*586 ,,-370477 Traders' Chih for Retail 14-212 to 14-4 „ -360978 to -365753 Small Dealers' Chih, or Kin-wu-Chih .. 13*94 ,,-354069 Artisans' and Masons' Chih .. 13*46 to 13*94 „ -341877 to -364069 Braziers', Jpiners*, and Coopers' Chih . . 12*4 „ -314954 MATMATCHiy. Chih for pui-chases 13*976 --354984 Chih used in sales to Mongols .. 13*779 ,,-349980 Bussian Merchants' Chih (in 1824) .. 13*203 ,,-336360 MANILLA. Chinese Carpenters' Chih 13*818 - -350970 chuta. 211 NANCHA^G» (in Kiang-8U.) Engllth mU«m. Metric value, lachM. MetrvH, Traders' Rulo 14*45 m*867028 Traders' Rule - •858098 KANON. 18-987 NINGHO. Chih, called l^a-yih-tsun- Chih (II Unn) .. 16*079 €bih, called Ta-tcu-fun- Chih (10^ tsun) . . 14'37 Tailors' Chih, or Tsai- Fur, Cloth, and Felt Dealers' Chih . . 137 to 18*92 „ *84797d to -SSSSGl Silk-dealers' Chih, or Shi- --•882999 n '864991 „ -868082 H -849248 n -849248 „ -847978 „ -822574 „ -808016 chanfj-mai mai Chih^ the Market Chih 13*75 Common Chih, the Kwati' Ui-Chih .. 18*7 Statute Rule in CustomH, or Pu-p(Ui'Chih .. 12-7 «hip Bailders' Chih 11-98 Stone Cutters' Chih, or Ld-pdn-Chih . . 1095 to 10*99 „ -278124 to -270140 Carpenters' Chih .. 9-92 „-25f963 SHANGHAI^ Junk Builders' Rule, Tsungming-i-Chlh 15-69 to 15.769 -•898518 to -400625 Custom House Chih, or Jlaikwan Chih . . 14*098 „ -868082 Tailors' Chih, or Shan- ghai' i-Uai- Chih,. 13*85 to 14*05 „ -851788 to -366863 Land Measure Chih of Board of Revenue 18*181 n -884791 Ai'tisans' Chih, or Fuh- Kien-i-Chih (8 tsun) 12-669 „ *819246 Carpenters' Chih .. 11-14 ,,-282960 Masons' Chih, or Lu-pdn- Chih ., .. 10*9 to 11-08 „ -276864 to '281426 212 HEASTTBES. TaUors* Chih SHANSI. EnglUh value, IocLm. 14-55 TIENTSIN. Carpenters' common Chihl2'35 Mercers' Silk and Clo£h Chih .. 18-7 TINGHAI. Traders' or Tailors' Chih ld'7 Joiners' Chih . . 10*9 Masons' Chih . . 10*63 Metric value. Metres. •369563 e -313684 „ -347973 -•347973 „ -276854 „ ^269997 1 Yard English - at Canton, 2 Chih 4 Tsan ; at Shanghai. 2 Chih 5 Tsnn ; by the Treaty, 2 Chih 5 Tson 6 '5 Fan. The Fih is a Cloth measure of about 3 Chang, and is equal to 35i Feet English, or 11*75 Yards nearly. MEASUBES OF DISTANCE. Chinete value, Byttematic name. 5 Fan -ILi lOLi, or5T8un„i Chih lOHalf-Chihl , -^ or 5 Chih J »' ^ ^ 86(yPfi „ 1 LI 250 Li fi »» Snglith value. Metric value, Inch. Metres. •486 a •01234 Feet. •405 „ 12346 405 »» 1-23451 Yards. ,,486176 „ 444-423 Miles. Kilometres. „ 1 Tfi (or Degree) „ 69 „ 111-1069 The length of the Lf has varied at different periods from 386 to about 631i Yards, and its average length may be taken as a little less than i of an English Mile. Formerly the L( was divided into 144 Chang of 2 P(i each ; the pa bemg subdivided into 6 Chih ; and 192^ Lf went to a Degree. On the reduction of the Pii to 5 Chih, the L( was divided into 180 Chang or 1800 Chih. In the survey of the Empire made in 1700, the Chih taken as the unit was equal to 12*1 English Inches, or -308680 Metre ; and the multiples of the Chih were the Pd of 5 Chih, equal to 6-064 EngUsh Feet, or 1-5084 Metrd ; the Chaog of 10 Chih cHuri.. 213 equal to 10*128 Feet EngUsh, or 8*10688 Metrds ; and the Lf of 180 Chang and equal to 607*68 English Tarda. A Desree contained 200 of these Lf. The Degree is also snbdiyidea as follows :— 1 Degree -• 60 Fun » 8600 Mia(!i. At Canton, guard honses are supposed to be placed at interTals of 1 Tang-Song (or League). Chinese value» MEASURES OF SURFACE. SifittmaUe nanu. 25 Sq. Chih -• 1 Pfi or Knng-* 60 Knng „ 1 Eish 4Kish .. IMan *» 100 Mau M M II SnglUh vlue, Bq.Yiurdt. *a*8246i« 199*4726 797*8906 lliing „ 79789*06 Metric value* Arr«. '0277964 1-607785 6 671141 » 667*1141 II M The chief land measure is the Man, and to indicate quantities lesB than the Man decimals are used. A Fun of Laud contains 24 Knug. An English Acre is equal to about 6*1 Maua. At Canton small pieces of land are generally measured by the Tsing of 100 Square Chih, equal to 16*689 English Square Yards ;160 Tsing or 600 Square Chih make a Mau, and at this rate a British Statute Acre is equal to 4*847 Mau. At Macao the Mau -i 1016*6266 English Square Yards, and 4*766 such Mau » 1 English Acre. At Shanghai a Mau i- ^ English Acre, and 6 such Maus i- 1 English Acre. The following are some of the English Acre yalnos, estimated in MauB, at different places in China : — 4*766 Maus 681 608 6*61 6-586 7*206 At Tientsin and Shanghai an annual tax of 1500 Cash per Mau is levied by the Chinese Government upon lands sold to foreigners. A British Statute Acre » * ThcBo valnes are reckosed at the rate of 18'IM inohea for a Chih, or 1*196836 Rqnare foot for a aqtiare Ohih. 314 lC£jL8US£il. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY. Cktnue value, 8§*UmatU ntuu, Bngli$k value. MetrUvtOue, Imperial Oalloiu. Litnt. IKoh* « -0118 - •0518414 6 Eoh » i Shing „ '0565 „ -25670701 10 Koh „ 1 Shing „ 118 ,, 518414 lOShing ,, ITaa „ 113 „ 618414031 The Tan, Shing, Half-Shing, and Koh are the only Measores of Capacity now nsed in Chini^ They are MeasnreB for Dry Goods. The size of the Tan differs considerably in different places ; ihns, there is the Granarr Tan (Tsang Tan), a measure in very general nse, which holds 6i Catties, or about 1*18 British Imperial Gallon. The Market Tan (Shi-Tau, or Shi-Kin-Tau) is not much nsed, it is eqnal to abtmt 1*63 British Imperial Gallon, or 7*40588881 Litres. The Swang Tan containing 13 Catties, and eqnal to abont 2*26 British imperial Gallons, or 10*26828 Litres. The Shing of Rice is nsnally considered eqnal to 1 Catty, but its actual weight varies from 12 to 22 Taels. At Macao the Shing is a little less than 1 British Imperial Pint. At Canton, of 2 Shings examined (in 1840), 1 contained 1*72 British Imperial Pint, or -97685 litre, and the other, -919 British Imperial Pint, or -521988 Litre. At Shanghai 3 specimens of the Shing were found to contain retpectively, 1*85 ; 1*87 ; and 1*83 British Imperial Pint, or 1-05068 ; 1-06204 ; and -7558547 Litre. For measuring Liquids, such as Spirits and Oil, measures containing definite weights are used ; the most usual sizes are those containing 1, 2, 4, and 8 Taels. There are also large earthen vessels containing 60, 80, and 15 Catties, these are in- variably of tiie same size and contain the same weights of Uquids of equal specific gravity. * There are the followlnf subdlTlsions of the Koh, which are however merely nomlsid. and are not la ectoal use :->The Koh of 3 Yoh, the Toh of 6 Choh, the Choh of 10 Chuu. the Ghun of 10 Ttoh, the Ttoh of 10 Kwel, the Kwei of 6 Snh, and the Ban ia a srain of millet leed. There are alio the followiag moltiplee of the Koh, which, like the sabdiTislons, are purely nominal, and are not in aotnal nee :— The Yu of 10 Tau, the Shih of 10 Tau, the Plna of 80 Tau, and the Fu of 6 Tan 4 Shing. The term Bhth la the weight of a varying number of Cattiea. CUINA. 215 WEIGHTS.* ChiMBf value. Syatematie namt* Snoli$h value, Metrie valve, Os> At. Qrammai, 1 L(^ang or Tael « li « 87*7994 Ib». AV. 16 Le«Dg - 1 Kin or Catty „ U », 604*787 Kll(MrrMnin6t« 100 Kin „ 1 Ton or Pecul „ 1831 „ 60*4787 The Tael is nominallv subdivided into 10 Lai, of 10 Shu eaob, the Shu being the weight of a shefUd millet seed. There are also Bome nominal multiples of the A'in, namely, the Yin of 2 Kin, and equal to 2$ lbs. av., or 1*290574 Kilofframmes ; the Kiun of 80 Kin, equal to 40 lbs. av., or 18*14861 Kilogrammea ; and the Shi of 120 Kin, equal to 160 lbs. av., or 72*57444 Kilogrammes. The Shi is often used to denote the same weight as the Tan or Pecul, viz., 100 Kin. It is also used in a vague sense to denote a*^' considerable weight." The subdivisions of the Tael used in welshing Gold, SUver, Pearls, Birds' Nests, Medicines, and such like, are as follows : — GOLD AND SILVER WIIGHTS. Chinese value. Syetematie name. EnglUh value. Metrie value, Truj Qnlnt. QrammeB. 1 Le or Cash <- '5798 - -03779 10 Le or Cash - 1 Fau or Candorun „ 6*7984 „ -87799 10 Fau „ 1 Tsien or Mace „ 67*984 „ 8*77992 10 Tsien „ 1 L6ang or Tael „ 679*84 „ 87*7992 ENGLISH AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHTS EXPRESSED IN CHINESE COMMERCIAL WEIGHTS. EnglUh. Chineee. 1 Ounce •> i of a Tael, or 7i Mace 4 Ounces II 8 Taels lib. >i 12 Taels, or i of a Catty 1 Quarter n 21 Catties ICwt. n 84 „ I'Ton 11 16 Peculs 80 Catties * Thore ore 8 InBtrumeuts used by the Chinese In weighing, tIb., the Balance: the Detohin or Steelyard ^(oh*e /if n(7); and the Money 8oalei(Ie- tang). The Btvlanoe (tien-pinp) is made of brass of different sizes, to weigh from 200 Taels down to tenth* of a Grain. It is nsed for weighing Gold, Silver, Jewellery, Pearls, Medicines, Bird's Nests, and such lik« 8reoions things. The largest Hteelyards will weigh 8 or 9 Peculs. The [oney Scales are put up in portable casos for oonYenienoe, in testing the weight of Oopper er Silver received in payment. 216 KEASUBES. In China Weights, and MeaBnres of Length, and Surface, anci Drj Capacity, vary in different parts of the Country. Gonerall/ they are greatest in the Southern provinces. MEASURES OE TIME. IMiau «. 1 Second eOMiaus <- IFun ti 1 Minute 16 Fun If IKeh 11 15 Minutes 8Eeh ff 1 Shi-Shin n IHour 12 Shi-Shin 11 1 Jih or Chau-y6 11 12 Hours 10 Days 1) 1 Sun 11 1 Decade « 1 Moon ti 29 or 30 Days 12 or 13 Moons f» INien 11 1 Year HOira-KOKa. The British Weights and Measures, and also the Weights and Measures of China are used. INDIA.* There are no universal standards in the native Indian system of Weights and Measures, and the British Government have not yet defined one, hut the whole subject of Weights and Measures has been for some time under consideration, and a revision of existing systems is being proceeded with. The native or linear Measures have no constant or nnifonn standard. They are founded upon the native idea of the breadth of a finger or length of a fore-arm. The distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger is called a HaVh or Mooly,m, The term Hat'h is generally translated Cubit. The averap^e. length of the Hat'h is 19^ English Inches, or''495291 Mdtre. In Benares, Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore, Madras, Mangalore,. Seringapatam, and Tellitscherry, its length is 18 English Inches, or -4571915 M&tre. In Hydrabad its length is 86*334 English Inches, or *9815 M5tre. In other places its length is 20 EngUsh Inches, or '50799 M6tre. * For farther informatioB in referenee to the Carrency, and Weighta and Measarea of India, the reader is referred to the Appendix, which is a paper drawn up for the author, bv W. U. Baylet, £sa., of the Madras. Olvil Service and founded on careial research and practical experience.. ISDIJL — (bengal) . 217 w 06 regoiatea by weight, bat the proposition about new grain measnreB was not approved, and the Imperial GkUlon and its mnltiples are the only measures made up by the authority of the Government, and in Bengal, no* Measures of Capacity for dry goods have yet been defined. MEASURE S OF LENGTH. BengeU value. SytUmaiie name, Englith value. Metric value. Inohet. Metrefl. 1 Jow or Jaub* «■ i- '00684985 8 Jow ■•1 Ungulee „ |„ -01904966 4 Ungulees „ 1 Moot f, 3 „ -076198 12 Ungulees or 8 Moots „ 1 Big'hath or Span,, 9 ,, -228595 2 Big'haths 2 B&Vh ,. 1 H&t»ht „ 1 Guz „ 18 M -457191 Tuda. 1 „ '914383 2Gaz „ 1 Danda or Fathom,, 2 „ 1-828766 lOOODandas KUometret. mICosb m2000 » 1*828766 4 Gobs „1 Yojanor Jojun „ Miles. 4VV» 7-816064 * A Jaub ii 8 graini in length. + The H&t'h is also diyided into 16 Tqbioos, each Tqbboo being equal to 1| inch. V 210 USABCBXS. In China Weights, and Measures of Length, and Snrtac«, ud INDIA— p. 218. B; " The ludi&n WaigbU and Heasnies of Capacity Act, 1671," which extendi to the whole of British India, tbe " Ber," eqnal to tbe French Eitogramme, was conBlitnted the primary standard of weight ; and a measnre containing one sach Ber ot water at its maiimnm density, weighed in a vacnom, «m coDBtitatod tbe Htandord nnit ol Meagnrei ol Capacit;. ) INDIA.* There are no nniversal standards in the native Indian systom . of Weights and Measnres, and the British Oaremment have not yet defijied one, bat the whole enbjeot of Weights and Ueasnres bos been for some time nnder consideratioa, and a revisioD of existing systems is being proceeded with. The native or linev Heasnres have no constant or nnifona standard. They are founded apon tbe native idea of the breadth of a Qnger or length of a fore-arm. The distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger is called a Hat' h or iloolfm. The term Hat'h is generally translated Cubit. Tbe averas» length of the Hat'h is 191 English Inebea. or''1952gi Metre. In Benares, Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore, Madras, Mangalore,. Seringapatam, and TelUtscherry, its length is 18 English Iiicbea, or -4571915 Mitre. In Hydrabad its length is 86-334 English icbes. or '9815 M£tre. In other places ite length is 20 Eoglisfa -bos, or -50799 Metre. For Inrtbet lofanniiUn In refsmcs to the Carnncr, and Walgbts , bt W, U. BiTLET, Eiii., ot iTelD) reneuch and prscltcal < ^grrice and lonodcd on earelit) reneuch and pracuc^ eiperlgDCa.. iSDiJL — (bengal) . '217 The chief nnit of linear meastireB is the Gaz. Its length differs very mnoh in different plaoes, varying from 26 to 89^ English Inohes; bat now, however, since English Measures have become more known, the Hat'h is generally an English Oubit of 18 Inohes, and the Qoz an English Yard of 86 Indies. In the North- West Provinces the Illahi Goz, used in the Govern- ment Surveys, is 88 Inohes, and 8 Guz make 1 Bans or Ganteh. 20 Ganteh make 1 Jarib. INDIA-(BSNGAL). Generally speaking, the so-called Measures of Capacity take their names from Weights, and are in fact vessels which are supposed to contain, when slightly heaped, definite weichts of different substances, such as grain, salt, milk, ghee, (darified butter), spirits, oil, ^c, but this is not universally the case ; for instance, in the neighbourhood of Madras, and in some of the Southern districts, the ordinary grain measure, the " Puddee '' which varies greatly in different places does not represent a definite weight. In 1886, the Calcutta Chamber of Commerce proposed to the Government the introduction of the British imperial Gallon for liquids, and of a new measure for grain to be regulated by weight, but the proposition about new grain measures was not approved, and the Imperial Gallon and its multiples are the only measures made up by the authority of the Government, and in Bengal, no' Measures of Capacity for dry goods have yet been defined. MEASUBES OF LENGTH. Bin§al value. SyiUmaiie navM. EngHth value. Metrie value* InohM. Metres. IJoworJaub* - i- *00684»85 8Jow -•lUngulee „ |„ '01904966 4 Ungulees „ 1 Moot „ 3 „ -076198 ^8 M^o^fs^*' ""'l " 1 Bi«'^»*^ 0' Span.. ., -228696 2Big'haths „ 1 H&t'hf „ 18 „ -467191 YmiU. 2 Hfit'h „ 1 Guz „ 1 „ -914883 2 Guz „ 1 Danda or Fathom,, 2 ,> 1*828766 ^ Kilometres. 1000 Dandas „ 1 Coss »»2000 „ 1*828766 4 Coss „1 YojanorJojun ,. 4VV»» 7*816064 * A Jaab 1b 8 grains in length. <f The H&tli is also 4ividea into 16 Tostoos, each Tossoo being equal to 1| inch. V 218 MEASUBES. The following denominations of higher mnltiples of the Bengal Coss are occasionally met with in computation : — Bengal value. Bytematic name. English value. Miles. Metric value. Kilometres. lOOYojan =lMundiil « 464t\» 731-6064 lOOMundul „lCoondnh„ 45454T''r ^ 73150-64 100 Coonduh „ 1 Gandah ,, 4545454^ ,,7315064 lOOGundah „lMadiny* „454545454A„ 731606400 CLOTH MEASURES. Bengal value. Systematic name. English value. Metric value. Inches. Metres. 3 Jew or Jauh « 1 Ungnlee 1 « •01904956 3 Ungulee „ 1 Gerah 2i „ •05714875 8 Gerah „ 1 Hat'h It 18 ), •457191 2 H&t'h ,, 1 Guz >i 86 n •914388 MEASURES OP SURFACE.f The Beegah is the highest unit of Measures of Surface. Buhdiyisions are as follows : — Its Bengal value. Systematic nam^, 1 Sq. Hit'h 4 Sq. HAt'hs « 1 Cowrie »i 4 Cowries 20 Gundas 20 Cottahs 1 Gnnda 1 Cottah ,, 1 Beegah 91 H f> »» »» English value, bquarc Feet. 2i • 9 „ Square Yards. 4 80 1600 ,» »» »» Metric value. Square Metres. •2090425 •836097 3*344888 66-88776 133-77552 The Cottah is also subdivided into 16 Chitt&k 20 Gandeh. The Chitt&k is equal to 5 English Square Yards, or 4*180485 Square Metres. In Benares the Beegah is equal to 8186 Square Yards, or * 64793 Acre. A Beegah measures on each side 120 Feet. Its area is, therefore, 14,400 Square Feet, or 1600 Square Yards. 3-^j, Beegah » 1 Acre, and 4 Beegah are equal to about 1 Madras Cawney. * The circamference of the earth. f In the native " Indian system, an area is often named after the quantity of seed required to sow it, or the quantity it will produce, and, of course, the actual area differs according to the opinion of the person who*make8 the estimate." — Suggestions for a Uniform System of Weight$ and Measures throughout India. By W. H. Bayley, Esq., of the Madras Civil Service. IXDIA — (bengal). 219 For Land Measure in the Korth-West Provinoes, the follow- ing measureB are used in the Goyemment Sarveys : — MEASURES OF SURFACE. Bengal value. BytUvMktie nam«. EnglUh value. Metric vahie. Inches. 8q. Metrui. 1 Guz »33 Feet. 3 Gnz » 1 Bans or Rod „ 8i 6q. Feet. 9 Square Guz „ 1 Square Rod „ eS^V "• 6-7199592 8q. Ynrds. Aies. 400 Square Rods „ 1 Beegah „ 3026 „ 26'B479837 WEIGHTS. In accordance with Act VII., of 1833, the Tola (or Rupee Weight) of 180 Troy grains, is the unit of weight in all Govern- ment, and most mercantile transactions in Bengal. As regards the native Hindoo population, each District has its own weights often founded on no reliable data; but the efforts of the Government to equalize the Weights are steadily introducing uniformity. The legal multiplies of the Tola, or, as they may be called, the '* Imperial Weights of India," are as follows : — BengoX value. Systematic name, EnglUh value. Metric value. Grains Troy. Qrammes. 1 Tola =180 =» 11-0G382 5 Tolas » 1 ChittHk nQOOn 68*3191 16 Chitt&ks „ 1 Seer „ 2Vt ' „ 933*1056 r a /I Passeeree or \ ,_. ^^i^'^fS'??!??: 6 Seers „ | punsarie | " ^^f „ 4-«65o28 8 Passeerees or 1 (1 Imperial or In-] _ _„ *>- ^ftj^^^ 40 Seers |-| dian Maund | »82f „ 87*324224 Hence, 350 Tolas » 91bs. Av. ; 35 Seers are exactly equal to 721bB. Av. ; 7 Maunds to 5761bs. Av. ; and 49 Maunds to 36cwt. or 1*8 Ton. One cwt. English » 54f Seers, or 1*361 Maunds, and a Ton — 27*22 Maunds. A Chinese Pecul « 1*62 Maunds. The old ** Factory Maund,** adopted by the Bengal Govern- ment in A.D. 1787, was exactly |owt. or 74|lbs. Av. The old ** Bazaar Maund," (subdivided into 40 Seers,) weighed 72ilbs. Av. In the interior the Seer varies very considerably. Thus, at Allahabad and Lucknow it is 96 Tolas; at Mirzapoor and Benares it is 84 Tolas ; and at Hooghly it is 82 Tolas. 220 HSASTJBEB. In tlie Calcutta xnarket there are two Maonds in use, namely, the " Imperial," or Indian Maund » 62f tbs. ay., or 37*324224 Kilogrammes, and the Factory Maund =74|^tbB. av. or }rds cwt. or 83*87 EHogrammes. 100 Imperial Mannds are nearly eqnal to 110 Factory Mannds, and 1^ Factory Mannds are equal to 1 cwt. English. Bengal value, 4 Punks 4Dhan 8 Buttee 12 Mashas JEWELLERS' WEIGHTS. 8y$tematie name, IDhan EnalUh value, QninaTTOj. »f »» If 1 Bnttee 1 Masha ITola f» »» »i H li 16 180 »» »f it Metric value. Centlffnmmm. 3*037453 12*149812 97*1985 -Orsmmes. 11-66382 The BubdiviBions of the Masha are used in stating the fine- ness as well as the weight of Gold and Silver. Pure Gold and Silver is said to be 12 Mashas fine. An Anna weighs 6^, a Rupee 100, and Gold Mohur 106^ Ruttees. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Bengal value. 4 Chittdks 4 Powahs 5 Seer Syttematie name. IChittik ■■ 1 Powah „ 1 Seer ., IPaUi It ti It English value. ImperUl Pinto. *122625 •49049 1*96196 Imperial Oalloiu. 1-226225 0-8098 It II II Metric value. Litres. •069641 •278564 1114259 6*571296 44*570360 40 Seer or 8 Palli „ 1 Maund „ The Chittak is supposed to hold 5 Rupees weight of Oil. The Grain Measures are supposed to contain, when slightly heaped, a definite weight of grain ; but as the Weights differ in every locality so do tiie Measures. Even Measures bearing the same name by no means indicate the same quantity in every district. MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Bengal vaXue, Syttematie name 1 Chitt&k • English value. Imperial Pinto. •122625 « Metric vahie. Litres. •069641 6 Chitt&ks . 1 Koonki II •613125 „ •348206 16 ChittSkB II 1 Seer II 1-96196 „ 1114259 4 Eoonkis II IRaik II 2*4525 „ 1892820 4 Raiks or 5 Seers " II 1 Palli II Imperial Baitaels. -163278 „ 5*571296 20 Pallia II ISooU II 3*06566 „ 111-4259 16SooliB II 1 Ehahoon •1 4904896 „ 1782*8144 INDIA — (b astoal) . 221 The English and Metric Valaes giyen in the tables, are oal- onlated at the rate of 68 Oubio inohes, or 1*96196 British Imperial Pint, or 1*114259 Litres to the straok Seer; but if the supposed or nominal value of the struck Seer, viz., 57 Gubio inches be assumed as the basis, then the struck Seer is equal to 1*644688 British Imperial Pint, or *9d4011 Litres; and the Chitt&k -> -102786 British Imperial Pint, or '0583757 Litre; and the other subdivisions and multi- ples, in proportion. It* must be remembered, however, that only heaped measure is recognised by immemorial custom among the Hindoos; and, therefore, the values given in the table of measures of dry capacity, are less than the actual quantities. ** The most common grain meagre, and one which is'to some extent known in almost every part of India, is the * Seer Measure.' This is always understood to be a measure which, when heaped, will contain a * Seer ' weight of rice ; or, in some places, instead of rice, a mixture of nine of the most common grains, known as the Ndn-danium measurement.'"* The nine sorts of grain used in the Madras Presidency, are — Rice, Ohenna, Gooltee, Pessoloo, Minamaloo, DhoU, Anamaloo, Gingeley-oil-seed, and Wheat. As only heaped measure is recognised by native usage, it is evident that there is no rule as to the Cubic Content of the measures used, for vessels of very different Cubic Content may contain the same when heaped, in consequence of having different diameters. It is on this account that the values given to Indian measures in such Tables as those of Major Jervis, or Dr. Kelly (in his Cambist), being founded on the guagod Cubic Content, do not represent the true quantities. Eight slightly-heaped Pallis swere supposed to contain a quantity of nee equal in weight to 1 old ''Bazaar Maund " of 72^ lbs. av. So that 1 PaUi » 9^ lbs. av. The PaUi has a capacity of about 2800 Cubic Inches when struck. The '* Seer " of grain, supposed to be 16 Chittdks, and to have a struck capacity of about 57 Cubic Inches is in practice, a measure which, when slightly heaped, contains 80 Rupees Weight (a Seer Weight) of Rice, and has a struck capacity of about 68 Cubic Inches. NUMERATION TABLE. 4 Articles ■• 1 Grenda. 5 Grendas „ 1 Coori, or Score. * See *< Suggestions for a Uniform System of Weights and Measures throaghout India." By W. H. Bayley, Esq., of the Madras Civil Servloe. 222 MEi.8tTB£S« MEASURE OF TIME. 60 PoU «• 1 Ghurree . 24 Minntes. 7i Ghurree ♦» 1 Pahor »» 8 HoarB. SPnhur ft 1 Day II 24 Hours. 7 Days »» 1 Hngta II 1 Week. 15 Days it 1 Pukka 2 Pnkka M 1 Maas II 1 Month. 2 Maas »♦ 1 Bhitoo II 1 Season. 6 Bhitoo »f 1 Batsar II 1 Year. 12 Batear tl 1 Joog. IKDIA-CMADBAS). MEASURES OF LENGTH AND SURFACE. The English Foot and Yard are now used by almost all natiTe workmen. The native Kole or Artificers* Rod, as also the Guz, intro- duced by the Mahomedans, is about S3 English Inches. The Moolum (translated corid or cubit), used for measuring Cloth, varies in different districts from 18 to 21 Inches. Ito average length is about 19^ or 19| Inches. It is subdivided into 24 UnguLvrntt or finger breadths. The Bavm (translated Fathom) is about 6^ Feet. For long distances the term NdUi ValU is used. It is de- rived from NaUi, a space of time, and FaUi, a road, and signifies the distance walked in 24 minutes ; that is, a little under 1| English Miles. 7 NdUi VaUi - 1 EAdam, or about 10 Miles. The following are some native Measures of Length : — Madroi value, 8 Torah 24 Vurruh 4 Mulakoli II II ByitemaUe name. 1 Vurruh 1 Mulakoli 1 Dnmna Sngllth value. lacbet. Metrievaiue, Mttne. ^ - -010588 II I* 10 40 II fi •25899 1*01596 MEASX7RES OF SURFACE. For Land Measure, the native method is to estinuite the space which a certain quantity of seed will sow, and this makes INDIA— (mADBAB). 228 the native tenns quite nnoertain. SometimeB an area is de- noted by BO many '* Rods " or ** Ropes " Square ; but these Rods and Ropes differ in every distriot. In Madras itnelf and in some other districts the Catpnle is eqnal to 67600 Square Feet, or 1*8228 Acres, and is subdivided into 24 ** Grounds," or else into 100 *' Coolies/' as follows : — JfdXfdM valtM. 4^ Coolies Xn0li$h valM, SquAN Y«rd»« 64 MtMe valiM. AtM - •58610208 24 ♦•Grounds" or 100 Coolies 5yit«ma«0 name, 1 Coolie -1 "Ground" ,, 2661 „ 2*229692 (6400 or ^ „ 1 Cawnie ti Aer«. 1-8228 H 68'510208 The Cawnie is also subdivided into Annas or sixteenths, each equal to 400 English Square Yards, or 234*4888 Square Mdtres. During the last few years, in consequence of the Revenue Field Survey, the English Acre has come to be generally known. In this Survey the Gunter's Chain is used, and in the accounts the Acre is subdivided into thoutandthtf as in the English Ordnance Survey. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. Madnu 9alu$» Syitematic name, 1 OUuck - --,„ , flPuddeeorl 8 011uck8 -| Measure/ 8Puddees ,i IMeroAl miLf ill (IParahor) 6 Mercdls „ | chunan J " EnoUth value. Imp«rlAl Ptnti. •86066 - It M 2*88622 M InptriAl Qftlloiu. 2*88522 H 14*42610 It itetrie value* Lhrw. •204826 1-688612 18*108900 66*644604 80 Parahs tt IGarce M ril64'0880or) Qa»tt». \ m6248*66082 18 -0800 ) In 1846 the Madras Government fixed the Puddee, or Regu- lation Measure, to be used in all Government transactions at 100 Cubic Inches, or 1^44261 Imperial Quarts, the Olluok being 4-th of the Puddee, and the Mercfil being 8 Puddees. The Itegulation Puddee is a cylinder, 8 inches by 4 inches. Though 21 years have elapsed, these measures, as so defined, hare not yet been adopted either in Government or any other transao- tions. The " customary " Puddee, with Its multiples and subdivisions is still in general use, and has been the nal standard of measure even in the town of Madras sinoe 1802. 224 MEABUBBS. It has when slightly heaped a Cahic capacity of 104 ^ English Gabic Inches, or 1*50392734 BritiBh Imperial Quart, or 1*708257 Litres, and contains ahont 128 Rupees' Weight, or 8*3 lbs. av. English of Rice. The MercSI has a capaci^ of 832 Cubic Inches, but when heaped in the usual way, it is equal to 8 heaped Puddee. The Garoe for Grain is equal to 820 lbs. av. of Rice, or 3f Imperial Maunds. The Parah of 5 Mercal is a square measure 10 inches deep by 20 inches wide, and 20 broad. Two Regulation Puddees are nearly equal to 3 Seers. In the Shipping trade Grain is sold in Bags of 2 Bengal Maunds >■ 164f lbs. ay. The " Madras Puddee " is in use in some of the large towns and cantoonments, but every locality has its own measures, differing in denomination and in size. Perhaps the most common is the " Seer-measure,'* supposed to contain, when heaped, a " Pucka-seer " or 80 Rupees* Weight, or 2 lbs. av. of Rice. In 1852 the grain measures were found to be of different shapes and materials, some were shaped like hour-glasses, some were joints of bamboo, and some were earthenware pots, " but, as a general rule, they were intended to contain when heaped a Seer Weight, or definite number of Seers either of Rice or of mixed grain, but usually of Rice, and the Seer Weight was generally that of 80 Tolas.*" The best ** Seer-measures are about 3^ to 3f inches in diameter, and 6 inches deep, but they are never true cylinders. Their Cubic Contents are from 66i to 67 Cubic Inches, holding about 75 Tolas of Rice when struck, and 80 when moderately heaped.t" "A vessel of 66^ Cubic Inches Capacity, will contiun, at a tem- perature of 84*', (a good day temperature for India,) 16650 Grains, or exactly 924 Tolas' Weight of Water, This would hold on an average when itruck, 74| Tolas' Weight of Rice, and with a diameter of 4 inches, 80 Tolas', when heaped. Thus, if the Seer weight be assumed as 80 Tolas', such a measure would be exactly what is understood by the natives of the country to be a ** Seer-measure." " The sub-multipleB of the Seer-measure are generally, (not always,) used for liquid measures in India. The only liquids sold by measure, are Ghee (clarified butter), Oil, and MUk. No defined measure is used for Arrack and Toddy (intoxicating * See Table of Weights. f Suggettiontfor a Uniform Syttem of WeighU and Meoinrts ihroughoni India. By W. H. Bayley, Esq., of the MadnM Civil Serrioe. * IKDIA — (maDSAS). 225 liquors); and Spirits in Madras are sold by the '*Drajn** of 5-775 Cubic Inches, or ^ of the old Wine Gallon."* The Para is nsed for measuring Lime. It has a capacity of from 8800 to 4000 English Cubic Inches, and is equal to from 18*704855 to 14'426163 British Imperial Gallons, or from 62*267434 to 66*544667 Litres. Salt is measured in Madras in Merc&ls, 424 of which are oontained in a " Garce." The Garoe is supposed to weigh 120 Indian Maunds, or 4*41 Tons English. Oil is sold by the Yiss of 16 Chitties. The Vies is about 2 ordinary Wine bottles." Act YII., of 1833, only legalised the Tola as the Unit of Weights, and the '* OfScial Table of Weights " given under the head of Bengal, has never been adopted in the Madras Presi- dency, even in Government transactions. The following weights, as sanctioned by the Government, have continued to be tiie legal weights of the Madras Presidency since 1846. Madras value, 8 Tolas 8 PoUums 5 (Cutcha) Seers or 40 PoUums 8 Viss or 40 Seers 20 Maunds ByttemaUe name, English value, Troy OnOns. ITola -i 1 Pollum f 1 (Cutcha) »» 180 640 n }•• f» Seer IViss 1 Maund 1 Candy }n4d20 Metrie value. Gram roes - 11-66881 „ 84*99143 ,,279*93144 »> If tt lb. ar. Eilofn^mmei. 8-08671 „ 1*3996672 24-68671,, 1M972576 488-71428 „228-945152 By Commercial usage the Viss is always considered 3^ tbs. ; the Maund 26 lbs. ; and the Candy 600 lbs. ay. * " Arrack, an oriental name for Spirituous Liaaora of all kinds, but in this country applied generally to those distilled in India and the adjoining regions. Azrack was formerly prepared in considerable qnan* tities at Ooa, bat it is now chiefly manufactured in the Islands of Java and Oeylon. In Java, it is commonly termed Kneip^ and is made from a mixture of 62 parts Molasses, 86 parts Rice, and 8 parts of the sweet Juice called Palm-wine or Toddy, extracted from the ilowers of different species of Palm-trees. In Ceylon, it is entirely distilled from Cocoa-nut tree Toddy. Ceylon Arrack is reckoned superior to that of Java ; and, in India, to which very large quantities are annually exported, it sells 10 or 16 per cent, higher. The prime cost of Arrack at Gelumbo is from 8d. to 10(L per Gallon. In India, Arrack is prepared from the flowers of the Uahwah tree, the Bassia long^olia, and the Bassia latifolia. In Turkey, it is distilled from the skins of Grapes, and flavoured with Aniseed."— MUhumiSt 0, 0, 226 iCEAStrsES. In the Interior the Cntcha Seer of 24 Tolas* (or Rupees') weight (9'8742 oz. et.) is used in Commercial dealings. The term Pucka weight means the Seer of 80 Tolas' weight, or 2} lbs. aT. ; bat in some places the Pncka Seer is 72, and in others 84 'Tolas' weight. In weighing Brass and Zinc, the Seer is reckoned at 9 oz. ; the Mannd at 22^ lbs. ; and the Candy at 450 lbs. aT. On the Western Coast the Mannd is 35 lbs. The Bengal Mannd of 87f lbs. ar., known as the " Indian " or ** Imperial " Mannd, is in general use in the Custom Houses, and in the Shipping trade. The " Garce " is used in the Grain trade. It is supposed |o be 9256 i lbs. ar. ; but though it may have been so 70 years ago, it is now merely a Custom House term applied to 92 " Imperial " Maunds of Paddy (unhusked rice), or to 123 Imperial Maunds of Bice. Grain, however, ia sold wholesale at the Ports by the bag of 2 Imperiid Maunds. Oil Seeds and Sugar are generally shipped in bags of 2 Im- perial Maunds each, and are reckoned at 13 bags to the Ton English. Indigo is shipped in Chests of 10 or 11 Cubic Feet. In weighing Cotton the Mannd is 24 lbs., and the Candy 480 lbs. aT. At Coimbatoor 6^ Yiss«l Took i- 19*28569 lbs.aT. English, or 8*7478575 Kilogrammes. JEWELLERS' W1EIGHTS. The Weights used by Jewellers are the Munjadi equal to 5 Troy Grains, or '323995 Grammes, and the Pa^o^a equal to 54 Troy Grains, or ^^th of a Pollum, or d'499143 Grammes. NUMERATION TABLE. 3 Articles « 1 Pateh. 10 Pateh „ 1 Gorge. INDIA— BOMBAY. MEASURES OF LENGTH. ^<mX>ay value, 8y$tenuUie name. English value. Metrie vaUte, Incbei. Metre. 2 Ungulee = 1 Tussoo = li = -028574 8 Tussoos „ 1 Vent'h (or | Hat'h) „ 9 „ '228596 16TUSS008 „ 1 Hat'h(coTid or cubit),, 18 „ -457191 24 Tussoos „ 1 Guz „ 27 „ -685785 in DIA — (bomb at) . 227 In Bombay the Guz, the Tussoo, and the Ungnlee, are the measures used in the porchase and sale of Cloth. A Builders' Tussoo is equal to 2*3625 English Inches, or -0600064 Mdtre. In Surat the Builder's Tussoo is equal to 1 inch English, or •025899 M^tre, and the BuUder's Guz to 2 feet, or •609588 Mdtre. But the Cloth Measure Tussoo of Surat, is equal to • 1-161 of an English Inch, or -0294889 Metre, and the Guz to 27-864 Inches,* or -7077328 M6tre. MEASURES OF SURFACE. Bombay value. 84,*o Sq. Hat'h Systematio name. =^ 1 Kutty - English value. Metric value. Square Yards. Square Metree. 8-8175 ». 8*208383 20 Kutties 20Pnnd 1 Fund (or »' ( Vaso) J " „ 1 Beegah „ 196*35 „ 164'167646 Area. 8827 M 32-833529 120 Beegah „ 1 Chahur „ Acres. 87*3682 ,,3840-0235028 The Surface Measures vary both in names and values, in almost every District of the Presidency ; but those just given are most frequently used. The average value of the Beegah is about I of an English Acre. An English Acre is If Delhi Beegah, or 1 Orissa Beegah. The Tirhoot Beegah, which ia subdivided into 400 Square Lagiy is equal to 4225 Square Yards, or -8729 Acre English. In the Revenue Field Survey, the English Acre is used ; it is subdivided into 40 Goontahs, and each Goontah into Annas or sixteenths. In the North- West Provinces, the following are the Surface Measures ; — Loeal value, Syttematie name. English value. Sq. Inches. ™ 1 Saswansi » 24i = „ 1 Eachwansi „ 480 n Square Yards. 20 Eachwansi ,, 1 Biswansi „ 7iV n 20 Biswansi ,, 1 Biswa „ 161^ 20 Nanwansi 20 Saswansi 20 Biswa »» 1 Beegah fl 3026 «» )i Metric value. Sq. Metres. •016807 -3161492 6-322983 126*459671 2628*193425 * The Wasea is a Timber Measare eqaal to 1*868 of an English Inch. The l^uz for Timber Measurement is equal to 27'17 English Inches. The HaVh or Cabit, for measuring Matting, of 18 Tussoos, is equal to 20-9 English Inches. 228 KSABUBZS. In Gngerat the following denominations are applied to the Babdivisions of the Beegah : — Ougerdt vakie. 20Ehnnd -20 Padtal 20Padat 20 Viflhwasi 20 Yaso ti f» »» »» Spttematie name. 1 Padtal IPadat 1 Yishwasi 1 YaBO 1 Beegah »» »» »» 19 BnffUih value, Bqnare InchM* 24i » 490 „ Bqnaie Tarda. 16U 8025 »» >» Metric value. Bqaare If «tns. •016807 •3161492 6*822988 126-459671 2629198425 WEIGHTS. The " Imperial Weights of India," given nnder the head of Bengal, are being steadily introduced in Bombay, bat they have not yet superseded the following local Weights, which are still very generally used in all Commercial dealings : — Bombay value, 4 Dhan or Tar 8y$UmaHe name. » 1 Buktica « EnglUh value, Troj Grains. 2-1267 - Metrie value. Grammea. •13781 8Buktica „ 1 Masha 11 17,V If 1102482 4 Masha „ 1 Tank It esiv 11 4-409927 72 Tanks, or 80 Pice ' „ ISeer* 11 Iba. ar. 7 11 317-51475 40 Seers „ 1 Mannd 11 28 11 Kilogramnea. 12-70059 20 Mannds „ 1 Candy 11 660 11 254-0118 The Candy yaries in different districts from 560 lbs. to 8055 lbs. The Sattara Candy is 3055 lbs. The Candy for Cotton is 28 Mannds, or 7 cwt. About 50 Bombay Maunds are equal to 17 Imperial Maunds, and 1 Imperial Maund is equal to about 2*939 Bombay Maunds. At Poena the Seer is equal to 80 old Bupees* Weight, or to 76-658 Tolas, and its multiples are as follows : — Poona vaJue, 80 Old Bupees Weight Syttematie name, ''} = ISeer . Englith value, Metrie value, Iba. At. Qxammea. 1-9714 » 894-21225 5 Seers „ 1 Pusseri 11 Kllonamiaea. 9-857 „ 4-47106 8 Pusseri „ 1 Maund 11 78-856 „ 86*76849 8 Maunds „ IPalla -»» 286-67 „ 107-80547 * The Pnoka Seer of 72*6 Tolas equal to 1*867 lbs. ay., is used in eome placee. INDIA — (bomb it) . 229 There are also used at Poona, Mauads Tarying from 12^ to 14 Seers. The Kurra^hi Weights are slightly different from the Im- perial Weights of Ind^. They are as follows : — Kurraehi value, Syttemotie naww, EnglUh valuf. Metric value. Impc vial Tolas. oz. af. QraBaM. 4Ka8lra « 1 Dokra » TOB - ^- 12*59979 4iDekras „ 1 Axma „ 4*86 ,, 2 „ 66*6991 '^Z^^}^> 77-76 •,."-r.,907-186 40 fPnnlcA^ i Seers. KHofprMnaiM. Seers }" 1 Maun<l „ 88'8S „ 80 „ ae-2874 [118-64 or ^ !• "{ Maunds. 2-915 J 16 Anmaa „ { ii Maonds }i 1 Potea n240 ,,108-8622 At Surat the Mannd weighs 36 Ihs. av., and the Seer 14f oz. av. 1 Imperial Seer is equal to 2f Sorat Seers, and the Bom- bay Seer is ^ths of the Surat Seer ; so that 9 Bombay Seers or Maunds « 7 Surat Seers or Maunds. JEWELLERS' WEIGHT. Bombay value, SffiUmaiie name. 20 Vasses B 1 Ruttee - 3 Ruttees »f 1 Waal ti 8 Waals »» 1 Tank »» 4 Tank If 1 Tola »» Engliah vatv« Metric value, Troy G ral n < . GraaimeR. 1', - .12149 61 ' n '36449 46 M 2-91595 180 „ 11-66382 In Gttjerat the Weights used by Jewellers are as follows : — Gujerat value, SytUwMHc nmne. Bnffli^ih value, Idetrie value, 6 Chawals or 1 - •. . . /t_ . , , ' Chowa f ■" ^ ^^^^ ®' ^^^^ ■ 1 H SGoonj „1 Valor Waal „ 6^ 16 Waals „ 1 Gnddeanna 1, 02 2 Gaddeazmas ^ 1 Tola ,» 184 w Troy Oi^iu. Gnunaas. •124198 •372594 6*961508 11-923016 n tt It 2d0 MEA8UBES. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS AND UQUIDS. Bombay value, 8$iUmatic tume. 2 Tipprees 4 Seers 16 PyleeB SParahs 85PArahB >» if »» tf ITippree 1 Seer IFjrlee IParah 1 Candy IMooda It »» 99 t» »» EnglUh value, ImperUl Piuta. •28001 •66002 2-24009 ImiwrUl Gallons. 4-48018 86-84151 112-00173 or) Impl. Quarters. 1-75007 91 99 1» Metric v§Xme, Lilns. •15902 •81805 1-27222 20*35555 162-84441 „ 608-88878 There is also for Inqoida the Seer of 60 Tolas, equal to 1*234 British Imperial Pint. It weighs 1*54 lbs. av., or '69853245 Grammes, and 50 such Seers mSk^ a Mamid eqnal to 7*7125 British Imperial Gallons, and weighing 77 lbs. av., or 34*92662 l^ogrammes. The Seer, when heaped with Bice, contains 1*46 lbs. av., or 662*2451 Grammes; the Pylee contains 6*84 lbs. av., or 2*6489802 Kilogrammes ; the Parah, 93 '44 lbs. av., or 42*3886882 Kilogrammes ; the Candj, 747-52 lbs. ay., or 83 9*0694656 Kilogrammes ; and the Muda » 18688 lbs. av., or 8476*78664 Kilogrammes ; the Seer contains of Water 11^^ oz. av., or 817*51475 Grammes ; the Pylee, 2f lbs. av., or 1*270059 Kilogrammes; the Parah, 44| lbs. av., or 20*320994 Kilogrammes ; the Candy, 858| lbs. av., or 162*567552 Kilo- grammes ; and the Mnda, 10 cwt., or 4064*1888 Kilogrammes. Paddy (Bice in the husk) is sold by the Mooda of 4 Candies, each of 6i Parahs, each of 20 Adholees, each of 7i Seers, each of 2 Tipprees, as shown in the following table : — Bombay value. Byttematle name. 2 Tipprees 7i Seers 20 Adholees 6i Parahs 4 Candies If »» »» Metric value. Litres. •31805 2*38541 Englieh value. Imperial Pints. ISeer - -56002 - lAdholee „ 4*20017 „ Imperial Gallons. IParah „ 10*50044 „ 47*70832 1 Candy „ 66*62777 „ 298*17702 1 Mooda „ 262*51109 „ 1192*70808 The Candy of this table is eqnal to 24'236175 Britiah Im- perial Bashels, or 8*80925 Hectolitres, and weighs 215|| lbs. av., or 97'947 Kilogrammes. iiaiiA — (bohbat). 281 Salt is sold by the Ftoah of 10} Adholeee, eqaal to 6*798 BritiBh Imperial Gallons ; 100 Parahs « 1 Anna » 72-47i British Imperial Bushels, and 16 Annas «> 1 Bass » 144*96 British Imperial Quarters. The Bass of Biee welffhs, on the ayerage, 1120 Imperial Mannds, or 41| Tons EngliA. At Poona, the foUowing measures am used : — Poonm value. 8 Ohipteen 4 Seers 12 Pylees Si Maonds 8 Pallas tt If )« }f SffttemaHe name* > 1 Seer 1 Pylee 1 Maond IPalla IKandi ft ft ft ft SnpUakvaJme. Impertol PIslk '56002 - 2*24009 „ ImMitel Galloaa. d'86014 „ 8*40085 67*20288 If »f Metric value. Litres. *81805 1-27222 16-26666 88*16665 806*83827 In Timber Measurement in the Bombay dookyards, a Covit or Candi i- 12 Cabio Feet 1216 Inches English, and an English Ton, or 50 Cubic Feet, is equal to 3 Conts and 18| Vassas. Planks are sold by the 100 Guz - 26 Cnluo Feet 206 Indhes English. MEASUBES OF LENGTH AND BUBFACE. The British Measures of Length and Surface are used, (see Great Britain). At Candy, the Land Measure is the Amomam of 4 Peylas, each of 10 Coomies. It is equal to about 2 Acres 2 Boods 87i Perches English. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. Ceylon value. 4f Seers* Si/»tematie name. 1 Seer B 1 Cooreie ff ^nglieh value. Imperial Pints. 1-86524 Imperial flaUons. 1*11914 Metrie value* Litres. - 1*05993 „ 6-08479 24 Cooreies „ 1 Mercal >f 2*79786 ,f 12*71199 2 Mercals „ 1 Parah ft 6*59573 „ 26*42398 SParahs „ 1 Amomam ft ■ [44*76588 or] Qvarlera. •69946 . HeotoUtres. „ 2*03892 25 Amomams „ 1 Garce ft 17-48667 „ 60-80498 * Or in Stmck Mtasore, 4 Stmok Ohundoos. 282 1CEA8UBBS. The Para weighs, of CoffSeOf from SO to 85 lbs. ay. ; of Pepper, from 27 to 80 lbs. ay. ; of Salt» from 62 to 55 lbs. av. ; ana of Rice, from 42 to 46 lbs. ay. MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Ceylon imlue. Byttematlc name. EnglUh value. Metric value. 1 Qnart - -208277 - •94e 4 Quarts - 1 GaUon „ -833111 ,, 3*785 aGaUons „ 1 Welt „ 1-666222 „ 7-67 76 Welts „ ILegger „ 124-96666 „ 567'78 The Gallon and Qnart of this Table are the old English Wine Ctallon and Qnart. In the wholesale purchase of Spirits, (Arraek, &c.,) 80 Welf » are reckoned to the Logger ; but in retail sales, 75 Welts ai o called a Le^^gor. WEIGHTS. The Weights of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (see p. 110,) are uRed for Foreign Goods. The native Candy, or Bahar, « 500 lbs. ay., or 226*79625 Kilogrammes. The Garce is 9266} lbs. ay., or 4*13286 Tons English. A Bale of CJn^^amon contains about 92 i lbs. ay. English. GO A— (Portuguese India.) The old Weights and Measures of Portugal, (See Brazil,) are those chiefly used, but the Weights and Measures of British India are also used. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The old Portuguese Vara and Coyado (See Brazil). MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS AND RICE. The old Measures of Portugal are those chiefly used. The Candy (of Goa) of 20 Maunds, each of 24 Medidaa - 13*572258 British Imperial Bushels,* or about 498 i Litres. * Th« old EngljRh Wiacbetler Basbels. GOA. — MALAYA. 283 P6arlfi*are sold by the Chego, the value of which in Carats is estimated as follows : — Canils. Chegos. Trey On. Gr«mm«. 1 - 6 » 8i - -20786 2 ., 8 „ 6| „ -41471 3 „ Hi „ 9f „ -62207 4 „ 16 „ 12| „ -82942 6 „ 21 6 ., 27 t> »» >» 16 >» „ 1-08678 „ 1*24414 CUKta. ChegM. Troy On. OnuBmM. 7-84 - 22t - 1-45149 n 26f n 28t .. 32 8 „ 44 9 »» 10 »» 56 69 „ 1-65885 „ 1-86621 „ 207857 11 ,, 84 „ 85i „ 2-28092 12 ..100 „ 88J „ 2-48828 »»• MALAYA. (MALACCA, SINGAPORE, PENANG, or PRINCE OF WALES' ISLAND). MEASURES OF LENGTH. MaUijfan value, 8y»t€matie name, EnglUh value. Inches. 1 Hasta or Cubit » 18 Feet. 4 Hastas ^ 1 Depa „ 6 2 Depas „ 1 Jamba „ 12 Yards. 20 Jmnbas „ 1 Orlong „ 80 »i ft Metric value. Metres. •45719 1-82876 8-65758 73'16068 The English Tard is also occasionally used as a measure of length. The Hasta is divided into Halves and Quarters. It is nsed in Goth Measures. An English Yard is equal to 2 Hastas. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Square Orlong -6400 Square Yards, or 1*82281 English Acre, or 6361*0231548 Square Metres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. Malayan value, Bystematic name. Snglish value. Imperial Galloiu. 4 Chapahs ■■ 1 Gantang « 14 *° lOGantangs „ 1 Parah or Parra „ 12i >i 800 Gantangs „ 1 Coyan ,,1000 »> Metric value, Litoct. 6-67985 56-79858 4548*48712 284 MEA8UBX8. The Gantang is variable in size. Thus, at Penang, it is equal to '9796 Impeiial Gallon English, and its mnltiples in proportion. The Gantang is the principal Measure of Capacity for Bice« Salt, Oil, and other articles. The Parah is only a nominal measure used in reckoning. It nominally contaias 10 Gantangs, Lut sometimes it contains 5, sometimes 15, and sometimes 20 Gantangs. A Coy an U supposed to weigh about 47 cwt. Er;i:«h. f^alayan value. 16 Taels 100 Catties 3 Peculs 40 Peculs WEIGHTS. Stjitetnatle nanu\ Englhk value. 0-. a». n 5J »» 1 Tatl 1 Catty 1 Pecul 1 Bahr 1 Coyan »» u 5> »J ]l-H. av. u 133 J 400 3333i »» ji »» it Metric vaiue. GnLBMRCli. 37-79941 604-7906G KilefrramBBeA. 60-47906 181-43720 2419-16266 The denominations of Weights are the same as those of China. The Pecul and Catty ai'e not always of the same uniform weight ; for instance, the Pecul at Penang is equal to 142|lb6. ay., and is only used in weighing Pepper and Tin, but this is owing to variationB in the weight of the Bahr. At Penang, it is equal to 421 CattLes. Goods are bought from nal^ve vessels by the Penang Pecul of 142| lbs. ay., or 64'71253 Kilogrammes, and sold by the Chinese Pecul of 133i lbs. av. At Malacca the Pecul weighs 135 lbs. av., or 61*23498 Kilogrammes, and a Bahr weighs 428 lbs. av. Grain and Salt are sold by the Coyan of 40 Chinese Peculs. The Penang Coyan is a Measure of Capacity which contains 43 Peculs of Salt, or 45 of Rice. A Sack of Salt weighs 100 lbs. av., or 46*35925 Kilogrammes, a«d a Sack of Bice or Dholl 164 lbs. av., or 74*38917 Kilogrammes. GOLD DUST WEIGHT. Local valur. Systematic name. 1 Saga English value, IroyGrting. 4J Metric value. UraBBie*. = -28079 12 Sagas « 1 Miam n 52 „ 3-36955 16 Miams 20 Bongkals „ 1 Bougkal „ 1 Catty 132-84 IbsTrej. 2-9818 or lbs. ar. 2-o795 „ 53-91294 Kilcgrasamcf. •„ 1-07826 A Gold Catty is 1|} of the common Catty. BUBMJLH. 235 BXJBMAH. Burme$e oaluc, l^j TMts dTbiAeor 5i Pnlgatft 4Taiia 4 Tonng 7 Tonng 20 Thas 250TliaB 4 TaixM or 1000 Thas 6| Dain or 820 Oke-tha- pahs Inob« 1 MEASURES OP LENGTH. Stfitematic name, « IPulgat « } „ 1 Taixn or Maik* „ 1 Lan f 1 Saading or *' 1 Toang »» n it II ITha 1 Oke-tha-pah ITain I „ 1 Dain „ 1 Uzena 6iii 22 „ 88 1, 164 M Tarda. If 85S-it 1,1060^11 MU«B. „ 2-4305,, >* If Metric value. •025399 •130094 •558778 2*235136 3*911448 78*22897 977*86220 Kiloinetreti. 3*9114*8 ,,16*5556,, 26*0332723 The English Yard, Foot, and Inch are being adopted. Burmese value, 2 Lamyets 2 Lamays 4 8alay8 4 Pyees 2Bahs 2 Saiks 2Ewais 100 Tens MEASURES OP CAPACITT. SytUmatie f» 11 11 11 11 11 1 Lamyet 1 Lamay 1 Salay IPyee 1 Sah 1 Saik 1 Kwai 1 TenorTeng BnglUh value. Metrie value. h^tiial Qills. Litres. - 1 - •14198 If ^ fi •28468 Imperial Pint. 1 If *■ 11 •56936 Imperial Quarts. ff ^ ft 2-27744 Imperial Qallon. If !> II 4*543487 Imperial Peck. If X 11 8*086974 Imperial BoshcL II a II 18*173948 II X 11 36*347896 Imperial Qnartera. II X2]' „ < 3634-7896 „ 1 Coyan The Measures of British India are gradually being intre- dnoed into Bnnnah. A Teng is a basket full, a Teng of Bice is supposed to be equal to about 58) lbs. av., or 16 Viss, or 40 Penang Catties. * The breadth of the hand with the thumb extended. 2BG HElSUBEfl. WEIGHTS. Burmeu value, BytienwUc 2 Small Rnays « 1 Large Biiflj» M r T> f IBaiorRnayl 4 Large Rnayg „ | ^^^ Anna J 2Bai8 2 Moos 4 Mats 100 Kyats IMoo IMat »» »» „ IKyatorTical,, 262 IPiakthah ) ««-A^- or Vifls f »» ^ EngUihvahie, Metric value. Troj Onlns. OnuniMa. 8-9375 B -25514 16-)5 81-5 68 It »» "1 102058 2-04117 n 4-08233 M 16-32983 1-632983 The Small Bnay is the Scarlet Bean (Abrus Precatarhu,) and tiie large one ia the black oblox^ bean (Adenanthera Pavonina), But the i7ai, MoOf Mat, Kyat, and PtaX;, are real weights nsnally of polished brass. MEASURES OF LENGTH. BUmtie value. Syitematlc name. EngUth value. Jlf«ir(« voZm. Inchei. Metres. INin* - » - -20637 12Nin » 1 Knp or Kenbf »» 9f If •24764 2KTip 1, ISok: >, 19i •49528 2Sok „ lEen ' »> 39 )) -99056 2 Ken 20 Wa 100 Sen „ IWaorVSnA „ 1 Sen ,, 1 Boeneng »» «8 |t ,t 48i Miles. „ 2-462119 „ 1-98112 39-62244 KilomefePM. 8-962244 4 Boeneng „ lYote ft 8*848477 fj 16-848976 • The Siamese Tfllae of the Nln i§ atoted to be " Plet Ket Can FleUae/' that ia, 8 grains of hoaked xlce. •f Meaaured from the end of the thomb to the middle flager. t Meaawed from the end of the middle finger to the elbow. 8IA1C. 237 MEASURES OF OAPAOITY. Slamete value. Syttemntlc naiM. 1 Tanan BnglUh vulue, PlBt. It Metric value, LltoM. *8519 20Tanaii8 » ITang 25 Tanans or liTang 80 SatB or 100 Tan}? 1 Sat I „ 1 Coyan II II 11 a-76 „ 17'03807f» 4-6876 H 21-29759l> 876 It 1-7^88076 Siamete value. 4Tioal8 20 Taels 50 Catties WEIGHTS. S!f$tematie ITical* - 1 Tad ti »» ICatly IPicnl SnfflUh value. Troy QriUiu, - 2831 9881 21 II 11 II i» M 133i t> Metrle value, GrMamr*. 1611975 60-479 KlkNFramxnrM, 1-20968 60-479 The Coyan is a weight which is osnaUj reckoned eqnal to 20 Pionlfi, bit it yaries from 18 to 22 Fionls. The Goyan of Paddy (rioe in the hnsk) is reckoned at about 16| Plcols, and is consi- dered equai to 21831 lbs. av. MEASURES OF TIME. Siatnesr value 60 Winatees 6 Natees 10 Bats 12Mong 12 Toom n 29 or 30 Wans „ 12 or 13 Duans ,, 10 Pees „ »» n t< Syttematie 1 Natee IBat 1 Mongortoom 1 Wan (period of day) Snglteh value, B 1 Minnto „ 6 Minutes „ 1 Hour „12 Hours 1 Koon (period of night) ,,12 Hours 1 Duan ,1 1 Lunar Month 1 Pee ,, 1 Year 1 Sok or Cycle „10 Years Each month is divided into two parts, the first called Keintf Koon (increasing moon), and the second called Kang Raam (waning moon). The days of the seoond half are also numbered from 1 to 14 or 15. The even months consist of 80 days, aad the odd ones of 29 days ; and, in eyery 19 years, 8 intercalary * The Tieal for wcigbing Oold and Silyer ii equal to 286 Troy OralM, or 15*29*267 GrammvR. 288 HSASmUBS. dajB are added. All the Siameae montha, exoept the first two, are denoted 1^ nnmbers. The lat and 2iid months are called respectively, Ai and Yeet the others are called Duan-SoM^ DuafirSee, Jhum-Ha^ Duan-Hook, DuaiirKet, Jhian-Peet, Jhum- Kan, Duan-Sib, Duan-Stb-it, Duam-Sib-Song, i. e. 3rd, 4th, 5tfi, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th months. In referenie to the seasons, the 1st and 2nd months are called winter ; the 8rd, 4th, and 5th, slight summer, and the other seren montha, complete summer. The Siamese hare two eras, the Sacred and the Civil, the former reckoned from the death of Budha B.C. 545, is called Futa SakkaraU and ti^e latter called Chula Saktarat was established A.D. 638 l^ the Siamese King Phra Ruang, soon after the Hejira. The year 1867 corresponds to the 2450th year of the Sacred era, or to the 1229th year of the CiTil era of Siam. In expressing dates, the Siamese gire the day of the week, the day of the increasing or waning moon, the month, the year of the era, and cyclic name of the year. The dates are usually written at the four points of a cross; thus, 3 + 5, Tuesday, 2nd day of waning moon of the 0th month. 2 ANAl[-(or, COCHIN CHINA.) MEASUBES OF LENGTH. Anameie value SyitematUi name, ILy BnglUh value. - -0192 ^ Metric vahte. Metm. •00048 10 Ly ■- 1 Phau ft •192 ft •00487 lOPhan » ITac ft 1*92 tt •04876 lOTac „ IThuocorOuUt t* 19-2 ft *48766 6 Tbuoc „ INgu »9 Teet. 8 tt 2*43835 10 Thuoc „ 1 Tmon >» 16 tt 4-87670 3Ngu „ 1 Sao »f 8 »f 7-81506 STmons „ 1 Ohai Vai or That f» 16 tt 14*63012 10 Sao „ IMao »» 80 tt 78-15064 10 cnifl-i Vai M 1 Quo It 160 tt 146*30128 The Thuoc, which is the chief unit of measures of length, varies considerably in different places; thus there are six different values assigned to it, varying from 15 to 25f English JlKAM — (OBy COCHIN CHIKA). 239 Inches, or from *88098 to *656a09 Mdtre, but the Tbnoc, the Ttlae of which is giyen in the TaUe, ii the one in general use. The Drapers' Thnoo is a little lonser, being equal to 25) Inches ; the Tae to 2) inches ; the Phan to '2o6 ; and the I^y to *0256 inch English. ITINERARY MEASURES. Anawiiit valut* SifftewuUie name. 9Li 6 Dam It lliorMfle IDam 1 League MnglUk valm* MetHe voIm. Yavda. tftCiw. - 486 * 444*890188 072 n 888-780276 XllM. KlloinotrtM. 2*761 ,. 4*4489 o If SURFACE OR SQUARE MEASURES. Awk'me$t t*ali»«. BytUmiatio 9 Sqr. Nga a 1 Sqr. Satf 100 Sqr. Sa{5 „ 1 Sqr. Ma5 Engliik value, Squart YonLi. 64 - %> 6400 >> Metric volut, Hquan Metrvt. 58*510208 Ar«i. 68*610208 WEIGHTS. Awomeit v9lM* ^yitomatto naaif. 10 Ai lOTran 10 Hay 10 Gbaii 10 Hot lOHao 10 Li 10 Phan 10 Dong 10 Lnong 16 Luong 10 Can 6 Yen 10 Yen 6Ta ITran IHny IGhaa IHot IHao ILi IPhan 1 Dong 1 Lnong INen ICan lYen IBinah ITa 1 Qoan Troy Unlna. •000006- •000060,, .000601 „ •006016 „ •060166 „ •601668 „ 6*016626 „ 60*15626 601*6626 n 6016*626 IbM. »Vt in l> ft It If fl II If If If II »l II If ff ff ft 18« 681 187t 6871 It It It If It Metric value, •0000008 •0000088 •0000889 •0008808 *0088981 •0889806 •8898061 8*8980606 88*9806066 889*806066 688*68969 XtluflTiunmea. 6*28689 81*18484 62*86896 811*84484 2^ MEASrSES. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB GRAIN. Anmmeie value* 2Hao 8ff$UwtaHc name, EnglUk value. Imporiftt OftUon*. IHao - 6} - 1 Sbita or Tao ♦» i2i l» Metric value. Litre*. 28-270586 56-541172 FBB8IA. The weights and measnret of Persia arc not nnifonu, being dtiferent in different places, and according to the purposes for which they are employed : — MEASURES OF LENGTH. Persian value. Syetematle name, IGereh EngH«h value. . Inches. - 28 - Meirir value. Metre*. •06032 4 Gerehs - 1 Qnarter-Zer ♦f 9i M •24129 8 Gerehs „ 1 Half-Zer ff 19 •482581 16 Gerehs H 1 Zer tf 3B •965162 The Kadam, or Step, is equal to about 2 feet English, or •609588 Metre, and 12000 Eadam make 1 Fersakh (Parasang) equal to about 4^ Miles, or 7*2491917 Kilometres ; but varying from Si to ik Miles, or from 5'6S826022 to 7-2191917 Kilo- metres. There is also the Schah Goss, each of 2 feet, each of 24 fingers, each of 7 Barleycorns. It is used in measuring Woollen goods, and is equal to 40 English Inches, or 1*0160 M^^e ; the Monkelser, or Bashoor Goss, used in retail traas- aotioQS and equal to 86i English Inches, or '9347 M^tre; and the Tabreez Goss equal to about 44 English Inches, or 1-17579 M6tre. The Fersakh (Parasang) is supposed to be ^th of a degree of the Equator, and is equal to about 7 Russian versts. Distances are commonly reckoned by the Fursoch or Auga^e, (beinff the distance a horse can walk in one hour,) about 4| EngUiBh Miles. Great distances are reckoned by a eararan's journey in a day, about 80 English Miles. SURFACE AND CUBIC MEASURES. The Surface and Cubio Meaiures are the Squares and Cabes of the Measures of Length. PERSIA.. 241 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Pi'nitin polu*, SffiUmatle name* 4 Sextarios 2 Chenicas 81 Capichas 8 CoUothuQ ■i 1 Chenioa „ 1 Capicha „ 1 Collothan 1 Artata II Englith vattM, Mttrie raliitf. Iaip«ri»l OiiUoas. Litres. a *289U - l*3150t>G •67888 „ 2*030132 1*809 n 8*219168 Imperial Bushel. „ 1-809 „ e6*753343 II II Liquids are mMtly sold by weiglit. WEIGHTS— (C0MMERCIA.L). P-ninn rntuc SuttemaHc name* 1 Mifloal 16Mi9cals-i lSilir(S6er) l(K)Mi8oal8„ IRatd EmIUH vaiue, Troy Oraius. - 71 ,.284 It Metrte value* Qrammes. 4*60072'J 73-611GG4 II lbs. ar. 10U2 ,,480*0729 KilO|rramn)(*A. 40Silir8 „ 1 Batman (Maond) „ 8*49112,, 2*94440 100 Batman,, 1 Karwar „848*U2 ,,284*440 The Batman, the chief oommeroial weight raries in almost every Provinoe and Town, and that given in the Table is the Batman of Tabrees and Mesched. Its ralne is oommonly taken at 6j lbs. av. English, or 8>06175d Kilogrammes. The Batman-i-Shah is eqnal to 2 Batman of Tabreea «■ 13i lbs. av. English, or 8*123506 Kilogrammes. The Batman Rei equal to 4 Batman of Tabreoz « 27 lbs. av. English, or 12*2447012 Kilogrammes. A load for a horse is 40 to 50 Tabreez Batman. A load for a camel is 60 to 70 Tabreez Batman. A load for a donkey is 16 to 25 Tabreez Batman. The Tehrann Rih coutainB 1600 Miscals, and the Karwar is 25 Rih. WEIGHTS FOR GOLD AND SILVER. Prr.iixn value. S:iatrmatio name* JSnQlUh Vitltii}* Metrie value. Troy QrattiM. OrammoM. 3 Habbi - 1 Nahood - 2*9583 - -191697 4 Nahoods „ 1 Dang „ U-83 „ '766788 Dang „ 1 Misoal ,1 71 „ 4*600720 2 Miscals „ 1 Dlrhem ,. 143 M 8-301458 212 1££A8UBS8. Pearls are weighed by the Abas » 2i Troy Grains, or '1458 Grammes. Precious Stones are weighed by the Keerat » 5 Troy Grains* or '32399 Grammes. ARABIA, The weights and measures of Egypt are much used in Arabia. The following weights and measures are used at Mocha : — Moeha value. 1 CoTido or Corid 1 Guz 1 Kassaba IMile 1 Farsakh 1 Baryd (4 Farsakh) English value. IncbeN. 10 26 147-6 Milca. 1-219 3 12 Metric value. Metre*. •48258 '63397 3-74889 KilometrM. 1-96372 4-83279 19-33117 MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Moeha value. 40Kellas • MoeJia value. IGVakias 8 Noosftas EngUih weight Metric weight in riee. in riee. Syttematie name. Ibf.BT. KitoirrammM. lEeUa(orM6cmeda) - 4-679 « 2-1224 1 Tomand „ 187-17 „ 84-899 Syttematie name. « 1 Noosfia „ lEoddi Engllnh value. Oallons. - '20827 „ 1-60022 Metric value. LItreii. •946 „ 7-57 MoeJui value, 40 Vakeias 10 Maunds 15 Feehsill WEIGHTS~(COMMERCIAL.) It Syttematie name. • 1 Mannd 1 FeehsU 1 Behaar »» Englinh value. lbs. av. 3 - 30 460 »» Metric value. KilognunmM, 1-36077 13-60777 204-11662 Sometimes the value of the Behaar is taken as 439*445 lbs. ay. English, or 199*35 Kilogrammes. I PIBSLi. — JiJPAK. 248 JEWELLERS' WEIGHTS. Moeka valiM. 8if$t«w»tie iMMM. fnpli^Jb ralit«. Mttrie vtdue, Ttbj Qndas. QnunoiM. 16 Karats - IKa&la - 47*864 - 4*6523 lOKafialas ., IVakeia ,, 478*642 „ 46*523 1| Vakeiae „ IBikh „ 717*963 „ 69*7846 JAPAN. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Japanese value. SjftUmatie name • BnglUh vaime* Inchei. MeMevaUe. Metres. 10 Rin « 1 Boo cs •12 a •008047 10 Boo 1 Son n 1*2 •030479 10 San 8 Shiaku 1 Shiaku i Ken 12 Tirds. 1 •304794 •914383 6 Rhiakn 1 Ken ti 2 1^828766 60 Ken 36 Chn 1 Chn 1 Ri 11 11 120 4820 10972596 Kilomotrf^ 3*95013 Rongh Timher is Bold by the Yama-Ken-Zail, a moasore of 63 jS^in. The Ken used by Carpenters is called Ken-Zail, The Co'Shiaku-Zaii is a measnre oi 5 ShiaJm, The Shiaka used in Goth Measure is only equal to 15 English Inches ; it is usually called Kuzhira Shiaku ; and the A^un^ £00 y and Rin in Cloth Measure, are respectively equal to li. iftj. and i3u inches English. Japanese value, 30 Po 10 Is*she 10 It'tau SQUARE MEASURES. Systewuktie nam/e» English value* Metric voIim. Square Yards. Square Metres, 1 Is^she - 120 - 100*38164 Ares 1 IVtau „ 1200 „ 10033164 1 It*cho« »» 12000 «> 100*38164 The Square Ken is considered the integer of Square Measure, it is equiJ to 4 Square Yiu'ds English, and is called 7'su&o. An English Acre is equal to 1210 Tmho, 244 ICEASITBEB. lODzokn 10 Ke 10 Sats lOSfti lOShiakn loaod 10 Shod 10 To If t» EnglUh value: ImpMfal Pints. •00008 - MEASUBES OF CAPACITT. SpttenuMe name, 1Kb ISat ISai IShlflka IQoH lSlio5 ITo IKoka ft ft It ft ft tt ft •00082 H •00828 „ •08288 ,, •32882 ,, Imperial OmUoni. •4104 4-104 41-04 Metric value. •00001 •00018 < -00186 •01864 •18646 1-86464 18-64647 186*46471 Japanete value, 10 Mo 10 Bin 10 Fun „ 4 Noiii]ii6 ,t 40Ria ff tt WEIGHTS. Syitematie name, IRin IFtm 1 Nomme IBin IKin SnalUh value, Troy Qnlnf. tt tt t» tf 27006 2-70066 27-0061 108-02644 4321-0576 Metric value, •0175 •175 1-76 tt 7 tt280 tt tt In weights the word Nomme is used after all nnmbera except the moltiples of 10, where it is contracted into Me, 8IKGAF0BE. The Weights and Measures of Great Britain are generally nsed in the pnrchaBe and sale of European Goods ; but the following Weights and Measures are also in use : — MEASURES OF LENGTH. Syitematie name* Bnglith value, InchM. CoTid (Cloth measure) ■• 18 * Metric value. Metre*. •467191 MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. Jmpaneee value, 8y$tema4ie name, Bnglieh value. Acre. 20 Dschombas ■* 1 Orlong • 1-322 Metric value. Axes. 58-49741 SIKGi:POBB.-^JAPjUr. 245 MEASURES OF CAPAOITT. Liquids, Oraia, aad Friit, are sometiiEeB sold by the Gantan^ of 2 Bamboos. The Gantang • about 1*04 British Imperial Gallon, or 4 725226 Litres. Japanese value* 16 Tools - 100 Catties 40 Pccals WEIGHTS— (COMMBBOUl). Syitcmatlc name. SnglUh value* lb. At. 1 Catty IPecnl 1 Koyan »» Ik 133 il 53331 It »i Mttric valus, Qraiaines. 604 71) KIloKntmini^it. 241916 Rice from Siam and the Malayan Archipelago, and Sago and Salt are Rold by the Koyan, but Bengal Rioe and Com are sold by the Bag of 2 Imperial Maundfl. The Bag is equal to 164^ ]be. av., or 74*628^48 Kilogrammes. JEWELLERS* WEIGHTS. Japanese vaUe» Systematic name, SngUeh valtu, Tn)y OraiDt. I Meiam * 52 ■* 16 Meiams ■■ 1 Boncal 882 20 Boneals t» 1 Catty %i n 16640 »» t» Metrie value, Utammcit. 8*36954 53-91277 KUogrammfR. I-07825 JAVA. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Java value. Systematic name. SnglUh vdltte, Inchci. Metric value, MotriM. 1 Dnim 1-8 - -02616 12 Duims • IFoot ,, 1286 „ -81894 lEU „ 27*08208 „ -68781 The Ell and Foot given in the Table are the old Amsterdam Rheinland Foot and Ell, but the old Brabant Ell » 27*8884 English Inches, or *6944 M^tre, and the English Yard are also used. 24G MEAcrrBss. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The DjoDg of 4 Baha • 7'OUO EngliBh Acres, or 2*8387267 llectareB. MEASURES OF CAPACITY— (foe Rice and Gbais). Jiihivalm* Syitematic name. EnglUh value, Mf trie value, llM. av. Kilt gntamet. 1 Sack - 61*084 - 27*684 2 SackB • 1 Pecnl „ 122*068 ,, 65*369 dPeculH „ lTiml)aDg „ 610*8403 „ 276*844 30 pJSd'"^ ""'}'* ICoy*^ ,,3662*042 ,,1661*066 The Measures of Capacity are really vessels to contain definite Weights. Grain, in lar^e quantitieH, is sold by the Coyan, and in small qnantities by the Timbang. The Coy an contains in different places in the Island a variable number of Pecnls, thus, at Batavia it contains 27, at Somarang 28, and at Soerabaya 80 Pecnls. There is also, for small qnantities, a meai^nre called Oantang : 5 Gantangs make 1 Measnre, and 46 Measures make 1 La$t, The Eulack contains 1\ Cattien Weight. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Java value, 8y$tematie name. EnglUh valus. Metric raUie. Imperial Oallon*. LMrt*. 1 Kan - -82819 • 1*491142 888 Kans - 1 Leager „ 127'88772 „ 578*56809 Liquids are very often sold by Weight. The Leager is a measure for Arrack. WEIGHTS. Java value, BytUmaiic name, Engli$h value. Metric ralur. Ibn. av. Orarnmi'K. 1 Tael - '0848 - 38*450<I 16 Taels - 1 Catty „ 1*866 „ 615*210 Kilofframmw. 100 Catties „ 1 Pecul „ 185*0812 „ 61*5210 n Peculs „ 1 Small Bahar „ 406*8986 „ 184-5631 4 1 Peculs „ 1 Large Bahar „ 1881*0212 „ 7474*805 The Dutch Troy lb of 2 Marks is used in Foreign Trade. The Dutch Troy lb is equal to 7626 English Troy Grains. The Dutch Commercial lb is equal to 7676 English Troy Grains. SriiATIU. — PHILIPPUTE ISLANDS. 2i7 '9 Reals GOLD AND SILVER WEiaHTS. Byttematie naoM. 1 Real I Datch Mark, Troy „ 8788 BnilUh fMlue. Metric ealue. Troy Oralni. Qnramc*. » 422 - 97-3451 246*1066 »» SUMATBA. MEASURES OF LENGTH. JSumatra value. 13 Tempos 2 JonkalB 2Ettos 2 Hailohs 2 Depohs »» >» »» n 8}f»tematie name. 1 Tempo > 1 Jnnkal lEUo IHailoh Depob Tung BngUth value. Inches, 44 - 9 18 Yards, 1 2 4 Metric vnluCm MctreN. •114297 •228595 •467191 •914888 1*828766 8-657582 PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. VIZ. : — XUZON OR LUCONIA, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, MASBATE, ZEBU, BOHL, LEYTB, SAMAR, MINDANAO. Local valite* 12 Lines 12 Pulgadas 8 Pies MEASURES OF LENGip. Systematic name, 1 Line B 1 Pulgada „ 1 Pies j» 1 Vara jt )i }i English value, •67725 •927 Hi 88 B t» II II M*trie value, •001962 •028558 •282646 •847988 The Vara is the chief Measure for Goth, and 100 Varas are equal to 927088 English Yards. Cotton, and some other Goods, 4ire sold by the English Yard. 248 HSAJBT7BSB. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOE DRY GOODS. Loc^u value. S^^ifmatle tu,iR€, Empliah ralue. Metric value. Ijoperial Gallons. Utxes. lGa»tAh = -879642 « 8-931 85 Gantahs 1 Caban If 21-99107 >» 98-28 A Caban of Rice weighs about 123 0>s. et. EiigliBh, or 56*7918775 Kilogrammes. A Caban of Paddy (rice in the hnsk) weighs abont 85 lbs. av. Engliph, or 385553625 Kilogrammes. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Liquids are measured by the old English Wine Gallon and its snbdiTlsiens, for which, see the Article " Cape of Good Hope." Cocoa-nut Oil is measured by the Tinaja of 12 Ganons. WEIGHTS. Lsetil rahu. SiftUmatic naaie. 1 DracLma ft Drachmas = 1 Oj^zo 8 Onzas 2 Marks 85 Libbras 4 Arrobas H Arrobas •> »» IMark 1 libbra 1 Airoba 1 Quintal ri Quintal 1 i» '( Macho j II Ergi'.sh r**lHe. 55-4705 443 8125 35505 1b». ar. 101442 25-36050 ,, 101-442 152*163 »» t» Metric value. Grammes. 3-5947 28-7583 230-0666 460*1333 Kilofrraxntoec 11-50333 46*01333 69*01939 The above are the old Spanish Weights (Castilian Standards). In the Wholesale Trade most Goods are sold by the following Weights : — Lotal raZue, 16 Taels too Catties Sytemaiic name. ITael = 1 Catty „ 1 Pecul »» II Enffli$h ralue. Mtirie value. Troj Graiaa. Oranunes 610*2371 = 39-5427 lbs. aT. Kilognaameit. 1-3948 „ -63268 139*4827 »» II 63*2683 The Pecul of the Philippine Islands is larger than the Chinese Pecul, and is equal to 5i Spanish Arrobas. 16 Pecnls are commonly reckoned equal to 1 Ton English, idthough they are really less than 1 Ton by about 8| lbs. av. ; an English Ton being 2240 lbs. et., whUe 16 Peculs are only equal to 2281*7232 lbs. av. EGYPT, 249 EGYPT. (NUBIA, SEKAAR, KOBDOFAN, Aia> DOBFUR.) MEASURES OF LENGTH. MgypUan wUue, ' Sffstemaiie name. EnglUhtnUut. Metric vaJmt. Inches. Metres. lEirat . l^ « -02857 GKirats » 1 Bub „ 6} „ '17144 4BnbB „ {^^^J^} " 27 „ 18577 TardB. 4Dira&s „ 1 Gasab ,, 8 „ 2*74301 In Egypt the Dirads in nse are of different lengths. The Dira& Istambohli, or Pike of Constantinople, nsed for measuring Cloth and European Silk » to 26*65404 English Inches, but in Practice it is reckoned at 27 Inches. Th^ BeFendi Pike used for measuring Syrian Silks and Native Fabrics « 22*7369 English Inches, or -5775 of a French Mdtre. The Endaseh for measuring Cotton and Linen Goods » 25*13425 English Inches, or '6384 of a French M^tre. The Nilmeasery or PUe Mekias ^ 21*28778 English Inches, or *5407 of a French Mdtre. In Nubia the Dirai^ - 26*65404 English Inches, or *6775 Mdtre. In Malakha, the distance from one Station to another, is an indefinite Measure varying from 2 to 6 Miles. MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. Egyptian value, Syatematie name. Sngliah vaUie. Metric value. ▲ere. Ares. 400 Sq. Gasab » 1 Feddan - 1*1019 • 44*591 This Feddan is now the legal one both in Egypt and Nubia, but there are other Feddans in use varying in value. Thus the Feddan al risach is equal to 3208 English Square Yards. 2S0 HBA8UBE8. MEASURES OF CAPACITY. Mftftim* value, SjfUwuUic noau. Em§li»h voimt. Metric value, SRnbbft - IQneleh •» ^ SQueleh ,, 1 Wehbih „ ftWehbih „ 1 Ardeb 2 Ardeb „ 1 Daribb* „ See below. In AlexAndria the Ardeb » 7'4457 British laiperiAl Boshels, •r 271 French Litres. In Cairo the Ardeb • 4*92461 British Imperial Bushels, or 179 French Litres, but its value is nsnally taken in ronnd nnsbers at 5 Imperial Bnshels, or about 182 Litres. In Nnbia the Ardeb » 5*00699 British Imperial Bnshels, or 182 French Litres, there is also the Morrhi divided into 12 Hands, or 216 Selgas, and eqnal to 7*70306 British Imperial Biuhels, or 280 Litres. In Bosetta the Ardeb divided into 12 Bab, or 48 Eaddah, « 7*8131 British Imperial Bushels, or 284 Litres. WEIGHTS. In Egypt the unit of Weight is the Dirhem (Dram or Dracbn,) which -^ 47*6615 £n^h Troy Grains, or 3*0884 Grammes. The Wei^ts are of two classes, viz. : (1) the Jictiolo WcighU and (2) the Oka Weight. THE BOTTOLO WEIGHTS. J/rptiua value, SyUmatie name, English value. Metric value, Troy Qrmins, (traxnmot. 1 Dirhem « 47*6615 = 3*0884 12 Dirhem - 1 Uckieh „ 571*9380 „ 37*0608 lbs. AT. 12 Uckieh „ 1 Bottolo „ -98046 „ 444*7290 lOOBottoli „ ICantar „ 98*0465 „ 44*47296 The Bottolo given in the Table is the Government Bottolo^ aod is nsed in Alexandria and Cairo. The Eottoh Forforo of 140 Dirhem (^tj of an Oka,) « -95328 lbs. av. English, or 432*376 Grammes. 70 Government Bottoli «^ 72 Forfori Bottoli. The common commercial Rottolo of the Markets of Alexandria and Cairo, containing 1('5 Djrbems » -71492 lbs. av. English, or 324*282 Grammes. Barpt. — TEiPOLi. 251 The great Bottolo of Alexandria, contains 812 Dirhems, aad is equal to 2*12434 lbs. ay. English, or 063*5808 Grammes. The great Bottolo of Cairo, contains 324 Dirhems, and is equal to 2*20604 lbs. av. English, or 1*00064 Kilogrammes. The Special Commercial Bottolo of Cairo, contains 150 Dirhems, and is equal to 1*02132 lbs. av., or 463*26 Grammas, The Bottolo Zaidino of 200 Dirhems (» i Oka) - 1*361757 lbs. av., or 617*68 Grammes. The Rottolo Mina of 250 Dii-hems (- \ Oka) -1*7022 lbs, av., or 772*10 Grammes. The Hottolo Zauro of 310 Dirhems (- |^ Oka) » 2*11079 lbs. av., or 957*4040 Grammes. THE OKA WEIGHTS. Egyptian value. Systematic name, English value. Metric oftliir. 400 Dirhems « The Common Oka « 2*72351 « 1*23536 420 Dirhems „ j Tlie^Commercial j ^^ 2-85969 „ 1*29712 412 Dirhems .. { '^c— rd^^^^ 2*80522 „ 1*27242 JEWELLEBS' WEIGHTS. Egyptian value. Systematic name. EnglUh value. 2Ietrie fialtie. Troy Grains. Grummea IKommhah - -74471 =- *04d2d 4Kommhah - 1 Kirat „ 2*97884 „ -ISaoa lOKirats „ 1 Dirhem „ 47*6615 „ 3*0884 The Kirat is the unit of Weight for Precious Stones. Pearls, Gold-thread, and Raw Silk are sold by the Metieaf, (also called Mikal or Mislod,) equal to 1^ Dirhems, or 71*4922 English Troy Grains, or 4*6326 Gmmmes. TBIFOLI. MEASUBES OF LENGTH. The. Turkish Pike for SUk and Cotton Goods is equal to 26-4168 English Inches, or -671 M5tre. The Arabian Dhraa for Bibbons a 18 '13 Euglish Xnohe^ or -483 M^tre. 252 1£XA8UBE8. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Tripoli value, Syitematie name. Snglieh value* Metric value 1 Orbali • 1-4760 •> 6*70618 4 Orbah = 1 Temen „ 5*9040 „ 26*82474 J m « «* , Imperial Bu»bel«. 4 Temen „ 1 Hueba „ 2'9520 „ 107*29899 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR {ilQUIDS. TripoU value, 8y$Umatie name. EnglUh value. Metric value, 4 Qoartacd «- 1 Bozze » 2*36186 ' • 2*68274 4Bozze „ ISecchie „ °J?36185''"'\, 10-73098 6Secchie „ 1 Barile „ 14-1711 „ 64*3859 These Liquid Measures are used for Wises and Spirits. The Oil Barile is divided into 6 Arbaias, or 36 Carafliis,-each ?^£l5^^ ^^^ ^ '^'^^^ ^^^^ Imperial Quarts, or 1*78849 Litres. WEIGHTS. Tripoli value, BysUmatie name. XnglUh palut. Metrte value, »7J Dirhem - 1 Ueld«h - vm - 8O'6M095 16Uckiah „ 1 Rottolo „ 1.076 „ 488*06553 24 Rottolo „ 1 Oka „ 2*6916 „ "l 40 Oka or i 100 Rottolo ; »» 1 Centner „ 107j „ 48*80665 The Rottolo given in the Table is the common Rottolo. , ^ F*** Rottolo contains 720 Dirhems, and is eooal to 1-2912 lbs. av., or 686*67863 Grammes. ^ 5 great Rottoli are equal to 6 common Rottoli. JEWELLERS' WEIGHTS. Tripoli value. Systematic name. Englieh value. Metrie value. U Kharub - 1 Metical Mumini ^''^065' - "^^^ The Metical Mumini and Kharub are used in wehrhinir Gold ??.^n^** *"^ ^^^^ ^'^^o w «q«al to 62-80 Troy GramsTd^ 4*069 Grammes. 9 Meticals Akdesi - 8 MeticalsMumSi. TBIPOLI. — TUBTIS. 263 The Uokiali, with the following sahdiTisions, is used ia weighing Qold Laoe, Gold Thread, and SUver :« Tripoli value, SyttematiP name, EnplUh valu*, MetrU} v^lue, Troy Qralni. Qramaiea. IGKharub • 1 Dirhem » 47*2 • 3*052 lODirhems ,, 1 Uokiah „ 472 n 80 '52 TUNIS. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The DhraA, or Pike, ia the unit of Measnres of Length. There are three kinds of Dhrad in common use, viz. : — Systematie namp, EnglUh valu9, Uetrie valu9, (1) The Arabian Dhrad. for Cotton ) .-> ««J^ . ! Goods }■■ 10*2240 ■■ '4883 (2) The Turkish Dhrad, for Lace, ) oK.n77A .aqt and Gold and SUver Laoe i •» ao-0776 „ -637 (3) The Dhrad Endaseh, for Wool- > « A.ifloo . R70fl leu Goods ; »♦ 26-4888 „ 0728 The Measure of Distance is the Mil SaU'eli^ or Mil Sah'ari^ equal to 1610-8746 Yards, or *9149 MUe EngUsh, or 1*4725 Kilometres. MEASURES OT CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Tun!$ value, Syttematie name, Snglith value. Metric value, Iii»ert«l Pint. Lttrra, ISdd - r27426 - 2*583 Imperial Oalloni. 12 Sad - 1 Hueba „ 6*8228 „ 80*996 Imperial Quarters, 10 Huoba M 1 Kafls ,, 1*7057 ., 496*936 MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Tunii value. Syttematle name. Englith value. Metric value, Imperial Pint. LiircH. 1 Piohoune • *4654 • -2643 4 Piohounes » 1 Pot „ 1*86163 „ 1-06718 ^ . Imperial Qallone. 15 Pots n 1 Escandeau „ 8*49057 „ 16359 4 Esoaadeaux,, 1 Mill6role „ 18*9623 „ 68*487 Tunii value. 8tf9temaHe name. ISa/i 8 Bad a 1 EoUeh 2 Eolleh »l 1 Mettar 6i Mettar It 1 Mimrole »» 254 M£iLSUB£S. The MiU^role and its Babdiviaions, are used in wholesale hosmeea, but for domestic purposes the Liquid Measure in general nse is the Mettar, witii its divisions as follows : — Sngliih value. Metric vaUte, Imperial Pints. Litres. 1*0740 » '60998 Imperial GaUoaa. 1-0740 „ 4-8797 2*1480 ,, 9-75941 13*9623 ,, ed-437 For Oil Measnre the Mettar » 4*4372 British Imperial GallonB, or 20*16 Litres. The EoUeh » 2*2186 British Imperial Gallons, or 10*08 Litres, and the Safi » 2*2186 British Imperial Pints, or 1*26 Litres. The Mettar of Snsa « 6*546 British Imperial Gallons, or 26*2 litres. WEIGHTS. Tunit vahu, Byitematie name. Englieh value. Metric value. Troy Grains. Grammes. lEhanib - 30556 « -198 16Khamb » 1 Derhem „ 48*890625 „ 3-168 lODerhems;,, 1 Uckiah „ 488*90625 „ 31*68 lbs. av. 16Uckieh „ IBottelAttari „ 11175 „ 606*88 ^^^Mtori^ } •♦ 1 ^^^ ^**ari »' 111^ '» ^fo^ The Cantar Attari given in the Table is the common Cantar Attari, and is used for Iron, Lead, Copper, Tin, Silver, and Gold. The Cantar Attari for Baw Cotton * 110, and for Cotton Tarn 150 BotteU Attari. The Battel Saki contains 18 Uckieh, and is used for Oil, Soap, Ghee, Olives, Honey, Wood, Coals, and Fmit. It is equal to 1*2532 lbs. av. English, or 668*445 French Grammes. The Rottel Ghaddari nsed for Herbs and Vegetables, contains 20 Uckieh, and is eqoal to 1*4098 lbs. av. English, or 639*453 Grammes. The Uckiah, Derhem, and Ehamb, are used for Gold, SUver, and Jewels. ALGERIA. The Weights and Measures are the same as those of France, the Mdtric System having come into use in 1843. (See France.) MOBOCOO. — ABTS8INIA. 255 MOBOCCO. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Moneeo vdlite» Systematic ftame. EnglUh vaiue. JHetrie value. Inches. Metres. ITomin « 2*81025 » *07806 STomin « 1 Dhra'a „ 22*482 „ -6245 MEASURES OF GAPACITT. Moroeeo value. Syatematie nante, BngUth vaiue* Metrie value. Imperial Gallons, Litres, 1 Miihd » 8*08135 » 3 1 4 Miihds - 1 Saa ,, 12*32541 „ 14 Oil is sold by the Kola, which weighs 22 Botal, (of Morocco,) and is equal to about 8*335565 British Imperial Gallons, or 15*155 litres.' . Other Liquids are sold by Weight. WEIGHTS. Morocco value. Systematic nawke, English value. Metrie value, Troy Grains. Grammes. 1 Uckiah -^ 892 « 25*40121 ItKav. 20Uckieh « 1 Botal or Artal „ 1*12 ,, 508*02416 Kilogrammes. lOOBotales ,, 1 Kintar „ 112 „ 5O-B02416 The Kintar given in the Table is the common Kintar, The Great Kintar (for Meat, Bntter, Oil, and Soap,l con- taining 125 Rotales, is eqnal to 140 lbs. av. EngUsn, or 68*50302 Kilogrammes. The Salle Rabat Kintar^ containing 150 Botales, is eqnal to 168 lbs. ay. English, or 76*203624 Kilogrammes. The Zoll Kintar being the weight of 1680 old Spanish Silver Dollars, is eqnal to 98'8954bs. av. English, or 45*3116227 Kilogrammes. ABYSSINIA. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The chief Measure of Length is the Turkish Pike « 27 Inches English, or *686 Mdtre. (See Turkey.) 256 MXA6USE8. MSA8UBES OF CAPACTTT FOB DBT OOODS. Ahf$»imi4M valmt. S^tiemaiU mmw. J giiyll»> wyly. Metric valmc. 121>b]kem8 - 1 Uckuh -^^^^OftS^ - 0366 12Ucldeh8 „ 1 Madega „ -7747 ,, '440 lOlfadegM ,, lArdeb „ 7-7473 „ 4*40 The above is the Ardeb of Gondar. The Ardeb of Maaeowah cootaine 24 Madegaa, and ia equal to abont 2*3242 British Imperial Oallona, or 10'56 Litres. The Eiiba » l'7d68 British Imperial Pints, or 10159 Litre. WEIGHTS. Ahysritkian talu€, Sytttwtatie mam*. EngUth value. ^ttrie fAlme. Oiaias Troj. rtr»ran*«. 1 Dirhem ^ 40 « 25919 10 Dirhems • 1 Waldh „ 400 it 26'9191 12 Waldhs ., 1 Butolo „ 4800 ., 8U'033 The Mocha h a wei^t containing 12 Dirhems, and equal to 4i0 Grains, or 1 oz. Ttoj En^ish, or 81*1083 Grammes. WEST COAST OF AFBICA. In the Britiah settlements of BatlmrtU Fori Jamet^ Sierra Lfont , aail Cap€ Coast Cattle, the British Wei^ts and Measures are uf ed. MEASUBES OF CAPACITY. The Ardeb is the chief Measure of Capacity for Dry Goods. The Oondar Jrdeh contains 10 Madegas, or 120 Uckieb, or 144() Dirhems, and is equal to about 7'7473 British Imperial Pints, or 4'40 French Litres. The*Mauuah Ardeb contains 24 Madegas, and is equal to about 2*3242 British Imperial Gallons. The Kuba is the chief Liquid Measure. It is equal to abont 17887 British Imperial Pints. WEIGHTS. G tinea value. SjtUmatic nawte, Enplith value. Mttrie talut. drtUMTmy. Gnmincm. lAki » 7*7304 » '5o00 16A]ds « lUsaao(orPeso) „ 128*6875 „ 8*0143 fiUsanos „ 1 Benda „ 989*5 „ 84*114 XABT COAST OF AFEICA. 257 The Kantar for Qnm, which is di^ded into 5 Gamell, is equal to about 19*27109 owt. English, or 979 Kilogrammes. Gold is bought and sold by U$anoit each of 16 Akis, A Usano of Gold is reckoned equal in value to 16000 *' Cowries." It contains 814*76 English Troy Grains, or 20*896 Grammes. EAST COAST OF AFBICA. (I).~Mozambiqiie and SofUa. The Weights and Measures are the old Weights and Measures of Portugal. (See the Article, Brazil.) There is also the common Bahar, divided into 80 Frehsils, and equal to about 240 lbs. av. English, or 108*8622 Kilo- Pliammes. The Frehsil » 8 lbs. av. English, or 3*62874 Kilogrammes. (II) .—Madagascar. MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Refe - from 1 to 2 Metres - 88*87079 to 78*74158 Inches English. WEIGHTS. The Motuicha » 6'613081bs. av., and the Satu » 6401417 lbs. av. of Husked Rice. Gold is sold by the Sompi, with the following subdivisions : — Local value, SyttemaUc name* EnglUh value* Metrie value, TroyOraina. Ui-anmiiit, INanqui - 4-917725 - -3186 a Nanquis - 1 Sacare „ 9*83545 „ -6873 a Baoares „ 1 Wari „ 19 0709 ,. 1*2740 aWari „ 1 Sompi „ 69 0127 „ 8*824 (III) .—Bourbon. The legal Weights and Measures are those of the French Metric system, (see France) ; but the Weights and Measures of the '' Ancient System " of France are also occasionally used. (See •• Ancient System " of France, as given under •• Mauritius." 258 H£A6UB£S. (IV},— Mauritius. The prese&t legal Weights and Meaenres are those of Great Britain, (see Great Britain) ; bnt in commercial transactions in the interior, ihe Weights and Measures of the *' Ancient System " of France are used. These are as follows : — Ancient System of France. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Old French value. 12 Pointes « 12 Lignes ,, 12 Ponces „ Si Pieds or ) 44 Ponce J " 6 Pieds 3 Toises „ 2000 Toises „ The Woollen Drapers' Aune was eqiiBl to 1*182 M^tre, or 46-58627 English Inches. The Mercers' Aune was equal to 1-18845 MStre, or 46'79021 English Inches. The Perche given in the Table was the Paris Field Measure Perche. It contained 18 Pieds. The Crown Lands' Perche contained 22 Pieds, and equalled 7-14647 Metre, or 7-8155 English Yards. The Provincial Land Measure Perche contained 20 Pieds, and equalled 6 49679 Mitre, or 7*105 English Yards. The Marine Lieu of 20 to the clegree was equal to 5 "555 Kilometres, or 8-4522 Miles English. The Litu of 25 to the degree was equal to 4 444 Kiloaidtrcs, or 2 -7613 English Miles. Systematic name. English value. Metric value. Lines. Millimetre)*. 1 Ligne ar 1-06575 » 2-25583 Inched. Centimetres. 1 Pouce u 1-06575 „ 2-70699 DecimetreK. l"PieddeRoi" >J 12-789 „ 3-248394 Metre*. 1 Aune »> 46i „ 118845 1 Toise »» 2-1315 „ 1-94903 1 Perche 11 6-3945 „ 5-84711 Miles. Kilometre*. 1 "LieudePoste" „ 2-4221 „ 3-898 EAST COAST OF AFBICA. 259 MEASURES OP SURFACE. OIJ French value. Pied lU Sqr. \ Ponces j 324 Sqr. \ f 1 Sqr. ) PiedsJ n I - ' ^ f 1 Sqr. SffMtematie naaa, English value. Square Tards. •1262084 < I 100 Sqr. Perches PercheJ lArpent 40*891541 4089*154095 Acres. or *84484 n Metric value. Square Metres. •1055206 34-188685 8418*868599 Ares. or 34*188685 The Sqnare Perche was of 3 kinds, Tiz. :— (1) The Paris Field Measure Square Perche (that given in the Table) *- 324 (*- 18 x 18) Sqnare Pieds. (2) The Crown Lands* Square Perche of 484 (22 x 22) Sqnare Pieds, and equal to 61*0848656 English Square Yards, or 61*07198 Square Metres. (3) The Provincial Land Measure Square Perche of 400 (20 X 20) Square Pieds, and equal to 50*48336 English Square Yards, or 42*20825 Square Metres. In like manner, the Arpent, which always consisted of 100 Sqnare Perches, was of three different kinds, according to the value of the Square Perche, viz. : — (1) The Arpent de Paris of 100 Square Perches, each of 824 Sqnare Pieds, which is that given in the Table. (2) The Arpent " Des eaux et des Forets," otherwise called Arpent •' D'ordonnance," of 100 Sqnare Perches, each of 484 Sqnare Pieds, and equal to 6108*48656 English Sqnare Yards, or 1*262 British Imperial Acres, or 51*07198 Ares. (3) The Arpent " Commun " of 100 Square Perches, each of 400 Square Pieds, and equal to 5048*336 English Square Yards, or 1*043 British Imperial Acre, or 42*20825 Ares. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Old French value. 16 Litrons 3 Boisseanx 2 Minots 2 Mines 12 Sellers >> »» Syatematie name. 1 Litron » 1 Boisseau 1 Minot 1 Mine 1 Setier 1 Mnid English value. Imperial Pints. 1-431526 » Imperial Bushels. •357881 „ 1*073644 „ 2*147289 „ 4*294578 „ Metric value. Litres. •81301 18*0083 89*0249 78-0498 156-0996 »> 61*534949 „ 1873*1952 200 MEA8UBES. The Betier was of fonr different Jdnds, yiz. : — (1) The Setier was of 12 Boisseanx uw given in the Tahle,) for Wheat, Rye, Barley, Flour, Pnlse, Seedis, and Lime. (2) The Setier of 24 Boisseanx, for Oats, eqnal to 8*58714 British Imperial Bnshels, or 812*1992 Litres. (3) The Setier of 16 Boisseanx, for Salt, eqnal to 5*72609 British Imperial Bnshels, or 208*1328 Litres. (4) The Setier of 32 Boisseanx, for Wood-eharcoal, eqnal to 11*45218 British Imperial Bnshels, or 416*2655 Litres. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. Old French value. Systematle name, EnglUh value. Metric value. Imperial Pints. Litros. 2 Chanpines « IKnte - 1-6398395 « •9313178 2Pintes „ 1 Quart „ 8-2796791 „ Imperial Oalloiu. 1-862356 4 Quarts „ 1 Setier „ 1-6398395 „ 7*449424 36 Setiers „ 1 Mnid „ 59*0342255 „ 268*179264 WEIGHTS. Old French value. Systematic name. EnglUh value. Metric value. Ttoj Grains. Centigramme:;. 1 Grain = -8197 = 5*3114 Gramuies. 24 Grains — 1 Denier „ 19-674 „ 1-2747 3 Deniers „ 1 Gros „ 58*0234 „ 3-8242 8 Gros „ lOnce „ 472*1875 „ 30*59411 18 Onces „ 1 Marc „ 8777*5 24A'U2Q2 2 Marc „ il^^e(Paido) 15-; A- de Marc J" xv/» »» 489*50585 Eilosrammefi. 100 Livres „ 1 Quintal „ 107*928 „ 48*95 In Gold Assay Weight, the Marc was dirided into 24 Carats, and each Carat into 32 Parts. In Silver Assay Weights, the Marc was divided into 12 Deniers, and each Denier into 24 Grains. Jewels and Pearls were weighed by Carats, each divided into 4 Grains. The Jewel and Pearl Carat was eqnal to 3*876 old Paris Grains, or to 20*6869 Centigrammes, or to 8*1771 English Troy Grains. CAPS OF GOOD HOPS, 201 GAPE OF QOOD HOPE. MEASURES OF LENGTH. Tho Measures of Length are partly those of Great Britain , (see Great Britain) ; and partly the old Dutch Measures. The Amsterdam old Rheinland Fuss » 1*080 English Foot, or •818987 M^tre, and the EUe -» 2*2566 English Feet, are also in use ; 4 EUes being reckoned equal to 8 Yards Englisli. A Huthe is 13, and a Fathom 6 Feet. MEASURES OF SURFACE. The old Amsterdam Morgen and the English Acre, are the chief denominations of Surface Measure. 1 Morgen is reckoned equal to 2 English Acres, but the exact value of the Morgen is 2 -0087 Acres English, or *687798 Mdtre. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Imperial Measures of Great Britain are used to some extent, but the old Winchester Bushel and Quarter, with their subdivisions, and some old Dutch Measures, are those in moBt general use. They are as follows : — Cape value. S\fii€maUe nnmt. EnglUh value. Pint. Metric value. Litres. 4 Gills WB IPint V -969447 v •55067 2 Pints 4 Quarts »» 1 Quart 1 Gallon If 1-9888 OftUOM, •969447 n 1*10115 4-40462 2 Gallons 4 Pecks IPeck 1 Bushel ft It 1-9888 BwlMli. •969447 ft If 8-80925 85-287 4 Bushels 2 Coombs n 1 Coomb 1 Quarter ti II 8-8777 Quarten. •969447 If It 140-948 Hectolitre i». 2-81896 5 Quarters »» 1 Wey or Load tf 4-8472 tf 14-09480 2 Weys It ILast t» 8-6944 It 28-18960 Approximately, 88 Winchester Bushels or Quarters are equal to 82 Imperial Bushels or Quarters. 262 HEA.SUBE8. Cape value. Syttematie name, 1 Amsterdam EngUth value, IiDMrUl GaUons. 8 Amsterdam ) <, n 'l. Schepel ; -1 Zak 4 Amsterdam ) , ., , Sohepel I ** ^ '^^^ 10 Madden „ 1 Last msterdam i "°i*v!«'2? Schepel ;• ^'^21^ Imperial BnalMlt. „ 2-2956 „ „ 8-0608 „ „ 80-608 „ Metric value. Litres. 27-81341 38-44023 111-25364 1112-5364 MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. The old British Wine and Ale MeasnreSi and the old Datch Liquid Measures, are those in nse. They are as follows : — Old British Wine and Spirit Measures. Old English value, Syetematie name, -> IPint 4 Gills 9 Pints 4Qtiarts 10 Gallons 18 Gallons 42 Gallons 1\ Tierce or 63 Gallons li Hogsheads or 84 Gallons 2 Hogsheads 2 Pipes } t> »i n n »» »» 1. „ 1-66622 „ laaperlal GalloM. •83111 «) »» 1 Quart 1 Gallon 1 Anker 1 Bundlet 1 Tierce 1 Hogshead 1 Puncheon |lKpe,Butt,) »' I or Puncheon/ '♦**^* ^^ „ 1 Tun ,,208*948 Englith value. Metric value. Imperial Pint*. LitiM. 833111- -47312 '94625 8-33111 „ 14-9959 „ 84-9906 „ 62*485 „ 69-981 „ 3',785 „ 87-85 „ 6813 „ 168-97 Hectelitrai. 2-38455 »» »» M ft 3-1704 4-76910 8-5382 The old British Wine Gallon is ahout ^th less than an Imperial Gallon: so that 5 Imperial Gallons are equal to 6 Wine Gallons. To convert Wine Gallons into Imperial Gallons, subtract ^th from the Wine Gallon ; and to conrert Imperial Gallons into Wine Gallons, add ^th to the Imperial Gallon. To convert prices per Wine Gallon into prices per Imperial Gallon, add ^th or 20 per Cent, to the price per Wine Gallon, and to convert prices per Imperial Gallon into prices per Wine Gallon, subtract ^th from the price per Imperial Gallon. OAPE OF GOOD HOPS. 263 Old British Ale, Beer, and Porter Measures. Old Englith «alM«. SiftUmatic NaiM r. Snglhh value. Metric value. 4 Gills 2 Pints 4 Qaarts »» IPint 1 Quart IGaUon 1) Imperial Piuta. 1-017045 » Imperial Quart 1-017045 „ ImMrial Oallons. F017045 „ Litr«e, *5771 1-1542 4-6209 9 Gallons ») 1 Firkin 19 8*158405 „ 41*5881 2 Firkins tf 1 Kilderkin »* 18*80681 „ 83*1762 2 EUderkins 8 Kilderkins »» 1 Barrel 1 Hogshead 1* 1* 86*61862 „ 54*92043 „ 166*8524 Hectolitr«ii. 2*495286 2 Hogsheads 1) IButt »» 109*84086 „ 4*990572 2 Butts »» ITun 1) 218*68172 „ 8*981144 Old Dutch Liquid Measures. Old Dutch value. 4 Maatjes 2 Pintjes 2 Mengeln 8 Stoopen 2 Steekanen 4 Anker It »f j» n n Syttewitie na/mt, Englith value. Imperial Pint. - 1-067625 Imperial Qalloni. „ -266906 •588812 4*2705 8*541 1 Pin^'e 1 Mengel 1 Stoop 1 Steekan 1 Anker »» II II II i> Metric value. LiUreR. •606342 1-212685 2-425370 18*402961 38-805922 1 Aam i» 84-164 „ 155-223689 WEIGHTS. The Weights in use are the Avoirdupois and Troy Weights of Great Britain, (see Great Britain) ; the old Amsterdam Ffund, of 82 Loth or 128 Drachmen, » 1*0803 lb. av. English, or 484*09881 Grammes. 92 old Amsterdam lbs. are reckoned equal to 100 l!bs. av. English. There is also the old Dutoh Troy Pf und of 2 Marken, 8 Unzen, or 820 Engelsen » 1*08506 lb. av. English, or 492*175078 Grammes. 264 MEASUBES. ST. HEIiSNA. The Weights and MeasareB are the game as those of Great Britain. (See Great Britain.) BBITISH NOBTH AMEBICA. VIZ. : — CANADA, NOVA SOOTU, NEW BRUNSWICK, PBINCB EDWABD'S ISLAND, LABBADOB, THE BEBMUDAS, PBINCE BUPEBT'S LAND, NEWFOUNDLAND, and BBITISH COLUMBU. The Measures of Length and Surface and the Weights are the same as those of Great Britain. (See Great Britain.) The Measures of Capacity are the old British Measures for Dry Goods, for Wine aiid Spirits, and for Ale, given under the Article *' Cape of Good Hope." The old Paris Minot (of 3 Boisseaux) « to 1*07368 British Imperial Bushel, or 39*0260089 Litres, is sometimes used as a Measure of Capacity for Grain. UNITED STATES OF NOBTH AMEBICA. MEASUBES OF LENGTH AND DISTANCE. The Measures of Length and Distance are the same as those of Great Britain. (Seep. 106.) MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. The Measures of Surface are the same as those of Great Britain. (See p. 106.) MEASUBES OF CAPACITY. The Measures of Capacity for Dry Goods and Liquids are the same as those used in England, before the introduction of the Imperial System, and are as follows : — AMERICA. 265 oity for Dry ' valuf, Metrle vuluf. Ill Pint. Litres )t47 - -65057 "$8 „ 1-10116 til Qallon, U47 „ 4-40462 2 UU.UUU.. 4 Pocks 4 Bushels 2 Coombs tt >> 1 BuBliel 1 Coomb 1 Quarter \H „ 8-80925 il RuHhol. U47 „ 85-237 lleotutltrea „ 8-8777 „ 1-40948 liiiperlttl Uuartcm. „ -969447 „ 2-81896 5 Quarters •1 1 Wey or Load „ 4-8472 „ 14-09480 2 Wevs j^ „ 8-6944 „ 28-18960 UNITED STATES OP NORTH AMBRICA~p. 264. In 1866 the Metric System of Weights aud Measures (see France, pp. 119-122) was legalised concurrently with the whole system. 2HogBheaa8 ..(wXioh^}.. 104-971 .- 4.im 2 Pipes M 1 Tun ,. 209-948 M 9*6882 266 MEASTJEES. Old Britdfih Ale, Beer, and Porter Measures. United States value. 4 Oillfl 2 Pints 4 QllATtB „ SyMtenatic nams. Engliih value. Metric value. Imperiftl Pints. Litres. IPint - 1-017046 « -6776 Imperial Quart. 1 Qnart „ 1017046 „ 1-1662 Imperial GalloDs. 1 Gallon „ 1-017046 „ 4*6209 9 Gallons »» 1 Firkin „ 9-153406 „ 41-6881 2 Firkins 2 Kilderkins 11 i» 1 Kilderkin 1 Barrel „ 18-30681 ,,83-1762 Hectolitres. „ 36*61362 „ 1-663524 3 Kilderkins *f 1 Hogshead „ 64*92043 „ 2*496286 2 Hogsheads If IBntt ,,109-84086 „ 4*990672 2 Butts »» ITnn ,,219*68172 „ 9*981144 WEIGHTS. The Weights are the same as those of Great Britain, (see p. 106) ; but articles formerly sold by the hundredweight (cwt.) are now almost always sold by the Quintal or Centner of 100 lbs. av. English. The Barrel of Flour contains 196 lbs. ay. ; the Barrel of Indian Com, 178| lbs. av. ; the Barrel of Pickled Beef or Pork, 200 lbs. ay. ; and the Hogshead of Indian Meal, 800 lbs. ay. MEXICO. The Weights and Measures are the old Weights, and Measures in use in Spain preyious to the adoption of the Metric System in that country in 1869. (See Spain, p. 167.) CENTBAIi AMEBICA. The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Mexico. In British Honduras the British Weights and Measures are in use. WEST INDIES-CBBITISH). The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Great Britain. (See p. 106.) In spite of Legislatiye enactments and prescribed penalties, great irregularities as to weights and measures exist (1867). A source of great complaint on the part of the lower orders in Jamaica. WEST INDIES. — HAYTI. 267 WEST* INDIES~(9AKISH). The Weights and MeaBores are those of Dexiznark. (See p. 173). WEST INDIES-(SPANISH). The Weights and Measures of Spain are also the legal ones for the Spanish West Indies, hut the old Spanish Weights and Measures are still used. (See p. 167). WEST INDIES-(DUTCH). The present Weights and Measures of Holland, (see p. 171), are being introduced, but the old Amsterdam Weights and Measures referred to in the article ** Gape of Good Hope/* (see p. 261), are still in use. WEST INDIES~(SWEDISH.) The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Sweden. (Seep. 177.) WEST INDIES-CFRENCH). The Weights and Measures are those of France. (See p. 119). HAYTI, OP ST. DOMINGO. The Weights and Measures are those at present in use in France, (see p. 119), but the old French Weights and Mea- sures, although prohibited, are still to some extent in use. (See Bourbon, p. 257) » 268 MEASTTBEB. UNITED STATES OF COLOMBIA. ■ VIZ. : NEW GRENADA, VENEZUELA, and ECUADOR, or QUITO. The Weights and Measures are the same as those of France, (see p. 119), the Metric system having been introduced in 1857. Previous to that date the old Spanish (Castilian) Weights and Measures were these in use; (see Spain, p. 1C7) and these are still used to some extent. BBITISH GUIAKA. The Measures of Length and Surface, and the Weights are the same as those of Great Britain (see pp. 106—114). The Measures of Capacity are the old British Measures (superseded by the Imperial system) quoted in the articles " Cape of Gaod Hope," and ** United States of North America " (see p. 261 — 264). FBENCH GUIANA, or, CAYENNE. The Weights and Measures are those of the " Ancient System " of France, quoted in the article " Bourbon " (see p. 267). DUTCH GUIANA, or SUBINAM. The present Weights and Measures of Holland are being introduced (see p. 171) ; but the old Amsterdam Weights and Measures, as given in the article *' Cape of Good Hope,^' are still in use (see p. 261). BBAZIL. The Weights and Measures are, with some variations in value and name, those of the old System of Portugal, as follows : — BRAZIL. 269 MEASURES OF LENGTH. Old Portuguete value* SffstemaHc name, EnglUh valu$, InohM. 10 Pontos 8 Linhas 12 Linhas 8 Pollegadas 12 PoUegadas 8 PalmoB 5 P^linoB 1| Varas 2yaras ma Bra^as 8 EstadioB or ) 98891 PalmoB i •* 8 Milhas, or 2816f Braoas, or 28168 PalmoB ) 1 1 Linha \ "* t or Line t u »» ft tf ft ft If tl »t 1 Dedo „ 1 Pollegada,, 1 Palmo 1P6 1 Coyado IVara 1 PaBBO Geome- trico 1 Brapa It tl tt II •091186 c- •729088 „ 1098683 „ 8-749064 „ 18-1285966 „ 26-2471988 „ Yards. 1-216147 „ Metrie value. X«irM. •0028148 •0185185 •02777 •22222 •83888 -66666 nun tl 1-8227217 „ 1-66666 2-22222 2-480296 „ 1 Estadio „ 286'2357t)27 „ 260*6148 IMilha ,. 1-29652 ,, 2-0865l8o II 1 Legoa* It II 8*88966 II 6*2595 6 English Tarda are reckoned eqnal to 6 Varas, and 8 Yards to 4 Covados. The P6 is | of a Mdtre, and 100 Mdtres » 148 GovadoB. MEASURES OF SURFACE. Old Portuguese value, Syetematie name, SnglUh value, Metrie value, Bqaan Yardii. Square M etrec. 64 Sq. PoUogadas - 1 Sq. Palmo- •05906887 « -04988271 25 Sq. Palmos „ 1 Sq. Vara „ 1-476684271 » 1-28456791 4 Sq. Varas „ 1 Sq. Bra^ „ 5-90688708 „ 4-98827161 Aorea. HeoUres. 4840 Sq. Varas „ 1 Geira ,» 1-476584271 „ 2*89012846 * The Legoa is sometimeB eBtimated at 8,000 braoaa > thin would give its value as 7'i90'887u84 yards, or 4-1436 miles Bualisb, or 0666| Mitres, or 6$ Kilometres, but tbat is more than its real valae. 270 MEASUBES. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. Old Portuffuete value. 8y$Umatie name, EnglUh value. Aetrie value, Iiti)K>rial Oallon*. Litre*. 2Salammeg - 1 Oitavo - -380794 - 1-7301 2 0itavo „ 1 Quarto „ -761589 „ 8-4602 Imperial Btubel. 4Quarta8 „ 1 Alqueira* „ -380794 „ 18'841 4 Alqneirag „ 1 Fangas ,, 1-528179 ,, 66-364 Imperial Qoarten. Hetlfilltrei. 15 Fangas ,, 1 Moio „ 2855961 ,, 8*3046 The Measnrefl of Capacitj were not the same for the whole of Portugal. The values given in the tahle are those of the Lisbon Measures. At Oporto the Moio i« 28*173, the Fanga 1-8782, and the Alqueira -4696 British Imperial Bushels. 100 Moios, Fangas, Alqueiras, &c., of Lisbon, were reckoned eqnal to 79^ Moios, Fangas, Alqueiras, &c., of Oporto. The Fanga of Oporto was equal to 1-922 British Imperial Bushel, or 69*86 Litres, and its subdivisions and multiples in like pro- portions. Also 5i Alqueiras of Oporto were commonlj reckoned in practice, equal to 1 Hectolitre, and 16 Alqueiras to 1 British Imperial Quarter. In Rio Janeiro the Alqueira >» 40 French LitreSf or 1*10048 British Imperial Bushel; and 1 Alqueira of Rio Janeiro is reckoned equal to 3 Alqueiras of Lisbon, In Bahai the Alqueira is equal to 2^ Alqueira of Lisbon, or -82536 British Imperial Bushel, or 81*142 Litrefs. The Moio of Bait is only from 18 to 20 Alqueiras. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. OUl Portugueie value, Syetematie name. EnglUh value. Me trie value. Imperial IMnt. LltrrM. IQuartUho - -61408 - -31875 A ^ _..ii. i 1 Canada (or i *'"p«»''*V!S'a^** i ooc 4 QuartilboH » { Medida) I " '^^^^^ " ^'^^^ 6 Canadas Medida) ' 1 Pota, or Can- ) taro, or Alqui- [ „ 1-84228 „ 8-37 (era of Lisbon) J 2Pota;^'tt- ) lAlmuda* „ 8-68450 „ 16*74 AJijheirasi • In Madeira 1 Alqueira i« equal to '88777^4 British Imperial Bnnhel. or 14'091 Litreii, or 1-018 Alqueira of LiHbon, or two-flfthH of an old WincheHter Bushel. In the Azores 1 Alqueira is equal to -8:295947 British Imperial Bushel, or 11*98 Litres. f In Madeira the Madeira Wine-pipa is eqnal to 23i Madeira Almudas, 'or about n'i British Imperial Gallons. BRAZIL* 271 The MeasnreB above given were the Lisbon Standards. The Lisbon Pipa for Oil contained 80 Almudes of Lisbon, and ^^as equal to 110*5368 British Imperial Gallons, or 6*022 Hectolitres. In Oporto the Almnda i« 6*58266 British Imperial Gallons, or 26*366 Litres ; and 66 Almudas of Oporto « 100 Almudas of Lisbon. WINE MEASURE. Old Portugu^te value, Sy$tematto name, SnglUh value. Metrie value, Imp«rliil tialloni. HeotolUnw. 18 Almudas • 1 Barril (of Wine) - 66*32208 • 8*0132 26 Almudas „ 1 Pipa „ •• 96*798 „ 4*858 2Pipa8 „ 1 Tonelada „ ,,191*596 „ 9*706 The above were the Lisbon Standards. In Oporto the Wine Pipa contained 21 Almudas of Oporto, and was equal to 117*236 British Imperial Gallons, or 6*32665 Heotolitres ; and the Oil Pipa likewise contained 21 Almudas of Oporto. In practice 11 Wine Pipas of Lisbon were usually reckoned equal to 9 Wine Pipas of Oporto. In Rio Janeiro the Medida or Canada ■■ 2*4^26 British Im- perial Quarts, or 2*66204 Litres. It is equal to about 2 Modidas of Lisbon. The Pipa of Rio Janeiro is 180 Medidas, and - 109-917 British Imperial Gallons, or 479*167 Litres. The Tonelada » 2 Pipas. In Bahia the Medida "5^ Medidas of Lisbon *■ 1*584 British Imperial Gallon » 7*2 Litres. The Pipa of Rum •■ 72 Canadas ; the Pipa of Molasses and Syrup B 100 Canadas. In Pernambuco the Canada - 6 066 Litres, or 1-3579 British Imperial Gallon. WEIGHTS— (Commeboial). Old Portfugueee value, Syatematie name, Ennliah value* Metrie value, Troy (iraluM. OrnmmeH. 1 Oitavo - 65-336 =■ 8*6869 8 Oitavos - 1 Onva „ 442*687 „ 28*6875 Ibit. av. leOnpas „ lArratel „ 1*01186 „ 469 KlloKrammer. 82Arratels „ 1 Arroba „ 32*87962 „ 14688 4 An*oba „ 1 Quintal ,; 129*51808 „ 68*752 Moblf*""}.. ITouolada „ 16-01156 ,. 798-152 272 MEA8UBES, There is aljio the Qnintal of 100 Amtels - 101-186 lbs. ftv., or 46*900 KilogrammeB. Ships* freight is reckoned by the English ton, equal to 70 Arrobas. GOLD, SILVER, AND MONEY WEIGHTS. The unit is the Marco of 8 Oncas, with the following divi- sions : — Old Portuguese value. Byetematie name. Englith vaVue. Metric value, Truy OrainK. Oramroe*. 24 Grilos • 1 Escmpnlo - 18*480 -> 11958 8 EscrapuloB „ 1 Oitavo „ 66*341 „ 8'5859 8 Oitavas „ 1 On^a „ 442*7208 „ 28*6875 8 On^as „ 1 Marco „ 3641*7664 „ 229*5 Assayers divided the Marco for fine Gold into 24 Quilates, each of 4 Grdos, or into 96 GrdoH, each of 8 Oitavos ; and for Silver into 12 Dinheros, each of 24 Grdos, that is 288 Gr&os. Wronght Gold was of the fineness of 20| Qnilates ; Gold Dust was reckoned to be of the fineness of from 21f to 22 Quilates. Wrought Silver was of the fineness of 10^ Dinheros. JEWEL WEIGHT. Old Portuguese value. Systematic name. English value. Metric value, Troy OraliiN. Oraromet. 4Grdo8 « IQuUate - 3*17645 - -205782 APOTHECARIES' WEIGHTS. Old Portug\use value. Bystematie name, English value. Metric value. TroT Gralu*. Onunoie*. 24GriloB - lEscrupelo » 18*445 - 1*1953 8 EscrupeloB „ 1 Oitavo „ 66*335 „ 3*5859 8 Oitavus „ 1 On^a „ 442*687 „ 28*6875 12 0nvas „ 1 Arratel „ 6312i „ 844*25 The Apothecaries* Arratel ■> jths of the Oommercial Airatel, so that 4 Apothecaries' ■■ 8 Commercial Arratels. PERU. The Metric system of Weights and Measures (see France) is being introduced, but the Wt<ightH and Measures of the old Spanish system (Oantilian Standards) are still in common use with the following variations (sec Spain). PERU. — CHILI. 273 MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Vara of 8 Pios - 'Siin M^tro - 1-0138 CaHtilkn Varas - 2-780fil Feot EiiKlisb. The Jhaza of 2 Varas or PioB - 1*605 M(Ntr6 - 1*85874 EnglUh Yard. The Mffluh Yard is also frequently used, MEASURES OF CAPACITY. The Fane((a of Wheat weiRhd from 185 to 140 Castiliau Librafl, wliilo the Castilian Fanepfa weighed only 100 Libras. Rico iH Hold at ho much for the weight of an Arroha. In the MoaHnromcnt of Liquids the old British Wine Gallon iB frequently urtod (hoo the article '* United States of North America,*' p. 204). WEIGHTS. The Carga (Quintal Maoo) m Arrobas ■ 150 Castilian Libras ; the Bulto Corrienta •■ i Carga ; the Tonnelada * 200 Libras. OHILI. The Legal Weights and Measures of Chili are now those of the Metric syHtem (see France), that Hyntem having been iujtro- duoed in lieu of the old Spanish (Castilian) Weights and Measures (see Spain, p. 107), but thoHo latter are still occa- sionally used. OLD MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Chilian Vara of 8 Pics • 83*867 English Inches • 1*1014 Castilian Varas, or -8475 Mdtre. 108 Old Varas of Chili - about 100 EngUsh Yards. 100 Varas • about 98 EngUsh Yards. 119 Varas - 100 Mdtres. OLD MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Quadra was the Square of 150 Varas, and was nearly equal to 4 English Acres, 274 MEASITSES. OLD MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Chilian Fanega of White Wheat and Barley ■» 155 Libras « 1*656 Castillan Fanegas, 90*75 Litres. The Chilian Fanega of Indian Com i« 160 Libras. The Chilian Fanega of Potatoes « 200 Libras. At San Antonio the Fanega of Wheat « 150 Libras. At Concepclon the Fanega of Wheat — 175 Libras. OLD MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Chilian Wine Arroba of 4 Cuartos - 2 Castilian Wine Arrobas - 9 old British Wine Gallons, or 7*7496 British Im- perial Gallons, or 86*21 Litres. OLD WEIGHTS. The Tonelada of 20 Quintals ; the Quintal of 100 Libras ; the Arroba of 25 Libras ; the Libra of 4 Cuaterones, each of 4 Onzas, each of 8 Ocharas ■■ 1*00992 lbs. ay. English, or 460*098 Grammes. BOLIVIA. The Weights and Measures are those of the old Spanish (CastHian) system (see Spain, p. 167). ABGENTINE BEFUBLIC. The Standard Weights and Measures are those of the Metric system (see France, p. 119), recently introduced, but not yet oome into general use. The Weights and Measures previously used were, the Cas- tilian of the old Spanish system (see Spain, p. 167), with some slight variations in name and value, as foUows : — OLD MEASURES OP LENGTH. The Pie of 12 Pnlgadas, each of 12 Lineas - 11'3652 English Inches « 1'08718 old Castilian Foot « -28866 Mdtre. The Vara of 3 Pies - -86598 Metre » 2'841S English Feet » 1-03718 CastiHan Yaras. ABGENTIKE BEPUBLIC. 275 The Braza of 6 Pies « 6*6826 English Feet. I The English Yard was also freqnentlj ased in the sale of goods. The Cuadra of 160 Varas - 142*065 English Yards, or 128*897 Metres. The Legua of 40 Cnadraa -* 3*2287 English Miles « 6'196 Kilometres. OLD MEASURES OF SURFACE. The Cuadra Cuadrada of 22,500 Square Varas « about 4*17 English Acres, or 168*7478 Ares. The S-aerta de estancia of 27,000 Square Varas » 6*004 English Acres, or 202*49687 Ares. The Suerta de Chacra* of 10,000 Square Varas ■» 1-8633 English Acre, or 74*9988 Ares. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Fanega at 4 Cuartillas, or 9856 Cubic Pulgadas - 2*50365 old Oastilian Fanegas - 137*2 Litres ^ 3*77464 British Im- perial Bushels. The Last of 2 Toueladas, or 4 Cahices, or 16 Fanegas -^ 7*07745 British Imperial Quarters, or 20*58 Hecto- litres. The Cuartelle « -94366 British Imperial Bushel, or 34*3 Litres. OLD MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The unit of Liquid Measures was the Frasco^ of the ca- pacity of 170| Cubic Pulgadas, and equal to 2f Litres, or 4*18182 British Imperial Pints. Its divisions and multiples were as follows : — Old Argentine value 2 Ochavos . ' Syeteniaiic name, 1 Cuarto English value. Impftrial Pints. - -13068 = Metric value. Litres. •074218 2 Cnartos »» 1 Medio •26136 „ •148487 2 Medios »> 1 Frasco •62273 „ •296876 8 Frascos 4 Caneoas It 1 Caneca 1 Barrile „ 4*18182 „ Imperial Gallon^, „ 2*09091 „ 2-375 8*6 6Barriles 1* IPipa „ 12*54649 „ 67 * There were three varieties of the Snerta de Ghaora, viz. :— (1) That oontainihg 10,000 Sgnare Varas used for measuring cultivated land in the oountary. (S) That containing 19,600 Square Varas, used for measuring cultivated land near towna. (8) That containing 26,000 Square Varas, used for measuring waste land in the Prairies. 276 HSABUBEB. The Old British Wine GaUon equal to -838111 British Im- perial Gallon, or 3*785 Litres, was also used, and 2 such Gallons were reckoned equal to 8 Frascos. The Pipa is also dirided into 4 Oargas, each of 4 Cortans, each of 12 Frascos. OLD WEIGHTS — (Oommebcial). Old Argentine value. Byttematie name, 1 Grano ■ 1 Adarme 1 Onza 1 Libra 1 Arroba 1 Quintal 1 Tonelada 86 Granos 16 Adarmes 16 Onzas 25 Libras 4 Arrobas 20 Quintals f* »t »» »f »» tf ti »f »♦ EnglUh value, Trojr Orainii. •76922 . 27-69211 443-07375 Ibn. av. 1-01274 »♦ ft Metric value, Qrainin«s. •0498 1-7944 28*7105 »» »t 26*3185 101-274 Cwt. 19*691 „ 469-3673 Kilogrtuame*. 11-48418 »» »♦ »f 46-93673 918-7346 GOLD, SILVER, AND ASSAYERS' WEIGHTS. For Gold and Silver the Marco of 8 Onzas • 8644*59 Troy Grains, or 229*684 Grammes. Assajers divided the Marco for Gold into 24 Quilates, each of 4 Granos, and each Grano of 8 Partes ; and for Silver, into 12 Dineros, each of 24 Granos. APOTHECARIES' WEIGHTS. The Apothecaries' Libra was fths of the ordinary Libra, and was subdivided as follows : — Argentine value. Syetemaiic name. 1 Grano Sngliih value. I'rojr Grain 1. - -76922 Metric value. Orammes. •04965 12 Granos » lOvalo „ 9-23070 •59469 2 Ovalos „ 1 Escrupelo „ 18-46140 1-18982 3 Escrupelos „ 1 Drachma „ 6638422 3-56797 8 Drachmas „ 1 Onza M 44807376 28'64d78 12 Onzas „ 1 Libra M 6816-885 844-5254 UBUGUAY. \ The Metric system of Weights and Measures (see France) was introduced in 1864. Previously the Weights and Measures were the Oastilian Standards of the old Spanish system, (see TJEuauAT. 277 Snain, also Argentine Republic) with Bome slight variations in name and valne, as follows :— MEASURES OF LENGTH. The Vara of 8 Pies « 2*9049 English Feet, or 'SCO Mdtre '« 10288 old OastiUan Vara - '90807 of the Vara of Baenos Ayres. The Pies - 11*6196 English Inches, or -286 Mdtre. 100 Varas of Uruguay - 96*38 English Yards. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. The Fanega of 4 Cuartillos » 132*4026 Litres « 8*64264 B itish Imperial Bushels. MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. The Pipa of 6 Barriles, each of 4 Canoeas, each of 8 Frascos, each of 2 Medios, or 4 Cuartos, or 8 Oohavos, is equal to 106*638208 British Imperial Gallons, or 484*48 Litres. 15 Pipas of Montevideo ■■ 16 Pipas of Buenos Ayres. 100 Frasoos of Montevideo » 118*3 Frascos of Buenos Ayres. WEIGHTS. The Weights are the same as the Old Weights of the Argen- tine Repuhlic (see p. 274). PARAGUAY. The Weights and Measures are the frame as those used in the Argentine Repuhlic previous to the introduction of the Metric system (see p. 274), THE FALKLAND ISLANDS. The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Great B.itain (see p. 106). A A 278 M2ABT7BES. HEW SOUTH WALES, VICTOBIA, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. WEST AUSTRALIA, TA8MA- KIA, or VAK DIEMEN'S LAND, AND NEW ZEALAND. The Legal Weights and Measures are the same as those of Great Britain (see p. lOQ; hat the old British Measares of Capadfy are also nuich used (see the article '* United States of North America," (see p. 264). In Land Measurement the term " Section" is used to denote 80 British Acres. ' NEW CALEDONIA, THE BOTUMAH IS- LANDS, WALLIS ISLANDS, GAMBIEB'S ISLANDS, MARQUESAS, or MENDANA ISLANDS. The Weights and Measares are the same as those of France (see p. 119). THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. The Weights and Measares are the same as those of the '* United States of North America" (see p. 264); hut the Hundredweight oontams 100 Ihs. ay., and the Ton 2000 lbs. av. SPANISH AUSTRALIAN POSSESSIONS, Yiz. : THE MABUH ISLANDS AND TINIAK. The Weights and Measares are the same as those of Spain (seep. 167). OTAHSITE, or TOHITI. The Weights and Measores are chiefly those of Great Britain isee p. 106) ; hot the Metrio f^stem is ahoat heing introdaoed see France, p. 119). APPENDIX I. INDIAN COINAGE AND ACCOUNTS. By W. H. Batley, Esq.. oj the Madmu Civil Sirviw, ThroughoHt India, ftoootints are kept in R. A. P., the three colnmns, denoting Rupees, Annas, Fies. 12 Pies ■■ 1 Anna 16 Annas — 1 Bapee For all ordinary purposes, the Rupee may be considered equal to two shillings (its intrinsic yalne will be given below), so tibat 100 Rs. - £10 ; 155 Rs. — £15. lOs., &o. A lac of Rnpees is 100,000, or £10,000 ; and a crore of Rnpees » 100 lacs, or £1 million. The Coinage of all the Presidencies was assimilated by Act XYII of 1885. Silver is the only legal tender, though lately a gold standard on a limited scale has been much pressed. Ru- pees, i Rupees, i Rnpees, and i Rupees, or " Double Annas,'* are silver. Silver Single Annas were coined for some thne, but not of late years. Act XVII of 1835 sanctioned the coin- age of " Double Rupees,'' but they have never been struck. The Copper coins are \ Anna (known in Bengal as " Pysa") — 3 Pies ; and the Single Pie or ^ ol an Aima. In Bombay accounts are sometimes kept in Rnpees, Quarters, and Raes ; 25 Raes » 1 Anna. In Madras, accounts were formerly kept (and are now in some places) in P. F. C, or Pagodas, Fanams, Cash. 80 Cash ^ 1 Fanam 45 Fanams «■ 1 Star Pagoda But in the old Government accounts the Pagoda was divided into 32 Fanams. The Star Pagoda was always considered as 8i Rs. ; or ^ Pagoda (for in some aoconnts it is divided into 16 lbs.) *■ 8i Annas. There were all kinds of Pagodas, but the British or Star Pagoda was a gold ooin of 52*56 grains weight, and 19 ( carats fine ; oontaimng 42*7 grains of pure gol^ which at the English standard (of £8. 17s. lOfd. per Troy ounce standard) » 7*49 Shillings. 11 JLPPEKDIX I. The " Sicca Bnpee *' of Bengal, which was abolished in 1835, weighed 192 grains, whereof \i or 176 grains were pnre silver ; and in all acconnts 15 Sicca ftupees are considered 16 of the Indian Hnpees* of the present day, or 100 Sicca Bnpees « 106i2. 10a. 8p. ; or 100 Siccas - 106| Indian Bs. The Indian Bnpee weighs 180 grains, whereof 165 parts or W (a touch of *9167) are pure silver; so that of silver is valued at 61d. per Troy ounce of English standard (which con- tains 444 grains of pure silver) the Bupee, as buUion « 22f d. ; though, as before said, it is generally spoken of as » 2s. ; the '' Anna*' as lid, and the '' Pie" at id. Though Gold is not as yet a legal tender ^ the Act XVII of 1835 authorized the coinage of the " Gold Mohur," or 15 Bupee piece ; as also gold pieces of 10 and 5 Bupees. The Gold Mohur was exactly the same weight and fineness as the Bupee, but the ratio of 15 to 1 between gold and silver was found to be too low a valuation of gold (it is not so now, and the Govern- ment soon left off coining gold at all. In Bengal the term ** Gold Mohur" is often used as meaning 16 Bupees ; this is because previous to 1835 that coin weighed 204*710 grains, of which \i or 187*651 grains were pure gold, and it was a legal tender for 16 Sicca Rupees. The Indian Silver coinage having a fineness of •^^, or |}^, would by English assay be called 2 W., i.e. 2 dwts. worse, or below the English standard of f|^ ; the one having a '* touch" of -9167, the other -9250. The Indian Gold coinage is of the same fineness exactly as the English Gold coin, i.e. 22 carats fine « IJ, or ii, or -9167. INDIAN MEA8UBES— (Linear and Superficial). The Native linear measures are founded on indefinite ideas of the breadth of a finger, or length of the fore-arm. What is generally translated cubit averages 19| inches ; but in some places it is 18, and in others 20 inches. The " Guz" (except where it is synonymous with the English yard) is from 39 to 32 inches. The " Illahi Guz" of the N.W. Provinces is 88 inches. BENGAL. 14 Tussoos «■ 1 Hfit'h or Cubit of 19§ inches. 2 Hdt'hs - 1 Guz - 89J inches. 2 Guz » 1 Danda or Bood » 6*72 feet. 20,000 Dundas •» 1 Coss - 2 '46 miles. * In 1885 it was directed that the Bapee then strack should be called the " Company's Rupee," and this was stamped on it. Since 1862, the stamp has been Victoria on one side, and " India " on the other. • •• ▲PPIKDIX !• lU The HtiVh :b sometimeB subdiyidel into 84 UngvlU or finger breadths of ^ inch each. The HaVh ip, howeyer, now generally an SaglUh onbit of 16 inehes, and the Chu an English yard of 86 inshes. The C( 88 is reckoned 2 miles. For Land Measure in the North West Pronnoes, the follow- ing is the measure in all Government srrreys :-» 1 Gnz V 33 inches. 8 Gnz • 1 Bans cr Rod of 8^ feet 1 8q. Bod -> 68*0625 Square feet 400 Sq. Bods « 3025 Sq. yards, or 1 Beegah^ •626 acre. Bat in Bengal Proper — 4 Sq. H&t*hB of IS inches -t 1 Cowrie — 1 Bq. yard. 4 Cowries » 1 Ganda » 4 8 1. yards. 20 Gnndas « 1 Cottah - 80 Sq. yards. flO Cottahs » 1 Beegah of 1600 Sq. yards — *3026 acres. The Cottah is also suhdiylded intd Chitt4ks or IGths, of 5 Square yards each. MADBA8. The NatiTe Kole or Artificers* rod, as also the Quz introduced by the Mahomedans, is about 33 inches, ^e Moohim (trans- lated ** cubit ") averages lOf inches, and is subdivided into 24 Ungulums or finger-breadths. The Bavm (translated ** fathom") is about 6i feet. For long distances the teim ** ntiUi'imUi *' is used, from nalli a space of time of 24 minutes, and vuUi a road ; i. e. tike distance walked in 24 minutes, or rather under 1 j EngHsh miles. 7 nAlU vtilli » 1 E&dam, or about 10 miles. The English foot and yard are now used by almost aU native workmen. For Land Measure, the native method is, to estimate the spftoe which a certain quantity of seed will sow; and this makes the native terms quite uncertain. Sometimes a term is given to BO many "rods," or "ropes" square; but these rods and ropes differ In every district. In Madras itself, and some other districts, the Cawnie is 67600 Sqr. feet, or 1'322 acres, subdivided into 24 ** Grounds," or else into 100 " CooUes." During the last few years, in con- sequence of the Bevenue Field Survey, the English acre has oome to be generally known. In this Survey the Gunter's ohain is used, and in the accounts, the acre is subdivided into lOOOths, as in the English Ordnanoe Svrfey. ir A7PZKDIX II. BOMBAY. 2 UsgliB, or finger-breadths e 1 Tusboo « li incli. 24*Tn8B008 •> 1 Oqz 27 inches. The SaVh of 18 inckes, and the k IIat% or VenVh are also nsed. In Bnperfidal Measure — 20 KotiicB - 1 Pnnd. 20 Pnn 1b - 1 Beoga of 3927 Sq. yards • -8114 acre. But the Kntty Taries in every district. In the Rerenne Field Sorrej, the acre is nsed, suhdiyided into 40 Goontas, and each Goonta into Annas, or 16ths. INDIAN WEIGHTS. By Act Vn of 1888, the Tola or Bnpec weight of 180 graiuH was established as the unit of weight in all Government trans- actions in Bengal; but the Madras and Bombay Presidencies have not adopted the multiples thereof; and as far as the native population is conoemed, almost every dihtrict has its own weights, founded on no reliable data at all. In Bengal, tbe Government and Mercantile Houses have adopted the following : — 1 Tola, or Rupee weight ■■ ISO grains. 6 Tolas « 1 CUttAlL 16 ChittAks, or 80 Tolas — 1 Seer » 2'05714 lbs. avoir., or d| lbs. Troy. 5 Seers » 1 Passeeree. 40 Seers, or 8200 Tolas « 1 Maund - 82f lbs. avoir., or 100 lb I. Troy. H<'nce 850 Tolas ■> lbs. avoir., 85 Seers ^ 72 lbs. avoir., 7 Mnnnds ^ 576 Ibf. avoir., and 49 Maunds, 86 cwts., or 1*8 tons. Tbe old ** Factory Maunds*' adopted by the Bengal Govern- ment in A.D. 1787, was exactly li cwt., or 744 lbs. avoir. The old ** Bazaar Maund'* (subdivided into 40 Seers) weighed 724 lbs. avoir. In the Interior, the Seer varies from 60 to 84 Tolas weight. The Jewellers subdivide tbe Tola into 12 M/lshas, of 16 grains each ; and the Masha into 8 Buttees. In Madras, the Government in the ** Gazette'* of 20th Oct. 1646, adopted the following, for all Government transactions. APPSVDIX I. T 1 PoUnm » 3 ToIm, or 540 gnifui. 8 roUnms - 1 (Catch*) Seer - 84 Tolas. 5 Seers — 1 ^^ss « IM Tolis -t 8*0857 Hb. av. 40 Seers » 1 Mannd - 24 Gd57 lbs. av. 20 Maands - 1 Candy <- 488 714 llw. av. Bat by Commerdal usage, the Yiss is always considered Z\ lbs. avoir. ; the Maond 25 lbs. ; and the Candy 500 lbs. In the Inteiior, the Coteha Seer of 24 Tolas (or Bnpees) weight is common, as also the Packa Seer of 80 Bapees weight ; thoagh in some places it is 72 and in others 84 Bapees weight. On the Western Coast the Maond is 85 lbs. The Bengal Maand of 82f lbs. (see ante) is known as the ** Indian Maond/* and is in general nse in the Castom Houses and Shipping trade. The **Gtfce" is osed in the Orain trade. It is supposed to be 92561 lbs. ; but though it may hare been eo 70 years ago, it has for many yean been a mere Custom House term applied to 92 Indian Mannds of Paddy (unhuaked rice), or to 123 Indian Maunds of Bice. Oiain, howerer, is sola wholesale at the Ports at so much a hag of 2 Indian Maunds. Sugar aud Oil Seeds are generally shipped in bagt of 2 Indian Mannds each, reckoned 13 bags the ton. Cotton in bale$ of 800 lbs. Salt* petre in bagt of 1 cwt. Indigo in cke$t$ of 10 or 11 cable feet. The Jewellen^ weights are the MonjAdi of about 5 grains ; and the Pagoda weight of 54 grains, or ^ Pollam. BOMBAY W£IGHT8. 72 Tanks, or 80 Pice «• 1 Seer of 2:f Tolas, or *7 Us. av. 40 Seers « 1 Maond of 28 lbs. avoir. 20 Maunds • 1 Gaadj of 530 lbs. avoir. These have been introduoed to make the Maund ■■ \ cwt., but in the Interior ther vaij greatly. The Sunt Maind is 82 lbs. avoir. The Candy for Cotton is 28 Maunds, or 7 ewt The Pucka Seer of 72'5 Tolas «- 1*867 lbs. avoir., and is used in some places. I19DIAH MEA8UBB8 OF CAPACITT. There am not in Uie MaUve mtcm aay Measures of Capadty^ yrapmif so oaOed^ yet aliu, among the mass of the peo|^« the so-eaUed "Measaies'* are of more importance than the Weigltts, inamBaeh as the popnlatioa live chiefly on noe awl other tfnutt. The UmOd Mmmum for Milk, Oil, and «bee, (elarified hrdUfr^) Mkm no Und of standard of mmuurt- meni. The Qttih» Mmmmm wf aoyposed to eontain, when filightly heaped, (kff §ifwh mmmu§ Is an ahomiaatioB to native Tl APPEITOIX I. eyes,) a certain weight of gnun ; Imt m the Weights differ in ereiy localify, so do the Mettims. Bren Measures bearing the same name, by no means indioaie the same qoantitj in eveiy district. Goyemment have neTor yet in Bengal deiUned any Measures of Capacity. BENGAL.— (North- West Provinces.) 4 ChittAkfl ■■ 1 Koonki. 4 Eoonldfl a IBaik. 4 Raikfl ■> IPalli. 20Pallis » ISoaH. leSoalis tm 1 Khahoon. Eight slightly heaped Pallia were supposed to contain a qiiantity of Rice, eqnal in weight to 1 old /' Bazaar Mannd " of 724 lbs. Avoir, or 1 Palli 9*041 lbs. Avoir. It had a capacity of about 2800 Cubic Inches, when struck, « The ** Seer " of Grain is sapposed to be 16 of the above Chitt&ks, or a Btruek- capacity of abont 57 Cnbic Inches ; bat in practice, the Seer is a vessel contahiing, when slightly heaped, 80 Bnpees* weight, (or a Seer weight) of Rice. Ite struck capacity is abont 68 Cnbio laches. For Liqnid Measure, the smallest vessel is a Chittilk, supposed to hold 5 Rupees' weight of Oil, and 16 Chittaks - 1 Beer. MADRAS. In the Gazette of October 20th, 1846, the Government defined the ** Puddee,'* or Measure, to be used in all Govern- ment transactions, at 100 Cublo Inoihes ;~3lihe Olluok, or ^ Measure, and the MercM of 8 Measures ; but this has never been attended to, either in (Government or any other transao- tkms. In the Shipping Trade grain is sold in bags of 8 Bengal Maunds, 164f lbs. Avoir. In the Baaaar of the town of Madna, the " Puddee '* or Measure, baa a capaeify of 104 Cubic Inches, and contains, when heaped in tiie usual way, about 128 Rupeea' weight, or 3'8 lbs. of Rice. The *' Merott," has a eapad^ of 882 Cubic Inches, but when heaped in the usual way, is eiqnal to 8 heaped Measures. APPENDIX I. Vll This ** Madras Measure " is in use in some of the large Towns and Cantoonments, bat eTeiy locality has its own deno- mination of Measure, and almost all different. Perhaps the most common is the Seer-measnre, supposed to contain, when heaped, a Pucka Seer, or 80 Bupees^ weight, or 2 lbs. of Hioe. For Lime, the ** Parrah '' of from 8800 to 4000 Cubic Inches is used. Salt is measured in Mercfils, 424 of which are consi- dered a '* Garce," which is supposed to weigh 120 Bengal or Indian Matinds, or 4*41 Tons. Oil is sold per ** Visa ^' of 16 Cliitties ; the Visa is about 2 ordinary wine bottles. BOMBAY. 2 Tipprees ■■ 1 Seer. 4 Seers « 1 Fylee. 16 Fylees » 1 Parah. 8 Parahs — 1 Candy. The Seer is a vessel, which, when heaped, contains about 7i lbs. of Bice, which makes the. Candy about 780 lbs. av. Faddy ^ or Bice in the husk, is sold at 25 Parahs — 1 Mooda of about 2450 lbs. Salt is sold by the Parah of 10^ Adholees. The Parah contains about 1608 Cubic Inches. 100 Parahs » 1 Anna, and 16 Annas » 1 Bass, estimated at 1120 Ben^pid Maunds' weight, or 41^ Tons. For Liquids. 1 Seer ■■ 60 Bs. weight, or l-541bs. 50 Seers -• 1 Maxmd, of 77 lbs. APPENDIX n. « Memorandum forwarded by H. B* M.^ Consul-General for Borneo^ with regard to Lr, Browne's tabulated series of questions on the Currency^ Weights and Meamres of Borneo ^ dtc* A.— MONEY. On the N.W. coast of Borneo, goods and produce are ex- changed for each other, the reckoning being made in bo many Picnls of brass guns, a Pionl being worth abont $35. This is not altogether an imaginaxy mode of keeping accounts, for the gnns are actnally cast in quantities at Brunei, and weigh from 2 to 8 guns to the PicuL At Brunei fines are levied in Piculs of guns. Dollars and Cents are also a me^um of exchange. In the south of Borneo, under Dutch rule, the Real and Guilder are used in reckonings, the Beal being an imaginary coin worth 2 Guilders. In Lootoo and the territories in Borneo belonging to that coxmtry the currency consists of Doubloons, Dollars, and Pitis, 6,000 of which are equal in value to a dollar. These small zinc coins are made in Ohina and Manilla for the Lootoo market, and are similar to the copper cash used in China, but are much smaller and thinner. In the extreme north of Borneo money is almost unknown, and accounts are kept in pieces of cloth, each piece equal to $1'50. In the mountains of the same district reckonings are made in bundles of iron for large accounts, each bundle, so far as I could learn, being in wei^t about 81bs. For small accounts they reckon in charges of gunpowder. The mountaineers (Legal) in the N.E. of Borneo reckon in cakes of salt for small accounts and pieces of doth, each re- presenting $8, for large accounts. In the western part of New Guinea accounts are calculated in pieces of black cloth, each valued at 10 Guilders. WEIGHTS USED AT BRUNEI. 16 Taels - 1 Catty. « 100 Catties - 1 Picul - 188ilbB» 40 Piculs - 1 Koyan. APPANBIX II. 11 MEASURES OF QUANTITY. 2 Pahus or Bambos » 1 Chapa. 4 Ghnpahs * 1 Gantang 10 GantangB » 1 Para. 20 ,, » 1 PicQl. 40 Pionls * 1 Koyan. MEASURES OE LENGTH. 2 Jankals ■> 1 Hasta. 2 Hastas (Cubits) « 1 Ella or Yard. 2 Ellas — 1 Dapa or Fathom. APPENDIX III. Monetary Convention, cor eluded at ParU, Leeemher 23rd, 1865, beticeen France, Italy, Bdjium and Switzerland, A Monetazj GonTeiitUm wm oonclnded at Paris, December 2'^rd, 1865, between France, Italy, Belgimn and Switzerland. It is an agreement between those connines to assimilate their coinage to the monetary system of France, except as regards copper money. The following are the gold and silver coins specified by the Convention : — GOLD COINS. Pieces of 100, 50, 20, 10 and 5 Francs. SILYEB COINS. Pieces of 5, 2 and 1 Francs, and of 50 and 20 Centimes. The coinage of each of the four countries will be a legal tender in all the others. The old coinage is to be withdrawn from circnlation before Jannaiy, 1869, with the exception of Swiss 2 and 1 Franc pieces, which will be withdrawn by January let, 1878. The fdlowing is a translation of the Convention : — " His Majesty the Kin;;^ of the Belgians, Hi<i Majesty the Emperor of the French, His Majesty the King of Italy, and the Swiss Confederation, being equally desirous of estabUshiog a more complete harmony between their monetary legislation, to remedy the inconveniences which press upon the communi- cations and transactions between the inhabitants of their respective States in consequence of the diverse values of their coined moneys, and to contribute, by the formation of a Monetary Union, to the progress of uniformity in weights, measures and currency, have resolved to conclude a Convention to that effect, and have named as their Commissionei^ Plenipotentiary as follows — APFEsrpix m. 11 ** His Majesiy the Eing of the Belgians, M. Fr6d6ric Fortamps, Director of tiie Bank of Belginm, &o., and M. Erelinger ; " His Majesty the Emperor of the French — M. Marie Louis F61ix Esqniron de Parien, Vice-President of the Council of State, &c., and M. E. J. Pelouze, President of the Goinage Commission ; ** His Majesty the King of Italy — ^M. Isaac Artom, Council- lor of Legation at Paris, and M. V. Pratolongo ; ** The Swiss Confederation — M. Eem, EnToy Extraordinary to His Majesty the Emperor of the French, and M. Feer- Herzog; ** Who, after mutually exhibiting their respective full powers in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles : — ** Article 1. Belgium, France, Italy, and Switzerland are constituted a Union as respects the weights, values, form, and currency of their respective coinages in gold and silver. No change is made at present in the legislation relating to the copper money of each of the States. ** Article 2. The high contracting parties engage not to coin nor allow to be coined, bearing their impressions and designs, any gold moneys in any other forms than those of gold pieces of lOOf., 60f., 20f., lOf., 6f., fixed as to weight, values, allowance for loss, and diameter as follows :^- Nature of Pieces. Francs. Pull Weifbt Grammes. Allowance in Weiffht at borne and abroad. Thousand Parts. Allowance Standard. from Standard. Thousand Thousand Parts. Parts. Diameter. MUli. metres. 100 .. 32268-06) 1 f 36 60 .. 16129-8 28 20 .. 6461-61 2 ■900 2 - 21 10 .. 8225-80 19 6 .. 1612-90 3 I 17 "They. shall receive without distinction into their public treasuries gold pieces coined according to the foregoing condi- tions in one or other of the four States, with the reservation, nevertheless, of excluding all coins whose weight shall have been reduced by wear to the extent of } per cent, below the allow- ances mentioned above, or where the stamped impressions shall have become effaced. ** Article 8. The contracting Governments bind themselves not to make, nor allow to be made, silver pieces of 6f., except according to the conditions of weight, standard, allowance, and diameter fixed as follows :— BB Ill APPEKDIX m. FanWefffht. AUowaaoe. Full Standard. Alloirandl. Dlamater. 25gramineB 8,000ths 900,000tli8 2,000tlis 87 millimetreB. They shftll mntaally receive the said coined pieces into their public treasuries, with the right of exclnding those which shall have lost weight by wear to a greater extent than 1 per cent, below the allowance above-mentioned, or where the stamped impression shall have become eilaced. " Article 4. The high contracting parties henceforth shall not manufacture silver pieces of 2f., If., 50c., and 20c., except according to th« conditions of weight, stiajidard, allowance, and diameter as follows : — Deaerlp- ti*n. Franca. Fall Weight. Qrammes. Allowance in Weigrht. Thonsand Parts. FaU Standard. TbiMuand Partg. Allowance. Thonsand Parts. Diameter. Milli. metres. 2 ..10 1 5 7 f 27 1 0-50 .. 6-00 . . 2-50 885 3 23 18 O-20 1-00 10 J i 16 ** These pieces shall be recast by the Governments that issued them when they shall have become reduced by T^ar to the extent of 5 per cent, below the above-mentioned allowance, or when their stamped impressions shall have become effiiced. ** Article 5. The silver pieces of 2f., of If., of 50c., and of 20c. manufactured otherwise than according to the various conditions speci%d in the foregoing Article shall be withdrawn from circulation before January 1, 1869. This period is ex- tended -until January 1, 1878, in respect of pieces of 2f. and ilf issued in Switzerland by virtue of the law of January 81, 1860. "Article 6. Silver pieces manufactured according to the conditions of Article 4 shall have legal currency among private individuals in the State which has manufactured them to the extent of 50f . in a single payment. The State which has issued them shall receive them from its own countrymen without any limit of quantity. " Article 7. The public treasuries of each of the four countries shall accept silver moneys coined by one or several of the other contracting States, in conformity with Article 4, to the extent of lOOf . in each single payment to such mentioned treasuries. *' The Governments of Belgium, France, and Italy shall receive upon the same terms until January 1, 1878, the Swiss pieces of 2f. and If. issued by virtue of the law of the 8l8t of January, 1860, and which are assimilated in all respects during the same period to pieces manufactured in accordance with the APPENDIX III. IV oonditions of Article 4. The reservation in respect of wear mentioned in Article 4 applies in all oases. " Article 8. Each of the contracting Governments under- take to receive back from individuMls or from the public treasuries of the other States the old coinage which it has issued, and to exchange it for an equal value in current coin (gold pieces or five -franc pieced in silver), upon condition that the sum presented for exchange shall not be less than lOOf . This oblifration shall be prolonged for a period of two years from the date of the expiration of the present Treaty. ** Article 9. The high contracting parties shall not issue silver pieces of 2f., of If., of 50c., and of 20c. struck according to the conditions mentioned in Article 4 beyond the ratio of 6f . in value for each inhabitant. This amount, upon the basis of the last census in each StatOn and reckoning the presumed increase of population nntil the expiration of the present Treaty, is fixed thus : — Francs. For Belgium i .. 82,000,000 For France 239,000,000 For Italy , 141,000,000 For Switzerland 17,000,000 ** Taken on account of the sums above mentioned which the Governments have the right to stamp of the values already issned : — ** By France, in virtue of the law of the 25th of May, 1864, in pieces of 50o. and 20o. for about 16 milUons. *' By Italy, in virtue of the law of the 24th of August, 1862, in pieces of 2f. of If., of 50c., and of 20c., for about 100 millions. ** By Switzerland, in virtue of the law of the Slst of January, 1860, in pieces of 2f. and If. for 106,000f. ** Article 10. The date of coinage shall hereafter be stamped upon pieces of gold and silver struck in any of the four States. ** Article 11. The contracting Governments shall communi- cate to each other annuallv the total amount of their issues of gold and silver coins, their position as to the withdrawal and remelting of the old coinage ; all the arrangements and all the administrative documents relating to coinages. ** They shall also give to each other information of all facts which concern the reciprocal circulation of their gold and ^- yer moneys. V AFPEITDIX ni. Article 12. The right of acceding to this Conyention is reserved to any other State which shall accept its ohligations, and which shall adopt the monetary system of the union in whatever relates to gold and silver specie. Article 13. The execution of the mntoal engagements con- tained in the present Convention is snhject, as far as may he necessary, to the fulfilment of formalities and regidations pre- scribed by the Gonstitational laws of those of the high con- tracting parties which have detennined to obtain their applica- tion, and which they hind themselves to do with the least possible delay. Article 14. The present Convention shall rjemain in force nntil January 1st, 1880. If one year prior to that date notice to determine it shall not hate*^ been given {dSnonc^)^ it shall remain obligatory in full force for a further period of 15 years, and, in like manner, for further periods of 15 years in the absence of denunciation. '* Article 15. The present Convention shall be ratified, and the ratification thereof shall be exchanged at Paris within the space of six months, or sooner if possible. "In faith of which the respective Commissioners Pleni- potentaries have signed the present Convention, and have aflixed to it the seals of their arms. » '' Made in four parts at Paris, December 23rd, 1865." APPENDIX IV. AVEBAGE COURSE OF Fob the Ybab 1866. XCHANG LONDON receives from or gives to— Amsterdam • • Short .. 11 Gulden 17 oents For £1 Sterling. Amsterdam ■ • 8 months . . 11 Golden 71i cents N II II Betterdam ■ • II . . 11 Gulden 81i cents .. fi 11 m Antwerp • • If .. 25 Francs Sa^ centimes II II •* Brussels • « II . . 85 Francs S2i centimes •I 11 11 Hamburg • • M .. 18 Marks 9\ ^sohillinge •1 II II Paris • m Short . . 25 Francs * 19 centimes >* II ti Paris m • 8 months . . 25 Francs 4Si centimes II II II MarseiUes • • II . . 26 Francs 47} centimes II r II Frankfort-on- Main II .. 120 Florins II iBlO ., Vienna .. • • n .. 12 Florins 88i cents ' „ *l ,. Trieste .. • • tt .. 12 Florins 88 cents 1* 11 II 8t Petersburg. . m . . 9S\d. sterling For 1 Ruble. Oopenhagen II .. 9 BigBdalerslSiskimng For £1 St<)r11ng. Madrid .. M .. 46d. sterling „ 1 Dollar. OadiB .. n .. 46id. sterling •1 II Leghorn.. M .. 26 Lire 97i cents „ £1 Sterling. MUsB .. •1 . 26 Lire 98 oents M II W Milan .. 8 months .. 26 Lire 97 oents '* II II Oenea .. II .. 26 Lire 96 cents M II W Genoa .. Short .. 26 Lire 96 cents 11 II *ll Naples .. II .. 26 Lire 98 oents II II M Palermo II .. 26 Lire 98 cents 1* It II Messina. . •« .. 26 Lire 96 cents II II n Oporto .. 90 days .. Slid, sterling » 1 Milreia. Lisbon .. II .. Slid. ,. II II New York 60 days . . 146 J» Per cent. Sterling. Bombay 28. lid. ,. „ 1 Rupee. Oaloatta 28. Oid. 1, II II Oanton .. 4a. 7id. .. „ 1 Dollar flhangbai 6b. 8id. » II II Hon^^Kong 48. 6id. n II II Baenos Ayres .. SOid. „ II 11 Bio Janeiro a4|d. „ ■ » 1 Milreis. Bahia asid. „ II II Montevideo S2id. „ „ 1 Dollar. Pemambnoo Mid. „ nlMihreis. Santiago (Ohili) 4<id. .. n 1 Dollar. • • 90 days «7d. „ »t 11 * This l8 the exchange Ibr "frreenbeokf,'* a paper enrrenoy eatabliahed dnxinc the oItU war (1861-4). A zetam to the gold itaadard b loon antioiiMtted. APPENDIX V. GBEECE. The old system of oarreney, that is the system in use from the year 1833 to the year 1872, was as follows :— 1 Lepton -> ^d. English. 100 Lepta — 1 Draohmai -> 8id. „ In this system the Drachma divided into 100 Lepta, was the hasis and fundamental unit of aceonnt. • Weight in QraminM, Fineness. Aiix- . EnffUsh AUoy. |. ^J„g, QoLD Coins : — £ 8. d. 40 Draohmai 11*658 ftjths gold ^th copper 18 4 20 6-776 , It ti It It 14 2 Silver Coins: — 5 Draohmai 22-885 i^ths silver ^th copper 8 6i 1 Drachma 4-477 It tt „ ,. 84 i 2-288 It It „ .,0 4i i 1-119 It It .. „ 24 ^ Copper Coins: — t lOLepU 12-99 1 Pure copper No Alloy O^i 6 n 6-495 .. „ OiS 2 „ 2-698 „ „ 0^\, 1 Lepton 1-299 It i» n ■ 0^0^, The silver Drachma contained 4-029 grammes of pure silver, and -448 grammes of alloy (copper). The 5 dracmai piece con- tained 20' 147 grammes of pure silver and 2*238 grammes of alloy. The half drachma piece contained 2 016 grammes pf pure silver and -223 grammes of alloy. The Quarter-Drachma piece contained 1*007 grammes of pure silver, and *112 grammes of alloy. The 20 Drachmai piece (gold) contained 5*199 grammes of pure gold, and -677 grammes of alloy (copper). The 40 Drachmai piece contained 10*398 grammes of pure gold, and 1 155 grammes of alloy. Not more than -^ (or 2 per cent.) of the amount of any deht or account could be paid in copper coins. The Drachma, estimating its value in gold, was worth B\d, sterling; its value, estimated in silver, was djd. stcrliug. Gold and silver coins were very scarce, and copper coins were alone abundant. Under the law of February, 1833, the undermentioned rates were assigned to foreign coins ; — 11. •AfPEWDlX. — ^V. NAMB OF THE COIN. SiLTxm Oonri. French Frano French Flye Ff ano Piece English Orown ([Shilling piece of 1816). . . . ,, ShiUlng (of 1816) „ Sixpence (of 1816) RiiMiAnSllyerBnble(ofl796) „ „ (ofl799) „ „ (ofl802) Half SlWer Bnble (of 1778) M If n M (of 1800) (of 1767) fiO-Oopec Piece Spaniah Piaitre (Oolonato) Half Spanlah Piastre „ (of 1780) „ M Jofl792) Spanish Piastre of 1788-1706 Sslf Spanish Piastre (of 1778) „ .. „ (ofl793) Oennan Onrntn. Thaler ( Anstrian, BaTarian) Anstrian Theresa Thaler German Thaler [90 Gulden Standard) (Zwanzlger)] [ Crown of Bavaria and Brabant Venetian Thaler or Ducat of 10 Lire (of 1797) „ tire(ofl800) „ fofl803) Half-Venetian Lire (of 1802) Tuscan Thaler (Frandscone) Roman Thsler of 10 Paell , Bolognese Thaler of 10 Paoll Neapolitan Thaler of 120 Qr%nl, of 1805 Turkish Ginmnh, or Dollar, or Beal Medjidie . Gold Oonrs. French 90 Frano Piece (old) „ Napoleon (20 Franc Piece, new). . . . English SoTerelgn,or £ sterling of 20 shillings „ Half* Sovereign of 10 shillings , , . Spanish Quadraple (1772-1786) Half-Quttdmple (1772-1786) Pistole or i-quadrupel (1772-1786). . . . Half -Pistofe or i-q aadmpel(1772-1786/ Small Gold Piastre or -L) quadrapel (1772-1786) ^ f Anstrian Souverein d'or Anstrian Half -Souverein d'or Austrian and Bavarian Ducat Dutch Ducat • Venetian Segnin Portuguese Old Dobra of 12800 Reis Half -Dobra of 6400 Reis Turkish Gold Medjidie, or Lira Turca (New) tt n »f 900 900 926 925 926 748 868 876 748 668 760 flOA OOA OvD 896 896 880 888 580 868 826 286 246 289 918 906 918 881 900 902 916 916 898 898 998 891 886 911 916 984 979 997 916 916 Weight in Grammes. Pure MetaL 4,600 92.500 26.180 6.226 2.618 17.799 18,165 18.811 8,919 9,088 4.028 24.176 12.088 11.998 24.176 12 068 11.998 28.977 98,861 8851 26.684 28.691 1,128 2.012 0,978 25.028 24 063 24,151 28,068 5,806 6.609 7.810 8655 24095 12,047 6.028 2,981 1,551 10,108 5,054 8,897 8.880 8,442 26,196 18,074 •600 2-600 2120 424 919 6,156 9,769 9,616 8.085 1.881 1341 9306 1408 1.892 2806 1,408 ijm 4-766 4664 2-788 8.898 4.991 8.652 6.168 8,112 2384 2,496 2301 4,707 6.466 750 671 885 2.887 1,444 •722 •866 5,000 25.000 98350 5.615 9307 98,966 20397 90.927 12,004 10,464 5364 26.982 18.491 18885 26,982 18.491 18.885' 280451 28,045 6,689 29.582 28682 4.780 4,180 4090 27,407 26.558 26.452 27,770 Greek Value. 6-4516 7349 7.98J 8.990 26,982 18.491 6.746 8346 •202 , 1,768 •998 11,101 470^ 5.524 •35? •072 •010 2-488 1.214 8,469 8,462 8.452 28.629 14,288 1 5 6 1 • • 4 4 4 6 8 9 6 8 2 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 22 26 98 14 92 46 28 11 8" 11^66 58-40 48 50 28-70 64-85 41-74 50«2 54-44 91-86 96-42 99-84 97-64 97-64 77*69 J79-78 96-57 86-19 87-97 27-99 49-98 24-27 21-02 9718 99-89 72-88 20 88*60 68-97 12-06 6-08 6909 ;84-64 117-27 ^» 6 ,96-«6 as 88-48 19 '44 2i IS] e-89 18 124-09 100 '60-00 60 29*80 26 . J